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Full text of "Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society"

5~^i>4.. ^--i ,-, ^ 



[No. -28.] ^ 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

Royal Asiatic Society 



AUGUST, 1895 



Agents of the Society: 

London and America . . Trubnek & Co. 

Paris . ... ... ... Ernest Leroux & Cie. 

Gennaii K F. Koehler's Amiqcarium. Leipzig. 



i?INGAPORE : 

Primed at the American Mission Pres*. 

28. Kaffles Place. 



[No. 28.] 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

Royal Asiatic Society 



AUGUST, 1895, 



Agents of the Society: 

London and America Trubner & Co. 

Paris Ernest Leroux & Cie. 

Germany ... K. F. Koehler's Antiquaridm, Leipzig. 



SINGAPORE : 

Printed at the American Mission Press, 

28, Raffles Place. 



r/KBhZ OF COj^TEfCTS. 

Rules of the Society i. 

Council for 1895 v. 

Proceeding's of Annual General Meeting- - - - - vi. 

Annual Report of Council for 1894 . . - - vii. 

Treasurer's Account for 1894 ix. 



Memoir of Captain Francis Light — by A. M. S. - - 1 
The Straits Settlements and the Malay Peninsula — 
An Address by Mr. J. A. Kruyt, delivered 
before the Indian Society - - - - 19 

Aturan Sung-ei Ujong- — by B. N. Bland - - - 53 

The Crocodiles and Lizards of Borneo — by Edward 

Bartlett 73 

Occasional Notes ----- --99 



RULES 

OF THE 

STRAITS ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



I.— Name and Objects. 

1. The name of the Society shall be " The Steaits ASIATIC 
Society." 

2. The objects of the Society shall be : — 

a. Tlie investigation of subjects connected with the 
Straits of Malacca and the neighbouring countries. 

h. The publication of papers in a Journal. 

c. The formation of a Library of books bearing on the 
objects of the Society. 

II.— Membership. 

3. Members shall be classed as Ordinary and Ho^.orary. 

4. Ordinary Membeis shall pay an annual subscription of 
$5, payable in advance on the 1st January of each year. 

5. Honorary Members shall pay no : ubscription. 

6. On or about the 30th June of every year, the Honorary 
Treasurer shall prepare a list of those Members whose sul sf r:p- 
tions for the current year remain unpaid, and such peisors shall 
be deemed to have resigned their mtmbership. But the op-ia- 
tion of this rule, in ary particular case, may be su.'-pencecl by a 
vote of the Council of the Society. 

7. Candidates for admission as Members shall be p»opo>^ed 
by one and seconded Vy ai^other Member of the Society, and if 
agreed to ly a majoiiiy ot the Council shall be deemed to le 
duly elected. 



ii RULES. — Continued. 

8. Honorary Members must be proposed for election by the 
Council at a general meeting- of the Society. 

III.— Officers. 

9. The Officers of the Society shall be : — - 
A President; 

Two Vice-Presidents, one of whom shall be selected from 

among'st the membei^s resident in Penang ; 
An Honorary Secretary and Librarian ; 
An Honorary Treasurer; and 
Five Councillors. 
These Officers shall hold office until their successors are 
chosen. 

10. Vacancies in the above offices shall be filled for the 
current year by a vote of the remaining Officers. 

IV.— Council. 

11. The Council of the Society shall be composed of the 
Officers for the current year, and its duties shall be: — 

a. To administer the affairs, property and trusts of the 

Society. 

b. To elect Ordinary Members, and recommend Hono- 

rary Members for election by the Society. 
6'. To decide on the eligibility of papers to be read 
before general meetings. 

d. To select papers for publication in the Journal, and 
to supervise the printing and distribution of the said 
Journal. 

e. To select and purchase books for the Library. 

/. To accept or decline donations on behalf of the 

Society. 
g. To present to the Annual Meeting, at the expiration 

of their term of oihce, a Report of the proceedings 

and condition of the Society. 

12. The Counrii shall meet for the transaction of business 
once a month, or oftener if necessary. At Council meetings, 
three Officers shall constitute a quorum. 



13. The Council shall have authority, subject to confirmation 
by a g-eneral meeting-, to make and enforce such By-laws and, 
Eeg-ulations for the proper conduct of the Societ^-'s affairs as may 
from time to time, be expedient. 



V. -Meetings. 

14. The Annual General Meeting shall be held in January of 
each year. 

15. General Meetings shall be held, when practicable, once 
in every month, and oftener if expedient, at such hour as the 
Council may appoint. 

16. At Meetings of the Society, eleven members shall form 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

17. At all Meetings, the Chairman shall, in case of an equality 
of votes, be entitled to a casting vote in addition to his own. 

18. At the Annual General Meeting, the Council shall pre- 
sent a Report for the preceding year, and the Treasurer shall 
render an account of the financial condition of the Society. 
Officers for the current year shall also be chosen. 

19. The work of Ordinary General Meetings shall be the 
transaction of routine business, the reading of papers approved 
by the Council, and the discussion of topics connected with the 
objects of the Society. 

20. Notice of the subjects intended to be introduced for dis- 
cussion by any Member of the Society should be handed in to 
the Secretary before the Meeting. 

Visitors may be admited to the Meetings of the Society, 
but no one who is not a Member shall be allowed to address the 
Meeting, except by invitation or permission of the Chairman. 



VI.— Publication of the Society. 

21. A Journal shall be published, when practicable, every six 
months, under the supervision of the Council. It shall comprise 
a selection of the papers read before the Society, the Reports of 
the Council and Treasurer, and such other matters as the Council 
may deem expedient to publish. 



22. Every member of the Society shall be entitled to one 
copy of the Journal, deliverable at the place of publication. 
Tne Council shall have power to present copies to other Societies 
and to distinguished individuals, and the remaining- copies shall 
be sold at such prices as the Council shall, from time to time, 
direct. 

23. Twenty-four copies of each paper published in the Journal 
shall be placed at the disposal of the author. 

24. The Council shall have power to sanction the publication, 
in a separate form, of papers or documents laid before the 
Society, if in their opinion practicable and expedient. 

VII. —Popular Lectures. 

25. Occasional Popular Lectures upon literary or scientific 
subjects may be delivered, under the sanction of the Council, on 
evenings other than those appointed for General Meetings of the 
Society. 

VIII. Amendments. 

26. Amendments to these Rules must be proposed in writing 
to the Council, who shall, after notice given, lay them before a 
General Meeting of the Society. A Committee of Resident 
Membeis shall thereupon be appointed, in conjunction with the 
Council, to report on the proposed Amendments to the General 
Meeting next ensuing, when a decision may be taken. 



THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



Council for 1895. 

The Ei«>;lit Eev. Bishop Hose, President. 

The Kev. Gr. M. Beith, Vice-President, Si7igapore. 

J) Logan, Esquire, Vice-President, Penang. 

li. J. WiLKiNSO, T squire, Honorary Secretary. 

J. O. Anthonisz, Esquire, Honorary Treasurer. 

G. 'X- Haee, Esquire, 

W. N. B( TT, Esquire, j 

A. Kjsight. Esquire, > Councillors. 

A. H. Lemon, Esquire, 1 

H. H. Hudson, Esquire, ^ 



VI 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING- 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

HELD AT THE 

RAFFLES MUSEUM 

ON 

THUESDAT, 14th FEBEUAEY, 1895. 

Pbesent : 

The Right Rev. the Bishop of Singapore, Labuan and 
Sarawak, President (in the Chair), and Messrs. AnthonisZ, 
Reith, Noronha, Knight, Collyer, Litton, Hare, Lemon, 
Wilkinson, Little, de Camus, Jeffrey, St. Clair, Seah 
Liang Seah and Dr. Bott. 

The Reports of the Secretary and Treasurer were read and 
approved. 

The Secretary proposed, and Mr. Hare seconded, that the 
Bibliography of Malaya be discontinued. 

The meeting then proceeded to the election of officers and 
Council for the ensuing year. The following were elected : — 
President^ — The Right Rev. Bishop HoSE. 



PROCEEDINGS. vii 

Vice-Prestdent, — The Rev. G. M. Reith. 
Treasurer, — Mr. J. O. Anthonisz. 
Secretary, — Mr. R. J. WILKINSON. 

Councillors, — Messrs. Hare, Bott, Knight, Lemon and 
Hudson. 

The President then addressed the meeting to express the 
sense of loss felt by the Society at the departure of Messrs. 
Hervey and Maxwell, who had done so much for the inter- 
ests of the Society in the past ; and proposed a vote of thanks 
to the Honorary Secretary. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



VIU 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

COUNCIL 

OF TKE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

YOn THE TEAE 1894. 



The Council are happy to state that the affairs of the Society 
continue to. be in a satisfactory condition. 

The following members have been elected at or since the 
last general meeting: — 



His Honour Mr. Justice 
W. R. COLLYER. 

Mr. R. J. Wilkinson. 
Mr. W. G. Shellabear. 
Mr. A. H. Lemon. 
The Rev. D. D. MoORE. 



Mr. E. A. Bartlett. 

Mr. L. A. M.Johnston. 

Dr. G. D. Freer. 

The Rev. W. H. Dunkerley. 

Mr. G. T. Hare. 

Mr. H. Fort. 



Messrs. J. B. Elcum and W. T. Wrench have resigned 
their membership of the Society, and the Council regret to- 
record the loss by death of two members of the Society — Mr. 
D. G. Parkes, and Mr. E. A. Wise, who was killed at Jeram 
Ampai during the Pahang Rising. 

During the year, Nos. 25, 26 and 27 of the Society's Journal 
have been published, and Nos. 28 and 29 are being printed and 
will shortly be in the hands of members. Materials are also 
in hand for another number. 

It is regretted that little progress has been made with the 
new^ map of the Malay Peninsula. It is reported that the 
Topographical Survey of the State of Selangor will not be 
complete before June, while no reliable map can at present 
be made of considerable portions of the State of Pahang. 

A number of publications have been added to the Society's 
Library during the year. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 



IX 



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MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN FRANCIS LIGHT, 

WHO FOUISTDED PENANG, 
[Died October 21st, 1794,] 



RANCIS LIGHT was born at ^'Dallington (? Dal- 
llngho) in Suffolk" about i 745, and came to the East 
'Z^^^^^ at an early age in the Marine Service of the East 
India Co. 

There is scarcely one of our Straits worthies of 
whom so few personal particulars are knowm. He has of 
course left official records, and several of his private letters 
have been printed and preserved. There is also the official 
Diary he kept during the first few months in Penang, which 
is printed in Logan's Journal Vol. Ill; but this is all. Cap- 
tain Light belongs to the ''active period" of the Straits, 
to which, as in other places, the "literary period" succeeded. 
The latter began with Marsden and Leyden of "many-lan- 
guaged lore," who commenced his journeys in Sumatra and the 
Peninsula in 1805. During the next fifty years there was no 
lack of scholars and wTiters in these countries. 

But before their time almost the only English literature of the 
Far East consisted of accounts by ship captains, like Dam- 
PIER and Forrest, of their own and others' voyages. In 
these narratives there is much that is useful ; but we miss the 
literary side and the personal details that make Leyden, 
Marsden and Raffles seem so much more familiar to us 
than their predecessors. 

The first heard of Captain LiGHT is in 1771, when he states 
he entered into correspondence with Warren HASTINGS as to 
the desirability of a repairing harbour in these waters, recom- 
mending Penang as a ''convenient magazine for the Eastern 
trade." 1 here was no doubt negotiation for many years after 
in the intervals of trading tours. 



2 MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

In 1779, we come across Captain Light in one of these 
voyages; more than one reference being made to him in the 
Journal^ of Dr. KOENIG, the Danish Botanist, during that year. 
He met Captain LiGHT trading at Junk Ceylon in May, and 
at Malacca in November, 1779; and he refers to him in 
terms that show there was friendship between them, and that 
the Botanist found him an enhghtened and sympathetic com- 
panion. It is curious that this MS. also contains for the first 
time a tolerably full mention of Penang and of the deep-water 
approaches in the North channel, which justified its selection 
by Captain LiGHT seven years later. 

In 1 780- 1, a scheme had at last been matured for settling 
Junk Ceylon, through private subscription but with the con- 
sent of the Governor-General in Council (then Warren HAS- 
TINGS). There is in the British Museum a Paper wdiich bears 
on this scheme, being a description of Junk Ceylon transmit- 
ted by Captain LiGHT to Lord CORNWALLIS in his letter of 
i8th June, 1787. t The wars with the French and Dutch in 
1 781-3 delayed its execution, and shortly after Captain LiGHT 
decided on the superior merits of Penang harbour. He was 
at first for settling at one and the same time in both 
places ; but when the friendly ruler of Junk Ceylon died in 
December, 1785, it was finally resolved by the Governor- 
General to make the experiment at Penang alone, which the 
young Raja of Kedah had offered to cede for $6,000 a year. 

In June, 1786, Captain LiGHT left Calcutta with Sir J. Mac- 
PHERSON's authority to act. He was given 100 Native "new- 
raised Marines" and 30 Native Lascars, as well as 15 Artille- 
rymen (European) and 5 Officers to support him in his 
undertaking to carry out the settlement of Penang. He first 
proceeded to Kedah. There he completed his negotiations, 
and provisioned his party. Sailing thence with three vessels 
on the evening of the 14th July, 1786, he anchored off Pulau 
Tikus the following day. The first two days he stayed on 
board, and was busy surveying the harbour and testing the 



* In MS. in British Museum (translated S. A. S, Journal 27.) 
t See Logan's Journal, Vol. V, and p. 11 infra. 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 3 

anchorages. At last, on the 17th, he "disembarked Lieut. 
" Gray with the Marines upon Point Penagger — a low sandy 
" point covered with wood — and employed them in clearing 
" the ground." This ground is the present Esplanade, 
which with great foresight he reserved when so freely giving 
away all other lands. He took formal possession of the 
Island on the iith^ August. 

1 he place was practically unoccupied; the only Malay in- 
habitants heard of were 52 Malays who came over, apparently 
from near Tanjong Tokong, to help in felling the forest. 

Shortly afterwards an ancient clearing with coco-nuts, fruit 
trees and a burial-ground came to notice at Datoh Kramat; 
and in 1795 a grant of this clearing (measuring 13 orlongs) 
was given to Maharaja Setia, on the express ground that he 
was a '^ relation by descent of the Datoh Kramat w^ho cleared 
" the ground 90 years before." 

With these exceptions, the whole place w-as one great 
jungle. t Clearing w^ent on with energy; wells were dug which 
yielded water that was fit to drink, but uninviting through 
being stained red by the roots of the penaga tree. Huts were 
run up for the marines and lascars, the tents which the set- 
tlers had brought not affording sufficient room. A month 
passed away quietly enough in the performance of these 
first labours, and the littl© party on the point was still unmo- 
lested by prying and undesirable intruders. But this was not 
to last long. Writing to Mr. Andrew Ross of Madras, Cap- 
tain Light says: "Before we could get up any defence we 
" had visitors of all kinds, some for curiosity, some for gain, 
"and some for plunder." 

No Malay wearing a kris was at first allowed ashore, and care 
was taken to confine to their boats parties of those Achineso 

* By a curious error this event came afterwards to be celebrated on the 12th 
August, and is so kept in Penang even now. It is easy to explain how the 
nnistake occurred; the 1 2th August was the Prince Regent's birthday, after 
whom the Settlement was named. So far back as 1823, the 12th is given as 
the date of foundation in a minute on Land Administration by Mr. Phillips, 
who came to Penang with Sir George Leith in 1800. 

t The island had been cleared by Kedah of its piratical inhabitants about 
1750- 



J. MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

and other warlike spirits who were above using the bliong in 
the jungle. Captain LiGHT had seen too many ruins of the 
old factories which these gentry had *'cut off" to trust them 
as settlers. To encourage the wood-cutters, he is said to 
have ingeniously loaded a gun with a bag of dollars and fired 
it into the jungle. It is mentioned also that the Malays pro- 
vided nibongs for the stockade which was the precursor of 
Fort Cornwallis. On the loth August, two of the Company's 
ships, the Vansittart and the Valentine^ hove in sight, and 
Captain LiGHT, thinking the occasion a favourable one for 
the christening of the infant colony, invited the Captains 
ashore to assist in the ceremony on the iith August. "At 
"noon," he tells us, "all the gentlemen assembled under the 
"flagstaff, and unitedly hoisted the flag, taking possession of 
"the island in the name of His Britannic Majesty and for the 
" use of the Honourable East India Company, the artillery 
"and ships firing a Royal salute, the marines three volleys." 
The following day being the birthday of the PRINCE OF 
Wales, it occurred to our founder to name the island in his 
honour ; but this name has been unable to compete with the 
shorter one of native origin, and exists only in official docu- 
ments. Once the establishment of the Settlement became 
known, people began to flock in from all quarters to live under 
the protection of the British flag. 

His work progressed favourably, especially in the matter of 
health. The early entries in his Diary often express surprise 
at the absence of all serious sickness ; until the following 
year. Then the dry season affected many, and struck him 
down with fever very severely in January, 1787. About the 
same time he began to feel the want of support from Calcutta. 
In February, 1787, he writes to Mr. A. Ross, of Madras : — "I 
" have received nothing from the Bengal Government since my 
" departure from Calcutta." But the Settlement prospered and 
grew notwithstanding, the number of settlers being stated at 
" about 10,000" by the end of 1 789, and at over 20,000 in 1 795."^ 

* Of this number the Chinese were then not much over 3,000; and Captain 
Lennon, r. e., who visited Penang, in November, 1795, expressly states, That 
the Chuliahs were more numerous. ( S. A. S. Journal, vol. 7,) 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 5 

The task of governing this mixed multitude fell entirely on 
the shoulders of Captain LiGHT himself, for he received but 
little encouragement from the Indian Government, who long 
regarded the Establishment at Penang with doubts and even 
with jealousy. There had been a rival settlement formed at 
the Andamans in 1791, under the patronage of Admiral 
CORNWALLIS; but it never prospered, and in 1796, was aban- 
doned. Meanwhile Penang had natural advantages which 
served it better than any patronage. The Superintendent, as 
he was called, lost no opportunity of assuring the East 
India Company of the success of his beloved Settlement as a 
commercial enterprise, and implored the Directors to estab- 
lish a proper Government and to make provision for the 
administration of justice. This was a difficulty most keenly 
felt, but in spite of his earnest recommendation no proper 
remedy was applied. The sole tribunal up to the beginning of 
the 19th century was an informal kind of Court Martial, com- 
posed of Officers and respectable inhabitants. All the minor 
offences and petty disputes were adjudicated by the '' Capi- 
tans" or headmen of the various nationalities inhabiting the 
island ; and there was no regularly organised judicial system 
in the island till the establishment of the Recorder's Court in 
1805. In Captain LiGHT's time persons convicted of murder 
were sent prisoners to Bengal; and by the express order of 
the Indian Government it was "made understood upon the 
" island for the sake of example that they were to remain in 
"slavery for life.'' This bugbear of slavery in Bengal was a 
childish subterfuge wherewith to maintain the majesty of the 
law ; but Light was no party to such folly ; and continually 
urged his Government to provide proper Courts endowed 
with full authority. 

Early in 1788, the financial question confronted the Super- 
intendent of the new Colony. He was much averse to laying- 
burdens on the people, and especially to interfering with the 
freedom of the port, and expresses his regret at the insistence 
of Government. In a despatch addressed to Lord CORNWAL- 
LIS, dated 20th June, 1788, he urges: "Some reasonable time 
" should be allowed the first settlers to enable them to bear 



O MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

''the expense of building, &c. I arrived here in July, 1786. 
" It is now almost two years, but the inhabitauts have not 
" slept in their houses more than iwelve months. I should 
" not have scrupled to give my word to them that they would 
" not be taxed in three years, but as the necessities of gov- 
'^ernment will not .admit of a delay, I offer the following 
'' modes to your Lordship's consideration." He suggests 
twelve possible methods for raising revenue, including 
ground-rent on houses, shop-tax on retailers, a spirit farm, 
duties on alienation and succession, and import duties on 
foreign goods. The Government approved of these, but con- 
sented to postpone the evil day. Later on, however, in 1801, 
Penang became a "customs port;" and was not set free from 
this obstruction to its trade till 1826. 

In 1789, Captain LiGHT went to Calcutta, and was closely 
questioned by the Government as to the capabilities of Pe- 
nang Thus challenged, he proved equal to the occasion, and 
eulogised his Settlement in a voluminous reply. He con- 
cludes a despatch by the following optimistic summary of 
such advantages as, he says, are visible and undeniable : — 

" I. A harbour with good anchorage, secured from bad 
''weather and capable of containing any number of vessels. 

*"' 2. An island well watered, of excellent soil, capable of 
" sustaining 50,000 people and abounding in all necessary ma- 
'' terials for their service and security. 

" 3. A port favourable to commerce, the present imports 
'^ amounting to upwards of $600,000 per annum. 

''4. A place of refuge for merchant ships where they may 
" refit and be supplied with provisions, wood and water, and 
" protected from the insults of enemies. 

" 5. An emporium centrally situated where the merchants 
''of all nations may conveniently meet and exchange their 
"commodities." 

Light's instincts were true ; yet he failed to convince his 
Government, and for many years the life of Penang hung on 
a thread ; indeed it was not till recently that revenue began 
to cover expenditure, and that our founder's forecast was jus- 
tified in this respect. 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. y 

In 1790, Light began to find that the duties of Superin- 
tendent of the growing Settlement were incompatible with 
his position as a merchant,"^ while the small salary (Rs. i^ooo 
per month) which he received from Government was insuffi- 
cient to warrant his giving up trade. So strongly did he feel 
this that we find him proposing to the authorities in Calcutta 
that he should be precluded from engaging in trade, receiv- 
ing " such increase of salary as will support the office with 
" decency and enable me to make a small provision for ap- 
" proaching old age." Few of his acts reveal an honourable 
and upright character more clearly than this. His combined 
position of Superintendent and principal merchant in Penang 
gave him abundant opportunity of enriching himself; and in 
those lax days, with examples like Vansittart and Mac- 
PHERSON before him, such scruples must have seemed to many 
almost Quixotic. In the following year there was trouble with 
Kedah. The Raja of that country, grown jealous of the pros- 
perous Settlement that had sprung up in his neighbourhood, 
collected a force, and in 1791 instigated a fleet of twenty La- 
noon boats to enter Pry River. These were joined by the Kedah 
Bandahara. A land force also came down to the banks of 
the river and threw up entrenchments. Light's force num- 
bered 400 men, all well armed and disciplined. He took the 
initiative and attacked by land and sea the force at Kuala Pry, 
which had swelled to the number of over 8,000 Malays. After 
a few hours fighting the enemy were dispersed, notwithstand- 
ing their great preponderance of numbers. Since that day 
Penang has remained free from the attack of any enemy, 
native or foreign, even when the Siamese troops of the Phya 
Ligor were over-running Kedah in 1821. Light was justly 
proud of his victory and called his next son FranciS Lanoon 
Light in honour of it. 

In a despatch dated 24th August, 1792, Captain LiGHT 
continues to sound the trumpet of his little Colony and to pre- 
dict for it that success which it has since attained. One 
admires the earnest way in which its earliest ruler stood 

t He was partner with James Scott in Scott & Co., afterwards Brown & Co, 



8 MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT, 

forth as the champion of Penang. We have had other cham- 
pions since, and ardent ones too, but must give FRANCIS 
Light the palm. In the same despatch he alludes to the dis- 
covery of tin on Bukit Timah (the spur to the north of the 
" Crag" where the new Sanitarium of the Pulau Tikus Col- 
lege now stands), and the discovery of a wild nutmeg " whose 
''fruit so nearly resembles a nutmeg that the Buggesses and 
" a Dutchman who had been at the spice islands declared to 
" be the real nutmeg.'^ He goes on to say : " I have great 
" hopes that the fruit may be improved so as to become an 
"article of commerce." This prediction was verified, but 
not for some years after, till Mr. Christopher Smith's 
Agricultural Mission in 1802; and then it was the imported 
nutmeg plant from Amboyna which for a time flourished so 
greatly in the island. The whole tone of Captain Light's 
letters bears testimony to the singleness of purpose and ad- 
ministrative insight that characterised this remarkable man, 
and it is matter for deep regret that he was not spared longer 
to bring his labours to full fruition. The use he made of his 
short period of power in the Far East, and his great capacity 
as a leader of pioneer enterprise, prove him a worthy fore- 
runner to Sir Stamford Raffles, who founded Singapore, 
35 years later, on very similar lines. 

Captain Light died at Penang, like so many of the early 
Chiefs of the Settlement, on the 21st October, 1794. Some 
fever like that severe one recorded in his Journal in February, 
1787, probably caused his death; at any rate he was able to 
make a Will on the previous day. 

A letter to Government published in Vol. V of Logan's 
Journal, p. 7, is the last official record of his work, bearing 
date 25th January, 1794. In this he pleaded that a Civil 
Assistant trained to the work might be his successor, ''in 
case of his removal by death or otherwise," instead of the 
Officer Commanding as arranged in 1787. He also advocates 
"a mild and at the same time an active Government" as 
necessary for the "most wealthy and useful inhabitants " — 
that is, the Chinese, whose numbers he estimated at about 
3,000. 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 9 

He ends with the following characteristic paragraph : — '* A 
" regular form for administering justice is necessary, both for 
" the peace and welfare of the society and for the honour 
" of the nation who have granted them protection ; it is 
''likewise improper the Superintendent should have it in 
''his power to exercise an arbitrary judgment upon persons 
"and things; whether this judgment is iniquitous or not 
"the mode is still arbitrary and disagreable to society." 

Under date August ist, 1794, the Governor-General, Lord 
TeignmoUTH, replied that " he did not at present think him- 
self authorised to establish formal and regular Courts," but 
passed, and transmitted to Captain LiGHT, certain Regula- 
tions for preserving the peace of the island. These long 
remained effective; and Mr Justice DiCKENS, on 22nd October, 
1805, eleven years after, declared them to be the only laws 
even then in force. These Regulations must have reached 
Captain LiGHT just before his death, and the establishment 
of Mr. Mannington as Magistrate with the first approach to 
regular law in his infant Settlement appropriately closes the 
public career of such a man. His chronicler — Colonel Low — - 
thus sums up his character and work : — 

" Although the rather implicit credence which he gave at 
"first to the Rajah of Kedah's assertion of his independence 
" of Siam, might have led to more serious consequences 
" than it did, still it would appear that he was a man of 
"sound sense, probity and judgment — active, practical, and 
"moderate. That certainly reprehensible credence, how- 
" ever, secured to the British merchant and to the world the 
"port of Pinang, the most eligible one at this extremity of 
"the Straits. (Vol. HI of Logan's Journal, 1848). 

This seems to be a just and friendly reference as regards him 
personally. But in estimating the political criticism it must be 
remembered who it is that writes. Colonel Low was an avow- 
ed partisan in the curious political controversy of his time re- 
garding the status of Kedah. This matter bears so closely on 
Captain Light's principal works, and on his judgment and sin- 
cerity in carrying it out, that it must not be passed over in any 
account of his action as the Founder of the Settlement. 



IQ MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

The old controversy upon the point has long subsided. 
As a matter of practical politics, the general " suzerainty " of 
Siam is now, and since the Malay Restoration in 1842, ex- 
pressly admitted; but that in 1786 it was admitted, or even 
claimed, in any European sense of the word, ''suzerainty," 
cannot be maintained. The view favouring Captain Light'S 
direct negotiation with Kedah was supported by Mr. J. R. 
Logan, and was held by those best-informed in Straits affairs 
when the dispute arose. The opposite case, of which Colonel 
Low, a Siamese scholar, made himself the chief exponent, is 
best disposed of by quoting his own admissions in his paper 
on the question in Vol. Ill of Logan's Journal: — 

P. 602. He admits that ''no coercion or intimidation was 
"employed to obtain the cession of Penang in 1786." 

P. 601. That the Rajah protested his independence, and 
was believed by the Government of India (after enquiries 
protracted during 1778-86); while "Siam would readily have 
consented'^ if consulted. 

P. 613. That there was an ^'ancient dependence, and a 
rebellion against Siam in 1^20!^ which shews the unpractical 
character of the claim, so many years after. 

Pp. 603-13. In fact the triennial "bunga mas" remains 
the sole piece of evidence on which the whole figment has 
been constructed. The value of this evidence can be gauged 
by Colonel Low's own reference (p. 613) to "the rival nations 
of Ava and Siam" both receiving this token (see also p. 610 
where the Rajah of Kedah claimed our help against both 
Burmese and Siamese). The bunga mas was no more than 
a token of inferior pretensions, offered by a second-rate to 
a first-rate Eastern Power, in the same way as it was formerly 
offered by Siam to China. 

It is clear from many of these passages (pp. 600 to 609 
and elsewhere) that Colonel Low imported into his chronicle 
in Logan's Journal questions which sixty-five years before 
had never been raised"^ at all, but which afterwards excited 

* In 1802 the Advocate-General at Calcutta advised on the question whether 
the sovereignty of the Island had been ceded to Britain, and in the course of 
his formal "Opinion" the very existence of the Siamese is ignored. 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 1 1 

much feeling in the controversy of his day. So also it must 
be confessed did Mr. Secretary Anderson and the partisans 
on the other side. 

The unfairness of this as affecting Captain LiGHT's action 
is obvious: especially because the strongest argument for his 
view of the independence of Kedah lay just in the fact that 
the question of dependence was never raised at all in the 
early days. In the later controversy, at a time when the 
Siamese invasion was pressing and the Dutch power had 
passed away from the Peninsula, it was forgotten that in the 
eighteenth century things were different. Far more important 
then than Siam stood out the other factor in the question — 
the Dutch — who in 1783-5 were engaged in active hostilities^ 
with Selangor and Rio. It is stated in ANDERSON'S "Consi- 
derations," (1824) on the authority of a letter from LiGHT to 
the Governor-General, that the Dutch in 1783 wrote to the 
Rajahs of Kedah and Tringganu for assistance, and fearing 
Dutch hostility when the Malacca siege was over, those Ra- 
jahs made in 1785 spontaneous offers of a British settlement 
in their respective States. 

One thing is certain — that in writing his criticism in 1848, 
Colonel Low was ignorant of Captain LiGHT's despatch to 
Lord CORNWALLIS in 1787; and in consequence misrepresents 
the whole of the official negotiations respecting Salang and 
Penang as though these had turned upon "whether the islands 
formed a portion of the Siamese Empire." The printing 
of this despatch in a later volume of Logan's Journal at once 
made it clear that nothing of that kind came into the question; 
its entire absence is in fact most noticeable. Captain LIGHT 
explained fully the whole of the circumstances of his selecting 
these islands in the official letter mentioned above, dated i8th 
June, 1787 (published in LOGAN, Vol. IV, p. 634). This letter 
shows that in 1780 Warren HASTINGS' Council sanctioned 
"in a public letter" Captain Light's "plan for employing 
subscriptions," already actually raised for a Settlement on 



*See S. A. S. Journal, Vol, XXIV, <'Raja HajVs War. 



12 MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

Salang (Junk Ceylon) ; which was in course of being carried 
out when "before the troops and ships were made ready, the 
"war with France in i 781-2 led to its being neglected." 

The letter adds how, at the conclusion of the war, HASTINGS 
took the matter up again. "But for the death of a friendly 
Governor of Salang in December, 1785," Captain LiGHT — who 
had however in the meanwhile been struck by the superior 
advantages of Penang "as a barrier to the Dutch encroach- 
ment'' — would, he says, "have taken both islands." 

In the end, Sir J. Macpherson, HASTINGS' successor, 
" readily accepted Penang, but declined taking Salang" on 
the two grounds : — 

(i) — that " it required a greater force" to keep ; 

(2)— that " as Goverment required a naval port with a port 
of commerce, Penang is more favourable than Salang." 

There is no doubt that Captain Light honestly believed it 
to be within the competence of the Rajah of Kedah to make 
over to the East India Company the island of Penang, and 
that nobody then questioned it. It is also certain that when 
his ships — the Eliza, the Prince Henry and the Speedwell — 
came to Penang, they went there with the Rajah's full consent 
and support, though after some opposition from the Laxamana 
and the Chiefs. Captain Light's Journal shews that the i ith, 
1 2th and 13th July, 1786, were spent at Kedah "in embarking 
the people and provisions" for this expedition. There was 
nothing secret about it. Once arrived in Penang, he very 
wisely acted with a sole view to the success and safety of 
his young Settlement. His Diary describes the numerous 
risks incurred in such an undertaking, and shows how piracy, 
scanty provisions, disease, the hostility of the Dutch in Ma- 
lacca, the jealousy of Kedah, had to be encountered in turn. 

One story that has obtained currency perhaps deserves 
contradiction, for strange to say it is repeated in a Work like 
Balfour's "Encyclopaedia of India" (Vol. Ill), 1885, published 
by Bernhard Quaritch: — 

" Penang. — It was an uninhabited forest, when given 
" hy the King of Quedah to Captain Light in I'jS^, as the 
^^ marriage portion of the King^s daughter whom Captain 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. I^ 

'' Light married; but it was sold to the British by the King 
"in 1800." 

The statement about '' the marriage portion " is of course 
unfounded. It has been repeated from old gossip"^ on this 
subject in a way that is as discreditable as the other obvious 
errors in the dates, &c. Captain LiGHT certainly allied him- 
self in 1772 with Martina Rozells, but she was neither a 
Malay nor a Princess, but was apparently a Portuguese 
Christian of the Roman Catholic Mission at Kedah or Junk 
Ceylon. The old Junk Ceylon Mission removed about that 
time to Kedah, and in 1786 to Pulau Tikus village at Penang. 
She lived with him to his death, and inherited his house 
''Suffolk" and other property. She bore him five children, 
one of whom at least he took care to bring up in Englandf — 
Colonel William Light, born in 1784, died 1839. This son 
followed in his father's steps; for it was his pride to be the 
"Founder of Adelaide." As the companion and "Surveyor- 
General" of Sir J. HiNDMARSH, first Governor of the new 
Colony of South Australia, he selected the site of the new 
Capital on December 28th, 1836. 

The success of Captain Light's enterprise in establishing 
Penang was already clear at the time of his death. This is 
shown by Admiral CORNWALLIS' rival Settlement at the Anda- 
mans being abandoned two years later in favour of Penang. 
It is also testified to in the account of no less a personage 
than the great DuKE OF Wellington (then Col. Wellesley) 
which is to be found, under date 1797, in Vol. I of Gleig's 
" Supplementary Despatches." Finally it was made manifest 
to all the world in the despatch of the Court of Directors on 
establishing the Presidency Government at Penang, in 
September, 1805. (Published in Logan's Journal, Vol. V.) 



* No doubt the story was honestly accepted and propagated by Colonel 
Light, and his English friends, when having distinguished himself in the 
Peninsular War he became the Duke's confidential A.D.C, 

f It appears from his Will that ;^2,ooo was provided for this purpose. The 
other domestic facts are also gathered from it and from some Memoranda 
industriously collected by Mr, F. Light, a direct descendant 



14 MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

This destpatch gives no mean tribute to Captain Light's 
work ; and it deserves to be quoted at some length, for 
it explains with curious minuteness the policy of the East 
India Company during the first nineteen years of Penang 
history. It testifies that " from the spirit of British rule, 
" even when imperfectly administered, industry, enterprise 
'^ and improvement have appeared to a considerable extent on 
" the island, and its population, produce and commerce are 
"already very respectable/' As regards the future, it 
adds : " The position of this island, its climate, its fertility, its 
" harbour, its produce of large timber, its contiguity to Pegu 
" which contains the most abundant of teak forests in Asia, 
"have long pointed it out as an acquisition of very great im- 
" portance in a commercial and political view, being situated 
"in a most favourable situation for an emporium of commerce 
" in the Eastern seas." 

This important document, of 14 closely printed pages and 
74 paragraphs, must have been framed in the latter part of 
1804, just ten years after Captain LiGHT's death. It is diffi- 
cult to conceive a better testimony to his work and to the 
merits of his young Settlement. Among other things, it 
describes minutely how " no Import and Export duties were 
" imposed up to the time of the 2 per cent, ad valorem duty 
"levied in 1801, on the importation of tin, pepper and betel- 
" nut, which in that year produced $13,076" ; and also how 

" upon our first taking possession of the island 

" ground was said to be of such little value that to ask was 
"to have, or to appropriate was equivalent to legal right." 

To check this some instructions had been invited and a 
Regulation had been passed on August ist, 1794, "respecting 
grants of land for the period of 5 years " ; and resolving 
that for the future " no grant of land be made to Europeans 
" exceeding in quantity 300 orlongs, preferring to encourage 
" the clearing and cultivation of the island by making small 
" grants of land to the industrious Chinese." 

Unfortunately for this policy, the Chinese would not look at 
such short leases. The emergency thus created at the close of 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIiN LIGHT, 15 

his life brought out the resource and political courage which 
were the secret of Captain Light's success. This Regulation 
stopping perpetuity grants in favour of five-year leases was 
to take effect from ist January, 1795. When the Resolution 
arrived he allowed it to be known and stopped issuing 
grants; but at the same time he informed Mr. YoUNG and 
others that he would not promulgate it, but would get it rescind- 
ed: ''well knowing (says Mr. YoUNG) the publication would 
instantly stop all further advance," and especially the pep- 
per-planting near Glugor which he had started in 1790 and had 
done so much to promote. Before the Resolution could come 
into force, he had died. But his immediate successor Mr. 
Mannington took the same view; and on the 22nd August, 
1796, "the Governor-General in Council rescinded his Resolu- 
tion of the 1st August, 1794," viz., that no allotments of land be 
made in perpetuity. (Papers relating to Land Revenue Ad- 
ministration, published 1884.) 

It has since been contended that these Perpetuity Grants 
were a mistake; but the contemporary evidence points entire- 
ly the other way. In any case the blame would fall on his 
superiors. The responsibility for that policy lies with Sir 
J. Macpherson, who, when Captain LiGHT sounded him in 
April, 1786, before he started on his expedition, as to "granting 
settlers a portion of land," replied "That would be proper;" 
and with his successor, Lord CORNWALLIS, whose first des- 
patch to Captain Light dated 22nd January, 1787, stated: 
"We leave it to your discretion to receive such colonists as 
"you may think it safe and advisable to admit and to give each 
"family such portion of land as circumstances will allow and 
"you may judge expedient." To Lord CORNWALLis' wise 
and liberal statesmanship on this and similar points the Set- 
tlement owes much of its rapid progress. His preference for 
"perpetuity settlement" may have carried him too far in an 
old country like Bengal. But in a new Colony it is the only 
policy that can succeed ; as was soon made clear at Penang 
when he left, and when Lord TeigNMOUTH endeavoured to 
reverse it and adopt restrictive measures. 

In this matter as in so many others Captain LiGHT did his 



i6 MEMOm OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 

duty well, as the local Chief, in saving the Government he 
served from making what would have been a very serious 
mistake. This was frankly admitted in paragraph 164 of 
Lord Auckland's well-known minute of 1837. 

But this controversy belongs to a later chapter. The 
Founder's work was done, and it did not "follow him." He 
had been entirely successful in a kind of enterprise in which 
disastrous failure has been so common. 

His "infant Port," once made a Presidency Government, lay 
very snugly under the shelter, not only of Penang Hill but of 
the ''Honourable Court" itself. What the Treaty of Holland 
effected for the security of Singapore, the recognition given 
in 1805 by this new Commission of Government effected for 
Penang. Henceforth experiments could be tried without 
risking the very life of the Settlement. Some of them suc- 
ceeded — like that of receiving Indian convicts, and like the 
"forward policy," which culminated in our occupying Java, 
and afterwards Singapore. Some of them failed — like the 
attempts to evacuate Malacca in 1808, and to federate with 
Acheen in 1811-18. Most of the experiments encountered, 
as usual, something both of failure and success. Among these 
may count the rage for nutmeg-planting, in 1802-20, and the 
Honourable Court's attempt to make Penang pay its way by 
Customs duties and otherwise. 

No period of its history can better illustrate "the spirit of 
" British rule even when imperfectly administered" than that 
in which Captain LIGHT played his part alone. Those first 
eight years form a truly successful record of what British 
courage and perseverance, local experience amounting to 
adroitness, and a large-minded sense of public duty can 
achieve, even when almost unsupported. These qualities are 
shewn by the public records. 

The inscription to his memory at St. George's Church by a 
contemporary Penang resident — ROBERT ScOTT — adds to the 
favourable impression made by the public records a warm 
testimony to his worth: — 



MEMOIR OF CAPTAIN LIGHT. 17 

IN MEMORY 

OF 

FRANCIS LIGHT ESQ. 

WHO FIRST ESTABLISHED THIS ISLAND 

AS AN ENGLISH SETTLEMENT, 
and was many years governor. 

Born in the County of Suffolk in England, 
AND Died October 2ist, 1794. 



IN HIS CAPACITY AS GOVERNOR, 

THE SETTLERS AND NATIVES WERE GREATLY ATTACHED TO HIM 

AND BY HIS DEATH, HAD TO DEPLORE THE LOSS OF ONE 

WHO WATCHED OVER THEIR INTERESTS AND 

CARES AS A FATHER. 



The best part of his life — from 1771 to 1794 — had been 
given to this place, and he rests in our old Cemetery. His 
grave and the brief Inscription on it (the first four lines as 
printed above) are well kept. Next to him lies PHILIP 
DuNDAS, the first Presidency Governor; and within a few 
yards are the tombs of Captain ScOTT and Captain GLASS, 
his earliest fellow settlers. 

It is only right that his successors should gratefully recall 
those who came first and bore the hard work of Pioneers ; 
and should give special honour to so worthy a " Founder," 
upon the hundredth Anniversary of his Death, 

A. M. S. 
Penang, 21st October, 18^4. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

DELIYEEED BEFOEE THE INDIAN SOCIETY, 

ON 

THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 

AND 

THE MALAY PENINSULA. 






i^'^^^ N the immediate vicinity of our East Indian posses- 
79§2li sions lie the Straits Settlements, an English Crown 
^^^^^ Colony, of which Singapore and Peiiang are the 
Yfe^ chief ports. These are often touched at by passing 
"^^ Civil Servants, Officers and other Dutchmen on 
their way to Holland, and also on the way to or 
from Acheen or the East Coast of Sumatra. They see then 
in a cursory way something of these English trading places, 
but in general Dutchmen still know very little of this Col- 
ony, and of the adjacent Malay Peninsula. I was astonish- 
ed to see how little of the literature that exists on this sub- 
ject is to be found in Holland. If the contents of the li- 
brary of this Society disappointed me in this respect, and 
those of the Library of the '^'KoninMijk Instituut voortaal- 
land-en volkenkunde van ISTederlandsch-Indie," I was still 
more disappointed, when I came to enquire in the Eoyal 
Library, as to what was to be found of this part of the world 
upon this subject. 



20 ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 

And jet these regions should inspire us with especial in- 
terest not only as belonging to our closest neighbours^ but 
also because thej belong to a world-nation, to the first Colo- 
nial power, and are governed in an entirely different way to 
our possessions. 

The influence that for years has spread of its own accord 
and in a natural way from there to our Colonies, ought not 
to be under-estimated. To enquire into these influences, to 
put to a certain extent on a safe footing the relations be- 
tween both Colonies, is naturally the delicate task of the 
Dutch Consular Officials in Singapore and Penang, who are, 
as it were, our advance guards there. For some years I have 
been honoured with this trust in Penang. 

For this reason, I wish this evening, at the solicitation of 
your Committee, to draw your attention to this interesting 
part of the English transmarine possessions, in the hope 
that this lecture may contribute in some degree to increase 
your interest in these regions, and may perhaps induce you 
to make a closer investigation into the present condition of 
things prevailing in the Straits Settlements and in the Ma- 
lay Peninsula. 

I would ask your indulgence for any deficiencies and 
shortcomings which may be found in this contribution, 
which had to be compiled from scattered notes. 

The Malay Peninsula, formerly called the Malacca Pe- 
ninsula, or simply Malacca, by which is understood the por- 
tion of Further India to the South of the Isthmus of Krah, 
is washed on the West by the Gulf of Bengal and the 
Straits of Malacca, and on the East by the Chinese Sea 
and the Gulf of Siam. It is 600 English miles long, near 
Krah 40 miles broad, and further down averages 150 Eng- 
lish miles in breadth, giving an area of about 75,000 English 
square miles, of which 40,000 are under Siam, and 35,000 
under England, with a population of about one-and-a-half 
million souls. To Siam belong, on the West Coast, Kedah 
with Perils and Situl, Junk Ceylon with Tongkah, Eenong 
with Trang and Krah, and, on the East Coast, Tringganu, 
Kelantan, Patani^ Singgora and Ligor. 



&c. 21 

We shall leave these undiscussed, so that we can confine 
ourselves exclusively to the English portion. 

The mountain ranges that run through the whole 
length of the Peninsula are continuations of the mountain 
land of Further India, chiefly of granite formation, not 
subject to volcanic influences, and varying in height from 4 
to 12 thousand feet. The highest peaks are in Kedah, Perak 
and Tringganu. These mountain ranges are bordered on 
both sides by alluvial plains from 10 to 30 English miles 
broad, broader as a rule on the West than on the East 
Coast. The hills are covered with rich forests, in which 
the wild tribes that live from the chase lead a wandering 
life ; the plains, with their fertile soil and rich tropical culti- 
vation, are inhabited by the more stationary population. 
The vsdld tribes (Negritos), which are but scanty in num- 
bers, are called Sahais North of the Perak River, and 
South of that Semangs ; older Malay hill-dwellers are 
distinguished as Orang Benua. The stationary population 
consists in the North to the 8th degree North latitude of 
pure Siamese, between the 7th and 8th degree of latitude 
they are called Samsams, a mixture of Siamese and Malays, 
and South of that the population is Malay. In addition, 
there are to be found settlements of aliens, chiefly Chinese, 
Klings and Arabs. 

Numerous but necessarily small streams, flow from the 
mountains to both coasts. The Perak and Pahang Rivers 
are the most considerable and the most navigable. They 
have more value for drainage and irrigation purposes than 
for purposes of communication, and provide the plains with 
a plentiful supply of water. The mouths of the rivers are, 
on both coasts, nearly everywhere shallow, and blocked by 
sand and mud banks. Those on the East coast are, during 
the whole of the East monsoon, closed to navigation, 
but on the West coast are generally well protected, and 
only now and then rendered less secure by heavy short 
squalls known as " Sumatras." Towards the North, on 
both coasts, there are numerous coral reefs and islands. 

The soil is rich in minerals, especially tin, gold, silver, 



22 ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 

lead^ etc. Tlie land is adapted to nearly every kind of 
tropical cultivation. In tlie animal kingdom are to be 
found tlie rhinoceros, the tapir, the elephant, the tiger, the 
bison, the wild bnll, apes, snakes, etc. Further, a rich 
variety of birds, fish and splendid butterflies is to be 
found. 

The climate is warm and damp, especially on the South, 
but the nights are very cool. The dry weather of the 
North-East monsoon prevails from the middle of October 
to the middle of April, the wet weather of the South- West 
monsoon during the rest of the year. 

The digging of a ship canal through the Isthmus of Krah 
has been for some years the subject of enquiry and dis- 
cussion, and was especially a favourite idea of the French. 
The journey from Europe to Siam and China would thus be 
shortened by 660 miles. The plan that is now in view of a 
railway connection between Penang and Singgora is, on the 
other hand, more in accordance with English ideas. 

The Malay Peninsula, long before Europeans came there_, 
was, like many other countries in Eastern Asia and many 
islands in the East Indian Archipelago, tributary to China 
to a certain extent. In spite of the fact that its coasts and 
harbours were from the earliest times visited by navigators 
and traders, and subsequent to the voyages of discovery by 
Europeans, more especially by Spaniards, Portuguese, 
English and Dutch; in spite of the fact that it has 
repeatedly been the scene of sanguinary conflicts between 
these nations, as well as between Javanese, Malays, Siamese 
and Achinese ; in spite of the fact that we Dutch for two 
and a half centuries were in almost unbroken possession 
of Malacca, and maintained trading relations with the 
surrounding States of Selangor, Perak, Kedah, Johor, Junk 
Ceylon, Patani, Tringganu and Kelantan, where we had 
factories for shorter or longer periods — in spite of all this, 
it remained till our own times pretty well a terra incognita. 

In his treatise on Malacca in 1795, the English Admiral 
Mainwaring says: — "Malacca, although excellently situated 
" and for more than 250 years in the hands of Europeans, 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 23 

"is, outside the town, desert and uncultivated, as if there 
"had never been a settlement there. This is to be attributed 
"to the narrow policy of the Dutch at Batavia, who make it 
"their duty to concentrate everything in Java, and to make 
"everything dependent upon it/' 

It was under the English that all further development 
of this portion of the East took place. We have contributed 
almost nothing to this, and confined ourselves almost ex- 
clusively to the town of Malacca, where all our Government 
and trading influence in that district were concentrated. 
In Malacca itself there was no further extension than was 
absolutely necessary, and indeed, on many occasions, the 
interests of Malacca were sacrificed to those of Java. Tin, 
pepper, and also gold were already then the most consider- 
able articles of export, and our efforts were directed to 
obtain the monojDoly of these in every way. Achinese 
influeuce was at first great on the Peninsula, so that it 
was even necessary to obtain the sanction of the Sultan 
of Acheen to trade either with Perak or Kedah. The role 
which we played here was not always a brilliant one, as may 
be seen from an article entitled "The Dutch in Perak," 
written, for the Journal of the Straits Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, by the present Acting Governor of 
the Straits Settlements, Mr. W. E. Maxwell. 

The proportion of English trade at this period in these 
parts was small, although they, the indefatigable rivals 
of the Dutch, also had their factories in many places. In- 
deed, India took up nearly all their attention, just as Java 
and the Moluccas did with us. 

Mr. Skixxer writes as follows in his "'British Connections 
with Malaya" (a name first given, a short time ago, on the 
founding of the above-mentioned Straits Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, to the whole of the countries wLere 
Malay or one of its related dialects is spoken, viz., the Ma- 
lay Peninsula from Tenasserim and the great India Archi- 
pelago, from Sumatra to J^ew Guinea) : — "The contact of the 
" English with this part of the world may be divided into 
'' three periods — 



24 ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 

"I.— That of individual trade, 1602-1684. 

"IT. — That of the trade of the East India Company, 1684- 
"1762. 

"III. — That of political and military interference, 1762 
"till now." 

Thus this contact was of a purely commercial character 
till 1762, when the consolidation of the position of the Eng- 
lish in British India, and circumstances in Europe, led them 
to pay more attention to Eastern lands, and politics came 
more into the front. 

The first expedition of the English against Manila took 
place in 1763. Their fleet had stopped at Penang, and they 
were struck with the importance of the position of that 
place. This expedition ended with the occupation of the 
island of Balambangan, opposite Marudu Bay in North Bor- 
neo. It was abandoned again in 1804, on account of its un- 
healthiness. The island of Labuan was then occupied, but 
was almost immediately abandoned, and in 1846 was again 
taken possession of. 

The desirability of obtaining some fixed place in or near 
the Straits of Malacca was the more evident from the cir- 
cumstance that the trading fortresses in Sumatra, of which 
Bencoolen, raised in 1763 to an independent Presidency, was 
the capital, were less suited for that purpose. Acheen was 
chosen, but the negotiations with the Sultan of that kingdom 
led to no satisfactory result. Now, Francis Light, of the 
British India Marine, who was acquainted with the trade of 
Kedah, came with the proposal to choose for this the island 
of Penang, which was to be acquired by a payment to the 
Sultan of Kedah. It was then a desert, uncultivated, almost 
uninhabited island, and was only touched at by ships to take 
water or to wait for good weather. The first Englishman 
whom we know to have done this was Captain Lancaster of 
the Bonaventura, who visited Penang in 1592, and the first 
Dutchman was Cornelis Matelief, who went there in 1607. 

The East India Company agreed to Light's proposal, and 
in August, 1786, took formal possession of Penang, in con- 
sideration of the payment of a fixed annual sum to the Sul- 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 25 

tan of Kedah. Pulau Pinang was christened Prince of 
Wales' Island, and the Settlement of the English George 
Town, but np till the present daj it has been called Penang. 
In 1791, a stretch of land, now Province Welleslej^ or sim- 
ply the Province, on the mainland just opposite Penang, was 
purchased from the Sultan of Kedah, and in 1823 was con- 
siderably extended. The Straits Government pays up till 
the present time to him a rent or hire of from 10,000 to 
12,000 dollars. 

For political reasons, the British Government did every- 
thing in its power to further British influence in these parts, 
and Penang was the starting point for several expeditions 
during the great war. In 1795, Malacca was taken from us 
from there, and other possessions on the West coast of 
Sumatra came into the hands of the English. In 1797-98, a 
second expedition against Manila was prepared. The later 
expeditions against Java and the Moluccas were also got to- 
gether and prepared in Penang. 

Penang was at first governed in a very irregular way by 
commercial superintendents. In 1796, it was estabhshed as 
a Penal Settlement for Indian convicts, and remained so till 
1857, the year of the Indian Mutiny. In 1800, it was put 
under a Lieutenant-Governor, and in 1805 was promoted to 
be a Presidency, but still placed under the East India Com- 
pany in Bengal. 

It is natural that Penang, through one thing and another, 
should become a place of importance as a free port. Its 
trade had at once become noticeable as a trading centre for 
the neighbouring coasts, and it soon not only took the place 
of Malacca, but the merchants from still more distant places, 
came to trade in free Penang. 

Malacca was given back to us by the English in 1818, 
after they had made agreements with Perak and other 
States, which made it impossible for us to regain or improve 
our former position. In 1825, it was given over to them by 
us for good, but has remained what it still is, a place of 
small commercial importance with only limited local sour- 
ces of trade and cultivation* 



26 



ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 



From the beginning, the object and aim of the English in 
these parts was the overthrow of the trade monopoly of 
the Dutch, and this was joined to a hatred born of jealousy 
or ignorance, and a contempt which shows itself in almost 
all writings of this period. Thus one may read the follow- 
ing, in a letter of Sir Francis Light, in 1787, from Pe- 
nang: — "I suspected the Dutch would throw obstacles in 
"my way. The contempt and derision however with which 
"they treat this place and the mean dirij acts they use would 
""dishonour any but a Dutchman." 

As a consequence of the so-called free-trade commercial 
policy, which however, as has been observed before, was 
dictated by political considerations, the commercial treaties 
with Perali and Selangor were concluded in 1818- England 
obtained for herself, by these, the position of the most- 
favoured nation, and thus prevented the granting of mono- 
polies or favours to others. In 1819, Singapore was founded 
by Raffles, after he had been obliged to give back to us 
Java and the other Dutch possessions. This island, on 
which the town of Singapore stood in the twelfth century, 
he had purchased from Johor, which, at the same time, came 
under English influence and has remained so since. In 
1820, a sort of treaty was made with Acheen, by which 
England stipulated or got the right to place a Resident 
in Acheen, and to exclude other European nations from 
establishing a Settlement there. The English, however, 
have never carried this treaty out. In 1826, the independ- 
ence of Perak, which had been to a^ certain extent tributary 
to Siam, was recognised by treaty, and protection against 
Siam and Selangor was guaranteed. The English obtained 
by it the right to establish a Settlement on the island Pang- 
kor, which we had previously repeatedly occu_pied. The 
remains of this occupation — kept in repair by the English — 
are to be seen at the present day. 

In all this, the chief aim of the English was the weaken- 
ing of Dutch interests, and the breaking up of their mono- 
poly system — an aim that was pursued by Raffles with 
indefatigable zeal, and was finally crowned with wonderful 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 27 

success, although he often had to meet obstruction and misunder- 
standings even from his own countrymen. The founding of Sin- 
gapore is a proof of this enterprising spirit and clear sight. It 
took place in opposition to instructions from Bengal, and com- 
pleted the do\ynfall of Malacca, which, lying between Penang and 
Singapore, lost its value and importance. It also neutralized to 
some extent the surrender of Java to us, an action that, to this 
day, no Englishman can remember without vexation and remorse. 
In a letter in the Eaffles Museum in Singapore, we read the follow- 
ing on this subject: — "Xot our interests alone have suffered by 
"this unexpected return (of the Dutch to Java) but those of 
"humanity and civilization su:ffer more deeply. They (the Dutch) 
"ought to have had some common feeling for humanity, some ob- 
"ject in view beyond the cold calculations of profit and loss" etc. 

First Singapore came under the Presidency of Bencoolen; in 
1828 it came with Penang under the Government of Bengal, and 
in 1825 Peuang, Singapore and Malacca were united as a Presidency 
with Penang as capital, until 1837, when Singapore, which had 
developed very rapidly, was appointed the seat of Government as 
it now is. 

However, it was not till 50 years after the English had become 
masters of the Straits of Malacca that they busied themselves 
directly with the affairs of the Peninsula. Different forms of Gov- 
ernment were in use during this interval until 1st April, 1867, 
when the three Settlements, under the name of the Straits Settle- 
ments, were separated from British India, and as a Crown Colony, 
were brought under the direct authority of the mothercountry. 

Although during this time the local Government attempted on 
several occasions to extend its jurisdiction, these plans never met 
with the sanction or approval of the Home Government, and ac- 
cordingly the policy of non-intervention in the Malay Peninsula 
was observed. The so-called Xaning War, which ended in an ex- 
tension of the territory of Malacca, formed an exception to this. 
Naning, one of the Negri Sembilan hereafter mentioned and a real 
nest of robbers, was then incorporated with Malacca. In view of 
the fact that the British India Government had to pay the cost of 
this, and had always, even in ordinary circumstances, to lend the 
three Settlements pecuniary support, the expenses were limited to 
what was strictly necessary, and these possessions were left to 
themselves "to develop on their own resources." Thus the deve- 
lopment of Penang and Singapore as trade centres became almost 



^^ ADDRESS BY MR. KRUTT 0|? 

tlie only aim. In Calcutta, very little was kuown of this portion 
of the globe. In 1887, an official wrote of them to his chief as 
follows: — "These details may appear petty to your Lordship, but 
"then everything connected with these States is petty, except their 
'•'annual surplus cost to the Grovernment of India." 

Although it falls outside the proper province of what concerns 
the Straits Settlements, I must add the following, as it is altogether 
in accordance with the later programme of the Eno^lish in this part 
of the globe. In 1842 James Brooke took possession of Sarawak 
and in 1846, Labuan was occupied by the English. There were 
incessant attempts made by individuals from the Straits to establish 
themselves in different points in our territory, just as James 
Beooke did in Sarawak, especially on the East Cost of Sumatra. 
These proceedings gave rise to much trouble, and on several occa- 
sions we were obliged to drive these fortune hunters by force from 
there. They frequently used as a pretext their ignorance of the 
boundaries of Acheen. 

A new period begun in the history of these places with the es- 
tablishment of the Straits Settlements as a Crown Colony. We 
have chosen this evening as a subject for further discussion the re- 
markable progress which this Colony has enjoyed in the last years, 
by which it has become the most flourisLing of all the English 
Crown Colonies, and the almost entirely peaceful growth of its in- 
fluence upon the Malay Peninsula. 

Let us now pass over the five years before the Straits Govern- 
ment interfered actively and formally with the affairs of the In- 
dependent Native States, and the policy of non-intervention made 
way for that of "active advice, assistance and control." 

The occasion for this was given by the piracies along the coast, 
the general insecurity in which British subjects and British inter- 
ests were placed, the state of anarchy, the wars between chiefs, 
the oppression, slavery, bondage, and poverty to which the people 
were a prey. Attacks upon vessels under the British flag occurred, 
and even upon the boats belonging to men-of-war, and upon Bri- 
tish Settlements. 

The knowledge that existed regarding the Malay Peninsula was 
then very small. The issue of the Journal of the Indian Archi- 
pelago had contributed somewhat to spread this knowledge, al- 
though this as well as other writings of this period dealt chiefly 
with our possessions, but after this publication ceased, nothing 
more was done during 20 years. The present Resident Councillor 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS &C. 29 

of Penang could say with truth in his address before the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society "a long night has since settled down upon the 
"Straits lasting some 20 years." The Straits Branch of the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society has since done a great deal to spread knowledge in 
this direction. A change in the right direction was due to the 
initiative of Sir A>'drew Clarke, who still could speak of "our 
"absolute ignorance of geographical and physical features of those 
''countries." 

Meanwhile it is very apparent that the English themselves 
troubled very little, after the time of Eaffles, about "humanity 
and civilisation," about which he was so hard upon us, and that 
with them, too, "trade and commerce" were the only "objects in 
view." 

"When we look at the map of the Malay Peninsula, we see 
between Province "Wellesley (opposite Penang) and Malacca, Pe- 
rak first, with a coast line of 80, then Selangor with a coast line of 
120 English miles, and the little State of Sungei L^jong with Jele- 
bu. Further inland, bordering Malacca, are the so-called Negri 
Sembilan, now consisting of six States. Between Malacca and 
Singapore lies Johor, with a coast line of 120 miles (English), and 
further up the East coast is Pahang. Under Siam, to the North 
of the Province is Kedah, with several other small States : and 
North of Pahang are Kelantan, Tringganu and Patani. Different 
agreements with England have given Tringganu, Kelantan and 
Kedah certain rights to British protection. 

The state of insecurity mentioned before resulted in several 
punitive expeditions by men-of-war, but this led to no permanent 
improvement. In 1871, on account of piracies and other acts of 
violence, the expedition from Langat took place, and in 1872 and 
1873, those at other places on the Jugra Eiver in Selangor. In 
five large districts, of which it then consisted, great discord, civil 
war, and anarchy reigned. All of these districts considered them= 
selves independent. The liasil was here, in general, the origin of 
disputes. The same condition of things prevailed in Sungei UjoEg 
which was also mixed up in these quarrels, and was, in addition 
continually at war with Eembau. Both of these States border up- 
on the territory of Malacca. Linggi was also in a state of inse- 
curity; also the more inland States, particularly Jelebu, Sri Me- 
nanti and Muar, were constantly in a state of arms against one 
another. All of these received criminal refugees and vagabonds 
from the Straits, and only gave them up on payment of ransom 



30 



ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 



The demands of British subjects upon their Chiefs met with no at- 
tention. The then Governor of the Straits, Sir Harry Ord, wrote 
in November, 1872: — ''If persons, knowing the risk they run owing 
•' to the disturbed state of these countries, choose to hazard their 
"lives and property for the sake of the large profits which accom- 
"pany successful trading, they must not expect the British Gcov- 
"ernment to be answerable if their speculations prove unsuccess- 
"ful." Things were as we found them in Acheen, aud these little 
States also provided themselves with weapons and even with com- 
batants from the neighbouring Settlements. 

The Chinese tin-miners in Perak, who had immigrated by thou- 
sands to different parts of the Peninsula, were especially the cause 
of great disorder; their tribes or hongsis had been for years in 
conflict with one another, with varying success, over the question 
of the possession of the tin mines. The Prince of Perak and his 
Chieftains had taken sides in the matter ; with them the question 
was who should appropriate the export duties. Thus the Mantri 
of Larut, then the richest tin district, where about 40,000 Chinese 
of the Go Kwan tribe lived, had declared himself, in 1871, in 
favour of these, and, by appropriating the rich revenues, had been 
able to make himself independent of the Sultan, who, in the inte- 
rior had allied himself with the more warlike Si Kwans. Battles 
in which, it is said, that more than 3,000 Go Kwans perished, 
brought the Si Kwans into Larut; they took possession of the 
forts and of the river; robbery, murder and assassination became 
the order of the day, and a general cessation of business and flight 
of population ensued. The Mantri who, among others, had English 
Officers in his service, was a prisoner in his own country and 
found himself shut in on all sides at Kotah, the then Capital. 

When these Si Kwans had been insolent enough to extend their 
devastations and plunderings beyond Perak, and even in Penang 
and its harbour attacks and hong si fights occurred, in 1873, their 
fortifications were taken and destroyed by the English under Cap- 
tain WooLCOMBE, and the Mantri came again into possession of 
his river. 

Thanks to the influence of the Straits Government, the only 
orderly State being situated in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Singapore was Johor. But even here disputes as to boundaries, 
&c. could not be altogether prevented. 

There was thus every inducement for the Governor, Sir Andrew 
Clarke, to interfere and to endeavour to put an end once and for 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 31 

all to this unsatisfactory state of things, and to prevent the Chi- 
nese from forming themselves, as it were, into independent colonies 
on the mainland. Their secret societies would be a danger to the 
British Settlements, and the inland Chiefs were quite unable to 
control them and to keep them under. Sir A^'deew Claeke said 
m the sitting of the Legislative Council, in September, 1874: — 
" Our mission as a civilized nation in the middle of semi-civilized 
'* people is not only that of trade, but the higher duty, which we 
" as Englishmen owe to our flag and our Queen. By the spread 
*' of other European nations in this part of the world our interests 
"also want a larger field of operation." 

After the punishment of the Chinese disturbers in Perak, he 
called the heads of the kongsis together to Pangkor and the result 
of this was that piracy and wars among the Chiefs ceased, and a 
year later Larut had again a population of 35,000 souls, and a 
revenue of $30,000 a month. Indeed, the Chinese were beginning 
themselves to have enough of it, and it only required a strong 
leading and organising hand to settle the existing differences. One 
of their Chief s was heard to exclaim at this time: — "When the 
" British flag is seen over Perak and Larut, every Chinaman will 
"go down on his knees and bless God." This was probably a Gro 
Kwan. 

Now an attempt had to be made to settle the differences of the 
Malay Chiefs in Perak. They too all came to Pangkor and their 
mutual relations towards one another and towards England were 
defined by the Treaty of Pangkor of the 25th January, 1874. By 
it Perak came under English protection, a piece of land in Perak 
on the other side of the Krian Eiver was joined to the Province, 
and the Binding Islands and a piece of the mainland on the Pang- 
kor Eiver under the name of the "Bindings" were joined to 
Pangkor, where now for the first time an English Settlement was 
established, at first under the authorities at Singapore, and after- 
wards and now under Penang. The different States had to pay the 
cost of the former armed interference. At the request of the Sultan 
of Perak, the Straits Government sent a Eesident there in 1874 
to lend the Native Government "active advice and assistance." 

Selangor and Sungei Ujong, too, placed themselves under British 
protection, after K" Langat, the place of residence of the Sultan 
of Selangor, having been punished again for the usual acts of rob- 
bery and some disturbances in the interior having been settled by 
the intervention of the Straits Government. 



32 ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 

British Eesidents were put in Selangor in 1874, and in 1875 in 
Sungei Ujong. 

These Eesidents were placed, and are still under the supervision 
and guidance of the Governor of the Straits, and are responsible 
to him. 

Meanwhile it was soon evident that this settlement with the 
Chiefs of Perak was only satisfactory on the surface. In Novem- 
ber, 1875, at Pasir Sala, the first Resident, Mr. Bircf, was treach- 
erously murdered, and the whole of Upper Perak rose against the 
English. The British Grovernment was compelled to send an im- 
portant expedition there in order to punish this crime and to res- 
tore order in the country. The Sultan was taken prisoner and 
banished, and another was appointed in his place. As there were 
at the same time appearances of disorder in Sungei Ujong and the 
Negri Sembilan, it was not till 1877 that it can be said that quiet 
and order returned to all these countries. 

It was then that the rapid development in progress and well-be- 
ing began, which has never since been disturbed by any resort to 
arms. 

In 1883, the then Governor Sir Eeederick Weld, after various 
preliminary discussions, induced the so-called Negri Sembilan to 
enter into an agreement and to place the Government under the 
protection and guidance of the Straits Government represented by 
a Resident. This was first carried into execution in 1887. 

The iudependent State of Pahang, situated to the North of Sin- 
gapore, refused stubbornly, till, 1888, to enter into a treaty with 
the Straits Government. The misgovernment and insecurity that 
prevailed there formed a marked contrast to the condition of things 
in the neighbouring State of Johor. On several occasions the re- 
lations between Pahang and Singapore itself were very strained, 
and the interference of France was once spoken of. However that 
may be, Pahang acknowledged the sovereignty of England in 1888 
and signed an agreement similar to that of Johor, which, in 1885, 
had come definitely under British influence. 

In 1892, serious disturbances took place in Pahang, which had 
every appearance of insurrection against the English, and led to 
the so-called Pahang war, which ended in the restoration of the 
former order of things. It is remarkable that almost exclusively 
Perak Police was employed against Pahang. 

There came no change in the relations with Tringganu and Ke- 
Jantan. The friendly influence of the English, through peaceful 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 33 

means, and through the example of the well-being of the Native 
States, is very great there. 

Outside the Straits, in 1880, a portion of North Borneo was oc- 
cupied by the recently formed "North Borneo Co.," and in 1888 
followed by a British protectorate over this portion of North Bor- 
neo, Brunei and Sarawak. The G-overnor of the Straits was then 
appointed Consul-G-eneral in these lands, just as the Eesident 
Councillor of Penang iS; for the so-called Siamese States on the 
West Coast of the Malay Peninsula. This, in view of the exist- 
ing ex-territorial rights, gives them great power over the thousands 
of Natives who call themselves British subjects, and at the same 
time over those States themselves, and, in my opinion, prepares 
the way for future annexation 

In 1885, England established herself in the Eastern portion of 
New Guinea. In 1886, she took possession of the Cocos or Keel- 
ing Islands to the South of Java, which were joined to the Straits 
and in 1888 of Christmas Island, which is also situated in the In- 
dian Ocean. 

It is my pleasant duty to add here that the Straits authorities 
have always maintained a most considerate and friendly attitude 
towards us, especially during the Achinese war. 

Let us now return to the Colony as it now is. It is impossible 
for any one who travels now through the Protected States of the 
Malay Peninsula and sees everywhere the outward signs of civili- 
zation and meets with an industrious, contented population, to pic- 
ture to himself what their condition was a short time ago under 
the Native G-overnment. Without any military assistance, the 
Residents have been able to bring their residencies to a flourish- 
ing condition and continual progress. Surrounded by a staff of 
able Europeans and Natives, they formed part of the legislative 
and executive power, the State Council, or rather, with their 
powerful personality, they alone represented it. Indeed the arti- 
cles of the above-mentioned Pangkor Treaty left great power to 
the discretion of these Residents, whose advice had to be sought 
and followed by the Princes in all questions which did not affect 
religion and custom, while the collection and control of the reve- 
nues, as well as the general government of the land, depended 
upon their advice. They were responsible for everything to the 
G-overnor of the Straits. 

The present Eesident of Perak has recently spoken of this as 
follows : — "I have spoken of the Residential system, but in real- 



34 ADDRESS BY MR. KRTJYT ON 

"ity there was no system, what there is now, has grown of expe- 
'' rience in attempting the untried. A British Officer acting under 
" the instructions of a distant Grovernor is sent to advise a Malay 
*' Ruler and his Chiefs. The Officer is told he is responsible for 
" everything, but he is not to interfere in details. His advice must 
" be followed, but he must not attempt to enforce it, and so on. 
"He must keep the peace, see that justice is administered, res- 
"pect vested interests, do his best for the State, and obey in- 
'• structions he receives from Singapore, and with all this he is at 
" peril to remember that he is only the adviser of the Malay 
" E^uler. Out of this difficult position has grown the present 
''administration." The Residents supported by the confidence of 
the Grovernor, have made use of their power with great tact. They 
took measures to further and extend trade, cultivation and indus- 
try, and to develop the resources of the country, to maintain order 
and justice, to facilitate communication by roads, railways and 
telegraph, and to improve the education and instruction, and thus 
the material and moral condition of the people. 

Sixteen years ago there was almost no roads : one had to travel 
on foot or by elephant, armed, and generally accompanied by an 
armed escort, and to take shelter in the best native house one 
could find. The whole population went about armed. Now there 
are everywhere to be found in all the States broad, hard, carriage 
roads, railways, and free Grovernment buildings, schools, hospitals 
and police stations, and these like all other works of evident 
utility are being continually extended. The population has in- 
creased, and security reigns everywhere. Slavery and bondage 
have completely disappeared, while it was calculated that even in 
1882, one-sixteenth of the population was still in slavery Armed 
Natives are now never seen. 

The development of the Protected and Native States was natu- 
rally accompanied by increased prosperity and progress in Penang 
and Singapore This was enhanced by the contemporaneous suc- 
cess of the Deli tobacco cultivation, the improvement in the tin- 
mining industry and land cultivation on the example of its neigh- 
bours, in Kedah and other small Northern States tributary to 
Siam. and the late opening for trade, industry and cultivation of a 
greater part of British and Dutch Borneo, of Palembang, Indragi- 
ri, the lihio Islands, Singkep, etc. 

What Singapore now is many of us know from our own observa- 
tion. Always extending and beautifying itself, with its splendid 



&c. 35 

harbour and docks, as a free port and centre of commerce, it draws 
towards itself more and more tlie fruits of tlie development of the 
surrounding countries. It stands in commercial importance on the 
same footing as Malta and Hongkong, and surpasses all the ports 
of the other Crown Colonies in importanc3. As the seat of Gov- 
ernment, and a strongly fortified " coaling station" — ships take in 
in JSTew Harbour from 1,600 to 1,800 tons of coal in four hours — it 
forms one of the most strategical points of the English, on the 
great highway of traffic between Europe, "British India, and East 
Asia. It may be seen from the following figures how greatly it 
has grown : — The population of the town and island, 27 miles broad 
and 14 miles long, amounted in 1819 to 150 Malays, in 1821 to 
nearly 5,000 souls, in 1871 to nearly 100,000 and in 1891 to 
185,000. The amount of import and exports was in 1823, 
812,000,000, in 1860 $51,000,000, and in 1890 had risen to 
8200,000,000. 

The shipping wdthout counting the numerous Native coast ves- 
sels, amounted in 1879 (earlier figures are not at my disposal) to 
4,443 ships with a tonnage of three millions, and in 1891 to 8,339 
ships with a tonnage of nearly seven millions. 

Penang, which also profited from the development of the coun- 
tries in her neighbourhood, increased as much in size, prosperity 
and well-being. The population of the town and island, 15 miles 
long and 9 miles broad, amounted, with Province Wellesley, in 
1786 to 600 Malays, in 1812 to 27,000, in 1871 to 133,000, and in 
1891 to 235,000 inhabitants. The amount of imports and exports 
was in 1790 8240,000, in 1867 820,000,000, and in 1888 
395,000,000. The shipping rose from 1,900 ships with a tonnage 
of 970,000 in 1872, to 3,400 ships with a tonnage of 1,765,000 m 
1878, and 6,078 ships with a tonnage of 3,500,000 in 1890. It 
seems, to put the mildest construction upon it, to be a gross error ■ 
to say that the trade of Penang has seriously suffered through the 
Achinese war. This complaint has several times been made to the 
English Grovernment by Penang agitators, and unfortunately has 
been supported by some of the authorities. Sir Feedeeick Weld 
said in a lecture at the Royal Colonial Institute in London on the 
loth June, 1S84 : — "The pepper trade of Penang with Sumatra 
'•'has suffered most seriously from the Acheenese war." 

Malacca, which up till the present day has preserved its Portu- 
guese-Dutch features, remained a station of less importance. It 
was thrown upon its own resources, and made but slow progress. 



36 



ADDRESS BY MR. KRUTT ON 



The development of the Negri Sembilan and of Paliang by the 
construction of a railway will probably result to her advantage, in 
view of the fact that there are no good ports in Pahang Its popu- 
lation in 1817 was 20,000, in 1871, 77,000, and was in 1891, 92,000. 
The trade in 1826 was $1,590,000, in 1860 $4,600,000, and in 1889 
nearly ^5,000,000. The shipping consisted in 1878 of 1,173 ships, 
with a tonnage of 340,000, and was improving somewhat, but not 
much. 

Although Penang and Singapore thus took an important position, 
the Protected Native States afforded a no less remarkable spectacle 
of progress. 

Let us begin with Perak. Its population was at first estimated 
at very different figures, but we may take it that, without counting 
the wild tribes living in the forests and which were reckoned to 
comprise 6,000 souls, the Malay population amounted to from 
25,000 to 50,000, to which later 40,000 Chinese were to be added. 
In 1891, this had risen to 213,000, of which 100,000 were Malays. 

The Eevenues, arising chiefly from export duties and from the 
farms, amounted in 1875 to $226,000, and increased continually 
till they reached in 1891 the figure of 2|^millions. The export duties 
upon tin are very high, and amount to from 12 to 15 per cent. 
There seems to be an inexhaustible supply of this metal. More 
than two-thirds of the tin of the whole world comes from the 
Straits. The output amounted in 1892 to 636,000 pikuls, repre- 
senting a value of about 24 million dollars. 

After paying all its debts, and the costs of the war to England, 
after having constructed roads and railways, and after having car- 
ried out all the other works of public utility and general advan- 
tage, Perak still possessed on the first of January, 1891, a cash 
surplus of ^2,000,000. It possesses among other things an excel- 
lent little force of 1,000 Sikh soldiers under English Officers. 
Eour hundred of these, almost unaided, brought the Pahang war 
to an end. On receiving sudden orders, they were, in the space of 
one hour, ready for marching, and remained four months in the 
wilds of Pahang, without one of them having to be sent back 
during that time on account of illness. The figure for export and 
import was in 1876 one-and-a-half million dollars, ten years later, 
m 1886, fifteen, and in 1891 it had risen to 18i millions. Perak 
possesses excellent ports in Port Weld (in Larut) and I elok Anson 
on the large and deep Eiver Perak. Both of these are the termini 
of the existing railways to the tin districts. 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 37 

In 8elangor, wliicli in 1891 had a population of 140,000, the 
number was 30,000 in 1879, and the Eevenues, which in 1875 
amounted to a.bout $100,000, had risen in 1890 to nearly two mil- 
lions. The duties upon tin and the farms contributed chiefly to 
this. Gold mine workiogs are also found here, and more agricul- 
ture than in Perak. It is for this reason that the economical con- 
dition of this country is supposed to be healthier than that of 
Perak. Trade here increased in the same proportion, and you find 
here in other respects the same favourable state of things as in 
Perak. Selangor had on the 1st January, 1887, still a debt of 
$500,000, and on the 1st of January, 1891, a cash surplus of 
1720,000. The port of Selangor is Klang, the terminus of the 
railway to the capital of the country, Kuala Lumpur, which is 
situated inland. The Klang Hiver is shallow higher up, and there 
is for this reason a proposal to extend the railway to the Kuala, 
and to make a new port there. 

Of fSungei Ujoug and the Negri Sembilan, with respective po- 
pulations of 24 and 40 thousand (the latter having come so much 
later under British protection), there is not much to say, except 
that, with the construction of railways and roads, by the help of 
advances from the Straits Government, the exploiting of tin and 
agriculture promises them (especially the last mentioned) a good 
future. Jelebu, one of the Negri Sembilan, which is rich in tin 
mines, was, in 1885, joined to Sungei Ujong, which possesses little 
mineral wealth, and is thus thrown more upon agriculture. It 
(Sungei Ujong) had formerly not 4,000 inhabitants The revenue 
in 1886 was $120,000, in 1887 $141,000 and in 1890 had risen to 
$278,000. On 1st January, 1891, it still owed the Colony $190,000. 
The port of Sungei Ujong is Port Dickson, with a splendid and 
safe harbour, from which a railway leads to the capital — Seram- 
ban. 

The Negri Sembilan had, in 1886, an income of scarcely ^2,500, 
which, in 1890, had risen to $170,000. On the 1st of January, 
1891, it owed P80,000 to the Colony. They are thus just begin- 
ning, but are on the right way. 

Pahang, which possesses rich gold mines, with a population of 
35,000, had, in ] 890, an income of $62,077 and a debt to the Co- 
lony of $372,000, to which are to be added the cost of the last 
war. 

It remains only to mention Johor. This little State with its 
population of about 100,000 under its enlightened and energetic 



38 ADDRES BY MR. KEUYT ON 

Sultan, surrounded by a capable staff o£ Europeans, has derived 
every advantage from its position in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Singapore. Chinese capital and labour have been attracted 
there and have brought it to a state of great prosperity and wealth, 
especially through the cultivation of pepper, gambler and tapioca, 
as minerals are not found there. The Sultan stays a good deal in 
Europe, and returned a short time ago from England. 

I can add here that the Chinese, who have done everything un- 
der British guidance, and still do so, are the pioneers of progress 
in the Malay Peninsula and in the Settlements. Sir Chaeles Dil- 
KE says of this in his "Problems of Greater Britain": — "Our great 
"' success in the Malay Peninsula has lain in enlisting upon our 
" side the warm and ever enthusiastic co-operation of the Chinese. 
" In no part of the world can v^^e point to more obvious results 
" from good government than throughout the Malay Peninsula, 
" where England, in fact, presides over a federation of Malay 
" Princes, to whom we have taught the art of success, but to whose 
" former subjects we have added a vast population of Chinese. 
"The future of Malaya lies in the development of great natural, 
" mineral and agricultural wealth by patient Chinese labour." 

This is the case too in Kedah and in the more northern Siamese 
States, in some of which Penang Chinese have been able to get 
themselves appointed Eajas. Chinese, too, are members of the 
Legislative Council, of the Municipal Councils, and of the State 
Councils. There can be no doubt as to the future of the Malay 
Peninsula, outside the towns of Penang and Singapore, under an 
enlightened and liberal-minded Government. 

"We have seen that in the Native States, and also in Kedah, the 
tin industry has been the principal one of the country up till now. 
However, considerable experiments have been made in the cultiva- 
tion of rice, pepper, sugar, tapioca, gambler, tobacco, coffee, tea, 
cocoa, etc., but by far not on a sufficiently large scale to be regard- 
ed as a permanent form of cultivation. This can be said of the 
islands of Singapore and Penang, and of the districts in their im- 
mediate neighbourhood — the Province, Malacca, Johor and Kedah 
— as regards sugar, pepper, gambler and tapioca; in Perak too the 
cultivation of sugar may be regarded as permanent, but the Straits 
planters have much to learn from Java as regards cheap and in- 
creased production. Cheap transport, local markets, and a low rate 
of exchange are factors in their favour. Arabian and especially 
Liberian coffee has been started in all the States. Perak tea has 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS_, &C. 39 

been very favourably judged in the London market. Pepper is 
planted everywhere on a small scale; tapioca grows especially in 
Sungei Ujong and the Kegri Senibilan. Experiments with silk 
worm binding have been made in Perak, and are said to have given 
good results. Experiments with tobacco, on the other hand, have 
not been successful. Coco-nuts, betel-nuts, fruits, especially pine- 
apples, the preserving of which has become a considerable industry, 
and vegetables are cultivated everywhere and supply chiejfly local 
requirements. 

In the Straits Settlements, one-third is cultivated, and in the 
Native States scarcely one two-hundredth part. There is thus an 
abundance of waste land waiting to be developed by capital and 
enterprise. The Goverument does its best to encourage this, being 
convinced of the desirability of obtaining a more permanent form 
of revenue from agriculture, in view of the uncertainty of tin, the 
supply of which must some time be exhausted. This has already 
happened, for instance, in Larut. The income from the opium 
farm is also dependent upon the tin mines. Land can be obtained 
everywhere. The first pioneers in the Native States received pieces 
of land of 1,000 acres (one acre- is about If houws) quite free. 
Those who came later paid a rent of 20 cents an acre after the 
second year, for opening up the land, or three dollars per acre at 
once, which made them owners of the land. The Government can 
demand 2\ per cent, as export duty upon the produce. 

The population of the English part was in 1891, 512,342 for the 
three Settlements; for the Native States with Johor 518,644; thus 
about 1,000,000 in all. 

The area of the three Settlements is 1,310 English square miles, 
and of the Protected States 35,509 square miles. There are thus 
in the three Settlements, counting the towns of course, nearly 400, 
and in the States only 15 inhabitants to the English square mile. 

From this it may be seen that the Malay Peninsula is thinly in- 
habited, and but little cultivated. By far the largest proportion of 
this population consists of Chinese, who live at the mines, in the 
cultivated districts, and especially in the towns along the coasts. 
Fishing is practised by them on a large scale, and is an important 
means of existence, and a considerable branch of industry. 

Malays live further away from the towns, and supply, just, as in 
Deli, the daily necessities of the industrial centres, among others 
ataps and other building materials for the East coast of Sumatra. 
Cattle rearing is also in their hands, and is a very considerable in- 



40 ADDEESS BY MR. KEUTT ON 

dustry, while formerly jungle produce was collected and exported 
by them on such a large scale that it degenerated into depredation. 
In Perak, for instance, the export of gutta had to be forbidden to 
prevent the further destruction of the gum trees. In Perak and 
Kedah there is an old population settled there centuries before 
Europeans came. In Selangor and Sungei Ujong, and especially in 
the Negri Sembilan, much younger settlements are to be found. 
They are chiefly from Java, Borneo, Celebes, the highlands of Pa- 
dang, Batta, Koriutji, Jambi and elsewhere in Sumatra. Two-thirds 
of the Malay population of these States were originally Nether- 
lands Indian subjects. In the beginning of the 18th century a set- 
tlement of Bugis from Goa in Celebes established themselves in 
Selangor. 

If agriculture is to be extended as in the case of mining, labour 
must be imported, chiefl}^ Chinese and Kling, and this is the great 
difficulty. The Groverument accordingly spares no pains to meet 
the planter and assist him in this respect. However, as long as the 
tin mines last, the Chinese will prefer that kind of work, just as 
is the case with tobacco on the East coast of Sumatra. 

The Grovernment of the Straits Settlements depends directly, as 
we have seen, upon the Mother-country, and is carried on by a 
Governor appointed by the Queen, supported by a Legislative and 
Executive Council. The majority of the members of the Legisla- 
tive Council — the ''Official members" — are so by virtue of their 
position. They form the Executive Council. The unofficial mem- 
bers, who form the minority, are private individuals, and are partly 
nominated by the Government and partly elected by the Chambers 
of Commerce. All bills, all important Government measures, as 
well as the budget, are laid before the Council and dealt with, and 
must, after approval, be sanctioned by the Government of the 
Mother-country; although the official members nearly always vote 
with the Government, and the opposition can thus have but little 
influence in any other direction, still its existence has this indis- 
putable advantage, that all Government matters are treated, dis- 
cussed and decided upon publicly, and this compels the Govern- 
ment to consider carefully what it brings forward, and abstain 
from everything that will not stand the test of publicity. 

Young officials, after passing an examination in England, are 
sent out as "Cadets" to the Straits, and are there employed in 
most of the Government positions, except legal, military, and some 
technical ones. The Judges come from other places. The Colony 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 41 

does not possess its own army or fleet. The Colony pays a fixed 
contribution towards the support of the garrison of the Straits 
which belongs to the English army The men-of-war of the China 
squadron visit from time to time different parts of the Colony, 
whenever it is necessary or desirable. The excellently organized 
Police, with European officers and staff, consists of Europeans,. 
Sikhs, and Malays, and fulfils ail requirements. 

In Penang and Malacca, the Government is represented by Ee- 
sident Councillors, and though the Governor occupies this place in 
Singapore, affairs are usually managed, to a certain extent, by the 
Colonial Secretary, who is the highest official after the Governor. 
Under these are Magistrates, Collectors and District Officers, who 
with all others except the Municipal officials are nominated by the 
Governor. The paid Presidents of the Municipal Council are ap- 
pointed by the Governor, just as the Eesidents are in the Native 
States. One-half of its members are appointed by the Governor, 
and the other h ilf elected by the voting members of the com- 
munity. 

The officials in the Native States are appointed by the Sultan 
after consultation with the Eesident. The budgets and laws in 
these States have to be sanctioned only by the Governor. The 
Police are under the direct orders of the Resident. 

The Revenues of the Colony, which are contributed to by the 
three Settlements alone, and are derived from the farms, especially 
for the sale of opium, stamp fees, land rents, harbour and port 
duties, fines, &c., amounted in 1868 to about one-and-a-half, and 
in 1890 to four million dollars. At the end of 1891, the Colony 
possessed a surplus of two and a quarter million dollars of which, 
it had but one-and-a-half million as advances to Municipal bodies 
and Native States. 

The Municipal revenues reach about the following amounts 
yearly: —Singapore, $500,000; Penang, 1300,000; Malacca, $30,000. 
They are derived from assessment of houses, local land rents, taxes 
upon vehicles, horses and dogs, the letting of Municipal property, 
such as markets and sheds, and finally the proceeds of passes, 
licenses, certificates, water rates, &c. 

From these are paid the salaries of the Municipal Officials, the 
contributions to the Colonial Police, the cost of the keeping up of 
buildings and other institutions, the public roads and bridges, 
draining and cleansing, street lighting, the fire brigade, &c. 

We have thus in the immediate neighbourhood of our posses- 



42 ADDRESS BY ME. KEUYT ON 

sions (where also changes in administrative matters, and decentra- 
lisation are being prepared) a remarkable instance although upon 
a small scale, of administrative and financial decentralisation which 
works successfully — a central Government with central revenues 
and budget for the whole Colony, with tliree Municipal adminis- 
trations for Singapore, Penang and Malacca, and the five separate 
Governments of the Protected States, besides the State of Johor, 
which is independent as regards administration and where every- 
thiug also goes as well as one can wish. 

Still neither here all is perfect, and complaints occur. The 
Settlements complain that the Protected States do not contribute 
directly to the Colonial Treasury, although they enjoy the advan- 
tages which are derived from the order of things that has been 
called into existence through the agency of the Straits Settlements. 

This is still less the case with Johor. It is probable that these 
States will, after some time, either be incorporated in the Colony, 
or will form with it a federation. Circumstances, too, such as the 
recent complications between France and Siam, may soon lead the 
way (which is already prepared) to the annexation of the Siamese 
Malay States, from Kedah to Mergui and Tringganu with Kelantan 
all of which are rich in gold and lead. In a speech to the Legis- 
lative Council in Singapore in 1887, Sir Feederick Weld, while 
discussiDg the policy of the last years, said: — "This policy will 
*' extend itself from Burma southwards, and from Pahang north- 
awards until in includes the whole Peninsula and embraces also 
"those dominions which are now nominally under Siam." 

Other parties, for instance, in Penang, insist upon a further 
separation in matters of administration, so that the contributions 
of one Settlement towards the central Treasury may be employed 
more in and for that Settlement than is the case at present. Out 
of the central revenues are paid the expenses for salaries and pen- 
sions of officials, the cost of the military garrison, the expenses of 
Justice and Police, the medical service, education, harbours, coast 
lights and beacons, roads and bridges outside the Municipality, 
gaols, hospitals, schools, Government buildings, Colonial vessels, 
etc., etc. Penang pretends that Singapore, the lion town, also 
gets the lion's share, much m.ore than is proportionate to her con- 
tributions. Thence in Penang a cry for Home E-ule. It may be 
seen from this, that however much decentralisation there may be 
there will be always parts which consider themselves placed in a 
disadvantageous position with others. 



THE STBAITS SETTLEMENTS^ &C. 43 

That many affairs are better arranged by our older Colonial 
Grovernment tban by our English neighbours, is recognised by Eag- 
lishmen of authority, for instance, by Ken'sington (1892), Money 
and Boys. I need only mention the government of the ^N'atiye 
population through the direct agency of their chiefs — a system 
that is followed in the Native States. 

A bonus of $500 has recently been offered to any officials in the 
Straits who learn and shew a knowledge of oar language, ia order 
to make the Dutch Colonial literature more accessible to the English. 

But there is, I think, also something for us to learn ; from our 
neighbours, especially now when we seem to have arrived at an 
epoch of transition, and therefore I think it would be advantage- 
ous if our officials were to go there a little more than they do now, 
and enquire into and compare the state of things there with that of 
our own Colonies, and if such visits were not only facilitated but 
also encouraged. The new regulations on leave are already a step 
in that direction. 

They would remark, among other things, how the advancement 
of British trade is the chief aim with every Grovernment, in the 
Straits or elsewhere, wherever the British flag waves, and that 
every governing official, however much he may talk of ''humanity 
and civilisation," devotes his attention in the first place to this. 

Trade has been the chief factor in making the greatness of that 
''G-reater Britain" that Sir Chaeles Dilke has sketched for us. 

Every official is impregnated with this idea, and nothing strikes 
an observant and unbiassed visitor to the English Colonies so much 
as the zealous and indefatigable devotion of all, each in his own 
circle to the furtherance of this greatness of the British Empire, 
even when such endeavours are frequently made at a sacrifice of 
personal interests and comfort. 

This is the cause of the great national pride that Englishmen 
possess, which may appear silly and narrow to the foreigner, but 
fills them however with that prodigious self-confidence, which leads 
to great deeds. 

This British Empire forms a body of which England is the heart. 
Whatever forms of Grovernment the different parts may assume, 
as regards the important points of protection, free trade/ Imperial 
federation, still every man in England follows with interest the 
events in these parts, and every one outside of it thinks with love, 
reverence and pride of his "old England" and always goes back 
there. "We might well learn that from them. How oftea do we 



44 ADDRESS BY MB. KBFYT OH 

hear the Motherland spoken o£ depreciatingly and ungratefully in 
the Colonies? "What little interest again, do most Dutchmen show 
in Colonial matters? 

Thanks to the circumstance that young people in England are 
not unnecessarily crammed with all sorts of learning, but try to 
acquire what is useful for a definite sphere of work, so that most 
of them are behind other nations in so-called general development 
they have always time for healthy exercise, for their "sport," and 
thus become accustomed to privation, are strong, hardy, enterpris- 
ing, sober, and little given to sensual enjoyment, pleasure-seeking 
or excessive sentimentality. 

Thus in different English Colonies may be seen how old and 
young, high and low, ladies and gentlemen, and even natives, take 
part in this "sport," and how the courage, strength, agility, dext- 
erity and "pluck" of their European rulers excites the admiration 
and especially the sympathy of the Natives. 

Indeed the intercourse between the higher and lower grades in 
both the official and military classes is quite different to what it is 
with us. There is much more mutual confidence and comradeship 
in it, more good nature, if I may so speak. The same may be 
observed in the intercourse with the Natives. There is one law 
for all without distinction of race or religion, and it is quickly 
acted upon. 

Good officials in the Straits are kept as long as possible in the 
same posts, and when they go on leave, which occurs frequently 
(so that they keep touch with the Mother-couDtry, and do not be- 
come Indians) the post is generally filled up by an actio g officer 
until they return. They are thus altogether intimate with the 
duties attaching to that post, and are quite absorbed, in the interest 
that are entrusted to them, which they can and often do watch 
during their leave, Erom 1878 to 1889 there was one Itesident in 
Perak, 8ir Hugh Low, and from 1885 to 1890, I knew four different 
Besidents in the much more important Eesidency of the East Coast 
of Sumatra; they had no time to become duly acquainted with the 
country. 

In conclusion, I must finish with a word that has no direct bear- 
ing upon the subject under discussion, but which, I feel, I must 
not leave unsaid. 

The same policy that Sir E. Weld described as the goal to be 
aimed at on the Malay Peninsula is consolidating itself also in 
North Borneo, in New Gruinea, and is surrounding our Archipelago 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 45 

elsewhere with a girdle of English possessions. 

This and other circumstances mentioned in this paper should re- 
mind us as a small nation, but with rich and large Colonies, and as 
the second colonial power of the times in which we live, to caution 
and urge us to move with the times. 

In our East Indian possessions, where there are such great re- 
sources, and there is such a rich field for work, we shall, I think, 
accomplish better results, if we recognize more generally, that the 
time is past for maintaining our power by artificial means, and if 
we give our governing oflScials (especially those outside of Java) 
opportunities, each in his own sphere, to act more independently 
and thus, with the means at their disposal in their sphere, by de- 
centralization, to further the development of the immeasurable re- 
sources of the country, to the good of the population, and the wel- 
fare of the Mother-country. 

This can then be, in the words of Mr. yan Gennep, in the sit- 
ting of the First Chamber of the 28th December, the beginning of 
a new period, of which we may expect the best results in the fields 
of politics, economics, and finance. 

Steam and electricity have abolished distances. The press dis- 
cusses everything. The JN'atives know what occurs elsewhere and 
thus as a Madurese Chief once expressed himself "by building our 
forts in the hearts of the Natives" we can strengthen ourselves 
and meet the future with confidence. 



46 ADDRESS BY MR. KRUYT ON 

DISCUSSION 

ON 

Mr. Gr. E. V. L. van Zuylen. — As none of the gentiemen pre- 
sent seem disposed to discuss any of the points raised in Mr. 
Kruyt's excellent address, may I be permitted to ask the honour- 
able reader of the address one question as to a matter of detail, 
viz., how matters stand at present as regards the digging of a can- 
al through tbe Isthmus of Krah? There were two plans in con- 
nection witb the isthmus — one to dig a canal through it, and the 
other to construct a railway for ships across it as has been done in 
Canada. Is either of tbese plans still spoken of ? ^ 

Mr. Keijyt. — I believe the plans have been given up. Any- 
thing of this kind would not be in accordance with the interests of 
England, and as the influence of England there has greatly increas- 
ed it is not likely that the scheme will be brought into prominence 
again. There is a Chinese Eaja there who is Penang born and a 
British subject. He will take good care that nothing happens that 
can be in conflict witb the wishes of the British. 

Mr. VAN Zuylen. — I ask tbe question, as I imagine that if the 
canal were dug it would be a matter of no small importance to us. 

Mr. KiiUYT. — I agree with you that it could be of some import- 
ance to us. 

Mr. P. J. VAN HouTEN. — I should like to ask Mr. Keijyt the 
following question. "What does the honourable gentleman think 
about Pulau Web? Can this port attain to any importance? 
Could it in future be detrimental to Penang and Singapore ? I 
doubt it myself. It is useless to make of it a coaling-station for 
Ombilien coals which cannot be employed in every kind of steam- 
ship traffic. It is necessary therefore to bring in the first place 
Newcastle and Cardiff coals there suitable for long voyages. This, 
however, can only be done at a great cost, as transport to Pulau 
Weh would be dearer than to Singapore, because in the latter port 
ships would be sure of getting a cargo. This would not be the case 
n Pulau Weh. I do not therefore anticipate much in the future 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 47 

for Pulau Weh. Is tliat opinion shared by the honourable gentle- 
man ? 

Mr. Keutt. — I also do not anticipate any great future for Pu- 
lau "Weh. The first condition necessary for the development of 
Pulau Weh is wanting. First of all an orderly state of things in 
Acheen must be established, and then with careful management — 
it being of course taken for granted that there is a coaling depot 
there — the pepper trade of Acheen might gradually be concentrat- 
ed there. It is of course a matter of indifference to the Chinese 
whether they sell their pepper at Penang or at Pulau Weh, pro- 
vided they get a proper profit. But the Achinese ask for more. 
They do not go to Penang to sell alone, but also to buy. They 
take this opportunity of making a little journey. A journey of 
this kind to Penang is a pleasure-trip ; they go to the tvai/anc/, to 
the Malay comedy, and to other places. When they are able to 
find all this at Pulau Weh, it might become the central port for 
North Sumatra. Would Pulau Weh then become an important 
port for European ships ? 

The only foreign ships to whose interest it might be to take coals 
at Pulau Weh at dearer prices are the Russian and Prench men-of- 
war and perhaps some tea-steamers as the island lies in a better 
position than Singapore as a half-way place on the route between 
Europe and North China. I do not believe, however, that Pulau 
Weh will ever become the trade emporium that some people im- 
agine. 

Mr. YAN Ztjylen. — If I have understood you rightly, you mean to 
say that if Achinese affairs are put in a better state this port might 
be one of importance for North Sumatra. 

Mr. Keutt. — Yes, if the business is taken seriously in hand and 
the circumstance is not lost sight of that the Achinese must find 
the same facilities and the same treatment as he has always met 
with in the Straits. 

Mr. W. Elout yan Souteewojs'de.— If I venture, Mr. President, 
to put a question with reference to one of the many subjects 
touched upon by the honourable gentleman, I must first say that 
his excellent address has interested me in the highest degree. One 
subject touched upon by him especially struck me, viz., the pros- 
perous condition of the Chinese in the Straits and their influence 
there. We have heard that Sir Chaeles Dilke in his "Greater 
Britain" praised the Chinese for having been the means of develop- 
ing the Straits and we have been told of a Chinaman^ born in th^ 



48 4PI>-RB^S BY MR. KEUYT ON 

Straits, who has become a Raja of one of the Native tribes. Now 
I should like to hear from the honourable gentleman, especially 
with regard to the opium-farm, if the influence of the Chinese is 
about the same in his opinion over the Natives as it is in Java. 
Further, I should like tc ask if the other farms are in the hands 
of the Chinese, and if the Government has ever experienced any- 
trouble from the presence of the Chinese in the Straits in such 
large numbers. If T am not mistaken it has been more than once 
necessary to take active measures against the secret societies? The 
Chinese have, I believe, in the Straits their own chiefs to a certain 
extent, but I gather from what Mr. Kruyt has told us that they 
have the same position as regards the Courts of Justice as Euro- 
peans. I should very much like to be further enlightened upon 
this matter. It is, Mr. President, certainly somewhat indiscreet 
on my part to put all these questions, but the Chinese seem to be 
so much better received on the Peninsula and so much more favour- 
ably judged than in other places they have gone to, that it would 
be most interesting to learn something more on the subject. 

Mr. Krutt. — The Chinese in the Straits are perfectly free ex- 
cept the Chinese secret societies, which are under strict surveil- 
lance. Those who do anything contrary to the regulations in this 
matter are dealt with very severely, and the leaders are often 
banished to China. The farms are all in the hands of the Chinese. 
The native Malay population is small compared to the Chinese. 
The Chinese are not under their own chiefs, but are under the same 
laws as the rest of the population. The Chinese have a high sense 
of their own worth. I have often observed that people from our 
Colonies, for instance, naval officers and officials, were annoyed 
that the Chinese did not shew them a sufficient politeness, for ins- 
tance, that they did not make way for them. I have always found 
the Chinese most polite, but it depends upon how one treats them. 
They possess, and one should not forget this, a feeling of equality. 

The authorities in British India and in the Straits would not 
like to see the opium revenues decrease, as these form the most 
important source of revenue and if they fell off the whole financial 
system would fall into confusion. In Penang, there is a Chinese 
bank. The only European who is there is one of the junior clerks. 
The bank is in prosperous circumstances, due, most likely, to the 
activity of the directors. The Chinese are from early morning till 
late in the evening on the spot, while Europeans open late and 
clo^e early. If you come to their place after closing-time; you hear 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 49 

very soon "Come to-morrow, the office is open at 10 o'clock." 
The Chinese look on Penang and Singapore as Chinese places, the 
administration of which is left to the English. 

Mr. G-. A. DE LATiTGE. — Do the Chinese live in different quarters ? 

Mr. Keuyt. — No. 

Mr. Elotjt tan Sotjteewonde. — Are otherj farms besides the 
opium farm in the hands of the Chinese? 

Mr. Ketjtt. — There are in the Straits somewhat the same farms 
as we have — gambling, pawn-houses, spirits, etc. All these are in 
the hands of the Chinese. 

Mr. T. H. DEE KiisTDEEEN. — I should like to hear from the honour- 
able gentleman something as to the legal position of the Chinese, 
not only in Penang and Singapore, but in the whole of the Straits 
Settlements where they form a considerable portion of the popula- 
tion. Are they under the English law as regards civil matters as 
well as regards criminal law? How are they situated particularly 
as regards their personal rights? For instance, by what restric- 
tions and rules are their marriages governed? How do they stand 
as regards their laws of inheritance ? Are their own customs and 
institutions, as they are in China, followed, or are the Eno-lish 
laws adhered to? 

Mr. Keuyt. — The civil and criminal law is the same for all; all 
come before the same Judge. The place is full of lawyers. The 
Chinese are, by nature, fond of litigation. For a trifle, for a fowl 
that is not worth a guilder, they will run to a lawyer and pay 
$50 to fight the matter out. As regards marriages, etc., Chinese 
customs are adhered to, but there is an institution there that is 
unknown in Java, viz., the Chinese Protectorate. The Protector 
of Chinese, is as it were, the head of the Chinese. Assisted by 
a good staff, he looks after everything that concerns the Chinese, 
for instance, in matters connected with the rights of inheritance 
in which Chinese customs are followed as far as they do not con- 
flict with the usages of civilised nations. This is a good institu- 
tion. 

Mr. DEE KiNDEEEN. — There are then no special Judges for Na- 
tives and Chinese? 

Mr. Keuyt. — No. 

Mr. DEE KiNDEEEN. — How is justice administered in the States 
where a liesident is at the head of affairs? 

Mr. Keuyt. — The State Court is there with a Chief Magistrate 
and in smaller places there are District Courts with Magistrates 



50 ADDRESS BY ME. KRUYT 01^ 

at tlie head supported by Native assessors. There, justice is ad- 
ministered according to the same laws and regulations as in the 
Straits, but with reference to ^^adcif and religion. In this res- 
pect, Natives and Chinese are on the same footing as Europeans. 

Mr. DEE KijS"deee:n-. — Is the adoption of children regulated by 
law? Are the usages of China followed? 

Mr. Ketjtt. — I cannot say that. I know there are Chiuese 
who adopt children but I do not know what the laws are as re- 
gards the adoption of children. 

Mr. YAN HoFTEN. — Mr. President, there is still another ques- 
tion that I should like to ask the honourable gentleman. It is 
said that three-fourths of the trade of Penang is with Sumatra. 
That is perhaps exaggerated on our side, but if half of it is with 
Sumatra it is important enough, and for that reason I should like 
to ask the honourable gentleman if, in his opinion, it is not pos- 
sible to divert a part of that trade to our territory by making 
either Belawan or Telok Semawe free ports, so that we could have 
great depots where ships could unload, and what was sold could 
be shipped to the different districts in the neighbourhood. 

Perhaps other means might be found and employed, as the por- 
tion of Penang is naturally very strong. The commercial houses 
there are now firmly established and have a fixed business with 
all kinds of steam and sailing vessels; they have their agents and 
correspondents everywhere, so that it will be difficult to win trade 
away from them. However, I think the matter is worth some ex- 
ertion, as we should get not only the export trade into our hands 
but the import trade too, which is certainly not less important. 

Mr. Keutt.^ — Pepper can certainly be brought elsewhere. Since 
the establishment of the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Paketvaart- 
maatschappij, a step has been made in that direction, where the 
freights are not opposed to it. It is established that cheap freights 
are the most important factor in this matter, and now that the 
ships of the Paketvaartmaatschappij visit the whole island of Su- 
matra, this is, in a great measure, in their hands. Trade gen- 
erally goes where it is served most quickly, most easily and most 
cheaply. Where these factors exist, viz., cheap, quick and easy 
dealing, there will trade certainly be attracted. As soon as ar- 
ticles can be obtained as cheap and as goi . from Batavia as from 
Penang, they may be brought from there to Deli. The creation 
of free ports will, I believe, be of little assistance. The declar- 
ing of Belawan to be a free port will not divert trade. Many 



THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, &C. 51 

years must pass before trade can be diverted. The great advant- 
age of the ports in the Straits is that they are centres of trade, 
and that they lie on the great highway of traffic and close by. 
IS'o day passes without ten, twelve or fifteen steamers going in 
and out of Penang and Singapore. 

Mr. VA?s" HouTEX. — After the last answer of the honourable 
gentleman, I may observe that I do not see any great objection 
to the low import duties levied at our Indian custom-houses — 
one can always leave wares in the depot — but I think that at all 
places where custom duties are levied the formalities which one 
has to comply with during importing and exporting prevent trade 
from being drawn thither. 

Mr. Keutt. — The journey from Belawau to Batavia lasts three 
or four days, and if there were need for it more steamers would 
soon be put upon this run. As soon as the planters in Deli can 
provide themselves as well and as cheaply from Batavia they will 
probably get things from Java. But this condition does not ex- 
ist at present. The nearer ports in the Straits offer also greater 
facilities in other respects. 

The President. — As no one wishes to make any further re- 
marks, I close the meeting with a vote of thanks to Mr. Keuyt 
for his interesting and instructive address. 



Aturan Sungei Ujong, 



This is the orig'in of the AYaris Sungei Ujong- in their two 
branches, that is to say, the "Waris di Darat and the Waris di x\yer. 

A Sultan of Johor had three children — the eldest a daugh- 
ter, the second a son, and the third a daughter. 

The eldest Princess had a son, to whom was given the title 
of Bendahara. The Prince succeeded his father as Sultan, and 
had sway over three kingdoms. The younger Princess had two 
children: the elder, a son, was given the title of Temenggong, 
and founded the State of Muar. The younger, a daughter, mar- 
ried her cousin the Bendahara, and bore a daughter, named To' 
Tunggal Titek. The Tungku Bendahara, with his wife and 
child and his five chiefs, came to Kuala Linggi. These were the 
(titles of the) five chiefs. First, the Dato' Eaja Mambang ; 
2nd, Sri Maharaja Chulan ; 3rd, Paduka Raja ; 4th, To' G an tarn 
Saribu ; 5th, Panglima Besar Laut. Now when the Bendahara 
had ascended the river as far as Sempang Kembau he debated 
with his five chiefs as to how they should proceed, and while 
they were discussing, some sugar cane refuse and a head of ja- 
gong (Indian corn) came floating past them. Then said the 
Tengku Bendahara : ''There must be inhabitants up the left branch 
of the stream ; let us ascend it; " so he gave the order, and they 
ascended the river to Pengkalan Durian, where they made fast 
their prahu, and landed and followed a beaten track till they 
were close to the Batin's house. 

WOi^j, Tengku Bendahara then proceeded to fire a shot from his 
gun, and hid himself in the jungle. The Batin hearing the shot 
came out to see where it came from, but seeing no one, returned 
to his house. The Bendahara then fired three shots more and 
again concealed himself. The Batin came out as before and 
seeing no one he cried out, ''AYho is this that has fired twice and 
" lemains invisible? Come out, whether he be man or spiiit, and 
" thou shalt be my master " (Penghulu). When the Tengku Ben- 
dahara heard that, he came out at once and presented himself to 



54 ATUKAN SUNGEl UJONG. 

the Batin, The Batin looked at him, and prostratmg himself 
said : " my lord, you shall indeed be my Penghulu." So the 
Batin went with Tengku Bendahara to his prahu where they 
feasted and ate and drank. And when the Tengku Bendahara 
asked him, the Batin said, " My name is Saribu Jaya and 1 am 
" the Penghulu of all the Jakuns in this country." So the Teng- 
ku Bendahara, after he had remained there a while entertaining 
the Batin, asked the Batin to lead him up-stream to some place 
where he could make a settlement. The Batin gladly consented 
to accompany him, and they went further up the river to Silian. 
There the Tungku Bendahara built an Istana, and many people 
came to pay their respects to him, and the country was named 
Sungei Ujong. And the Tengku Bendahara married his daugh- 
ter Tunggal Titek to Raja Mambang, who was of the Benor(?) 
people. 

They had live children — the eldest of whom was Penghulu 
Silian; the second, Penghulu Salat; the third, a daughter, named 
Dato' Semarga ; the fourth, a son, named To' Mohamad Jumbu 
who was styled Penghulu Klambu ; and the fifth, a daughter, 
named the Dato' Sri Mani. 

Xow after a time the Tengku Bendahara sent for the To' 
Batin, and thus spoke to him : " U my brother, I have sent for 
'vyou because I desire to leave to you the care of my children 
" such as they are. You know them, and, my brother, treat 
" them not other than your own children and teach them." The 
To' Batin prostrated himself and said, " I will carry out whatever 
" my lord has ordered." Then the Tengku Bendahara sailed away 
to Pahang and returned no more, and from the time of his going 
the To" Batin ever continued to look after the children and 
grandchildren of Tengku Bendahara. Penguin Silian returned 
to the Mercy of God and was buried at Silian. His brothers, Peng- 
hulu Selat and Penghulu Klambu sent for the To' Batin Saribu 
Jaya to come to Sungei Ujong, and when he had come, Penghulu 
Selat said : "0 nenek (grandfather), I hare sent for you be- 
" cause I desire to seek some other place to live in. Help us to 
" find some other favourable place." The Batin replied " I will 
" go with you wherever you desire." Then Penghulu Selat and 
Dato' Klambu and Dato' Semarga, and Dato' Sri Mani went up the 
river till they came to Eahang. Ihere they determined to settle, 
and the To' Batin returned to Peugkalau Durian, And after 



ATUHAN 8UNGEI UJONG. 55 

Peng-hulu Selat and Dato' Klambu had made a settlement at Ra- 
hang- many of the Jakun people came to them and were received 
into the faith of Islam and many traders also visited them. The 
Dato' Semarg-a, sister of Penghulu Selat, was married to an Achi- 
nese from Pasi who was styled Dato' Rambutan Jantan. From the-e 
came three children: the first, Dato' Kling-; the 2nd, a daug-hter, 
named Dato' Dara Darani; the 3rd, a daug-hter, styled Dato' Pinang- 
Panjang- Rambut. The Dato' Sri Mani, who married Perdana 
Amping-, having- no children, adopted the Dato' Pinang- Panjang 
Rambut as her daug-hter, and lived at Ampangan. Penghulu 
Selat made a settlement at Setul, and married the daughter of a 
Batin. They had no children, but Peng-hulu Selat adopted a 
Jakun of his wife's family, who had adopted the faith of Islam, 
as his son and g-ave him a place in his house. When Penghulu 
Selat returned to the Mercy of God Most High his adopted son 
inherited all his kampong- and other property. He married and 
his descendants multiplied. Xow as to Dato' Klambu, on a certain 
day he went to Sempang- Ampat, near Beranang-, and there he 
saw a Jakun woman, the daughter of Batin Raja, the Jakun 
Penghulu. Her name was Ma' Seraya and she found favour in 
the eyes of Dato' Klambu. He asked the Batin to give her to 
him in marriage, and, with the Batin's consent, took her to Rahang, 
where he married her and she adopted Islam. They had three 
children : the first, a son named Jintek ; the second, a daughter, 
named Dara ; the third, a son, named Musang. 

One day the Dato' Klambu sent for the To' Batin Saribu Jaya, 
and To' Batin Mambut, and Nenek Jenang ; and when they had 
come he thus spoke to the two Batins : " I have sent for you, 
Nenek, to cc.nsult you about the titles and dwelling-places of my 
children and ray " anak buah," the children of Drito' Semarga. I 
am going to send all my children to live at Pantai Layang, and to 
appoint Jintek to be Penghulu for all of them that dwell in the 
country of Batin Mambut, and one of my nephews (anak buah) 
shall be Bandar to govern all who live in the country of Batin 
Saribu Jaya." Then Dfito' Klambu enquired what were the boun- 
daries of the Batins' countries, and the Batins told him. " From 
" Jeram Jipon, Bukit Sepam, Ginting Paung towards the ulu as 
" far as Bukit Bukan ; the hills and valleys (Gaung Guntong) be- 
" longed to Batin Mambut ; and from there downstream to the sea 
" belonged to To' Batin Sribu Jaga." Dato' Klambu said, " Be it 



56 ATURAN SUNGEI UJONG. 

" SO, but my children (by the Batin's daughter Ma'Seraya) and 
"my 'anak buah' (relations on the male side) will have hence 
" forth their separate districts. If there is ever any question 
" that concerns the whole country, they must consult tog-ether, 
" and not act separately. Also, the Raja, who shall be guided by 
"jthe ' adat Temenggong,' must be from Johor." 

Then Dato' Klambu fixed the titles and dwelling places of his 
descendants, and the Batins returned each to his own place. His 
children were taken by the To'Batin to Pantai Layang and were 
looked after by the Old Man (Nenek) Jenang. In course of time 
Diito' Klambu returned to the Mercy of God Most High and 
was buried at Rahang, and the place is named Klambu even to 
this day. 

Penghulu Jintek married the daughter of To' Alun Tujoh, 
and Dato' Musang married the daughter of Batin Mambut, and 
Dato' Dara married the son of Nenek Jenang. 

Now after the death of Dato' Klambu, Penghulu Jintek 
addressed the Bandar as follows : " By the dying directions of 
" our father, Dato' Klambu, we are to be vassals of the kingdom of 
" Johor; what is to be done, brother?" So they consulted, and 
finally Penghulu Jintek went to Johor, and the Bandar Kling, 
remained in charge of the country. When Penghulu Jintek got 
to Johor he presented himself before Sultan Abd-el- Jalil, who 
declared as follows : " The four Penghulus of Sungei Ujong, Johol, 
" Naning and Jelebu are no longer subject to me, for I have trans- 
" ferred my authority over them to the Raja of Menangkabau. Let 
" the four Penghulus address him." Then the Sultan explained to 
Penghulu Jintek how he came to transfer his suzerainty to 
Menangkabau : " On a certain day a man came to present a 
" nangka (Jackfruit) to my father the Sultan at Kota Tinggi. On 
" the way he met the wife of Mokeh Segama, who being great with 
" child, desired the nangka, and asked for a piece of it. He gave 
" her a little of it, and then went on, and presenting himself before 
" my father, asked him to accept the nangka. My father accepted 
" it, and then saw that the nangka was not a whole one. 'What is 
" this' ? he said, ' how does this nangka come to have a piece out of 
" it? ' ' my lord,' the man said, ' this is nothing, only that the wife 
" of, Mokeh Segama being great with child, wanted some nangka 
" and asked your slave for a little, and your slave being sorry for 
" her gave her a little. my lord, have mercy on your slave and 



ATURAN SUNGEI UJONGf. 57 

'' forg-ive this offence/ When my father heard that, wrath arose 
" in him, and he ordered the wife of Mokeh Segama to be arrested. 
" So they went out and searched for her, and brought the woman 
" before my father, and my father ordered her to be cut open. And 
" they had her cut open according* to my father's order, and they 
" found the child in her womb holding the nangka with both hands. 
•' It was also dead, and they buried them with the usual rites. 
" Now when this happened Mokeh Segama was away, and on his 
" return my father summoned him to his presence. Mokeh Segama 
" presented himself before my father who said to him ' I have 
" sent for you, Mokeh Segama, to announce to you that I have 
" caused your wife to be cut open because she took a piece out 
" of my nangka.' Mokeh Segama bowed low and said '0 my 
" lord, I am beneath your feet, and whatever the justice of my 
" lord has ordered, to that do I bow my head.' Then the Mokeh 
" Segama asked leave to withdraw himself. 

" It fell on a day after this that my father was going to bathe 
" in state accompanied by his chiefs and Mokeh Segama and a 
" retinue suited to his dignity, and while he was on the way Mo- 
" keh Segama attacked and stabbed him on the leg. The white 
" ( royal ) blood was shed, and thus he died, and returned to the 
" Mercy of God. Then Mokeh Segama ran amok and threw 
'' himself upon our people. Many perished and many were wound- 
" ed in the fighting that followed. I myself was nearly overcome, 
" and sent for assistance to the Raja of the Buggis and the Raja 
" of Menangkabau. Both of them came, bringing their people 
" and munitions of war, and made war against Mokeh Segama 
" who was at lengh captured and put to death, and his followers 
" sc attered. Now after the capture of Mokeh Segama, the men 
" of the Raja Buggis and the Raja of Menangkaban's men fell out 
" over the division of the spoil. The Buggis men said they had 
" captured Mokeh Segama and the Menangkabau men said they 
" had. And becoming enraged in the dispute, they ran amok, 
" and many men were slain and wounded. I, therefore, sent word 
'' to both the Rajas to withdraw their people, as they were violat- 
" ing the laws of my country ; so the two Rajas withdrew their 
*' people, and put an end to the disturbance. For this reason I 
" made concessions to the two Rajas. To the Raja Buggis Igrant- 
'' ed the sovereignty of Rhio, because his rule is over the sea. 
" To the Raja of Menangkabau I granted the four countries of 



58 ATURAN SUNGEI UJONG. 

" &ungei Ujong", Johol, Naning and Jelebn, because he is an in- 
•' land Raja. And I myself, in succession to my father, ascended 
" to the Rajaship of Johor. The two Rajas retired, each to his 
" own country, and thus it is that the four States have been hand- 
" ed over to Menang-kabau, and the four Penghulus must go and 
" present themselves before the Raja of Menang-kabau." 

After this, Penghulu Jintek returned to Sung-ei Ujong* and 
held a consultation with the other three Penghulus. They 
decided to do as Sultan Abdul Jalil had advised, and sent an 
Ambassador to the Raja of Menang-kabau. The Ambassador 
departed, and while he was away Peng-hulu Jintek died and was 
s.ucoeeded by Penghulu Musang-. 

Now when the Ambassador reached Menangkabau he was 
refused audience by the Raja. He, therefore, went to Siak and, 
presenting- himself before the Raja of Siak told him what Sultan 
Abdul Jalil had said. So the Raja of Siak, brought the Ambas- 
sador with him and presented him to the Raja of Menang-kabau. 
And when the envoy had humbly declared the objects of his 
mission, the Raja of Menangkabau ordered that it should be done 
as the four Pengbulus wished, and added that if they would adopt 
his customs he would himself visit their country. 

Then the envoy was sent back, and the Raja of Menangka- 
bau promised to send one of the Rajas under him to the coun- 
try of the four Penghulus. So the envoy returned to the four 
Penghulus and related what had occurred, and the four Penghulus 
issued a Proclamation to all their people : "Our allegiance to Johor 
" is broken. We are vassals to the Raja of Menangkabau and 
" our ties (bertali) are with the State of Siak." And each depart- 
ed to his own country. 

[n due time after this, Raja Kasah came from Menangkabau, 
sent by the Raja of that country, and the four Penghulus received 
him. He was unable, however, to introduce the laws of Menang- 
kabau as the four Penghulus desired. At this time Bandar Kling 
died and was succeeded by Bandar Saleh. After Rajah Kasah, 
came Raja Adil. He fixed his dwelling-place atDanan Boya where 
the four Penghulus and the Bandar went to pay their respects 
to him and to ask him to introduce his laws. He also was un- 
able to revise the customs of the country, and the four Penghulus 
and the Bandar each went back to his own State. Penghulu 
Musang died, and was succeeded by Penghulu Kadim, during 



ATUKAX SUNGKI UJONG. 59 

the Bandarship of Bandar Saleh. After this, Eaja Adil went 
back to Menangkabau and was succeeded by Raja Khatib. He 
also did not know how to introduce new customs. And the four 
Penghulus w^ere amazed and said : " The Raja of Menangkabau 
" promised he would grant us a Raja who would establish his laws 
" in the four countries ; now we have had three Rajas who have 
" done n')thing at all." Then Raja -Khatib went away and after 
him came Raja Malewa, who established himself at Penajih in 
Rembau. Penghulu Kadim died and was succeeded by Penghulu 
Bertatah, the Bandar being Bandar Locho. 

Raja Malewa subsequently went to Jelebu and dwelt beside 
a certain river, and sent for the four Penghulus. The four Peng- 
hulus and the Bandar set out in obedience to the order of the Raja, 
and having arrived at a certain hill, they halted and held a con- 
sultation as to what Raja Malew^a could want with them. Then 
they proceeded on their w^ay, and the name of that hill is now 
Perhentian Terhimpun, because the four Penghulus and the Ban- 
dar assembled there. 

And when they had reached the presence of the Raja he 
addressed them as follows : — " \Ve have been commanded by 
" the Raja w^io is at Pagaruyong to visit the Dato' of these coun- 
" tries and we have been commanded to establish there the law 
" of Menangkabau, that is, the law of To' Perpateh. Now, Dato', 
" do you wish to adopt these laws or not r " The four Penghulus 
and the Bandar replied : " We all desire the custom of To' 
" Perpateh." Thus was the law laid down by Raja Malewa. 
In the first place, it was ordained, that a man who marries should 
refer as to his wife's property to his wife's relations (tempat se- 
munda). Secondly, in case of divorce, the property must be di- 
vided ; the wife's property to be returned (to her family), what 
remains, to be divided between the two. Thirdly, he who 
wounds shall be wounded, he who kills shall give a life in com- 
pensation (mati berdendang.) Fourthly, inheritance shall not 
be through the children (but through the brother's childien), 
and the waris (heirs) on the female side shall succeed in turn 
(bergelar). Fifthl}^ compensation (balasan) shall not le 
sought from a man's children but from his blood relations on the 
wife's side. AVhen Raja Malewa had declared the alove laws 
he enquired of the Penghulu Rumah Bertata and Bandar Locho 
from whence they derived their origin, and the Penghulu related 



60 ATUKAN SUNGKI UJONG. 

to him his history, as has been stated. " my lord, I am a 
" grandson of Penghulu Klambu, and ray brother the Bandar is 
" grandson of Dato' Semarga. The Dato' Klambu and Dato' Se- 
" marga were brothers, and the children of Dato' Klambu inherit 
'' the Penghuluship, while the children of Dato' Semarga inherit 
" the Bandarship. They rule separately. From Jeram Chipan, 
" Bukit Sepam, Ghinting Paung to the Ulu is under my authority, 
"from there down to the sea belongs to the Bandar. This is 
" clear and understood by each. In any matter that concerns the 
" whole country, I must consult with the Bandar, not act without 
" him. This is a tradition handed down from my ancestors." 

When Kaja Malewa heard this and understood that there 
were two branches of the Waris Sungei Ujong — the descendants 
of Dato' Klambu and of Dato' Semarga — he named one the 
" Waris di Darat" and the other the " Waris di Ayer." 

lie also conferred titles on the four Penghulus. The Peng- 
hulu of Sungei Ujong he styled " Orang Kaya Klana Petra 
Petrakutuan." He so styled him because he was of Kaja origin, 
and settled that if the Rajaship of the four countries should ever 
be uutilled, the Klana should act in place of the Kaja for the time 
being. The Penghulu of Johol he styled " Orang Kaya Mentri 
Johan Pahlawan Leila Perkara." The Penghulu of Naning 
became " Orang Kaya Maharaja Murah," and the Penghulu of 
Jelebu " Manek Mentri Akirzaman." The Bandar alone received 
no new title. 

Then llaja Malewa desired the Klana and the Bandar to 
appoint chiefs amongst the Waris to exercise authority under 
themselves. They held a consultation and finally selected a 
grandson of Dato' Sri Mani, and a grandson of Dato' Semarga. 
The former received from the Paja the title of "Mandika," as a 
Lembaga (chief) under the Klana ; the later was styled "Maha- 
raja di Kaja," as Lembaga of the Waris di Ayer. These titles 
are handed down amongst the respective Waris. 

Kaja Malewa also conferred insignia on the four Penghulus 
and the Bandar, viz., 2 spears ( benderang ), 2 swords, 2 long 
krises, 2 tongkuls, 2 pajar machin siang, 2 ular-ular, 2 flags, and 
authorised them to fire five guns on State occasions. 

To the Lembaga he allowed the same insignia as above, but 
they may only fire three guns and no more. Having conferred 
titles and insignia, Raja Malew aconfirmed each of the four Peng- ^ 



ATURAN SUNGEI UJONG. 61 

hulus in the government of his own country, nor did he impose 
any taxes, reserving- only certain dues to himself as suzerain. 
He directed that in the event of any war or disturbances the 
Penghulu should refer to him. 

Raja Male wa then returned to Penajih in Rembau, and when 
he had arrived there the Penghulus and the Bandar met (again) 
in conference, and elected Raja Malewa to be their Raja with 
the title of " Yam Tuan.'' They invited him as Tam Tuan to 
live at Sri Menanti, and Rembau became known as the " Tanah 
Karaja'an" ( the Raja's country ), while Sri Menanti was the 
" Tanah Mengandong " (the Raja's abode). 

When the Klana Rumah Bertatah had returned to the Mercy 
of God Most High, he w^as. succeeded by Klana Badur in the Ban- 
darship of Bandar Bangkit. In course of time Raja Malewa 
returned to Menangkabau, and in his stead came Raja Lenggang 
to dwell in the Istaua of Yam Tuan Raja Malewa. The four 
Penghulus met and elected Raja Lenggang to the Yam Tuauship 
in succession to Raja Malewa. 

Raja Lenggang married, and the name of his son was Raja 
Radin. And^when Raja Lenggang died the four Penghulus assem- 
bled and elected his son Raja Radin to succeed his father as 
Yam Tuan. Now Raja Radin having become Yam Tuan, another 
Raja named Sati came from Menangkabau in order to t^ucceed 
Raja Lenggang as Yam Tuan. The four Penghulus refused to 
receive him, as they had already elected a Yam Tuan of the 
Raja stock of Menangkabau. Ihen Raja Sati was wroth and 
had recourse to arms. In the fighting that ensued he v^as de- 
feated and tied, and the son of Raja Lenggang was estallibhed 
in the Yam Tuanship. Since that time there has been no other 
Raja from Menangkabau. 

Bandar Bangkit died and was succeeded by Bandar Mogah. 
Now the Yam luan Rajah Radin paid fiequent visits to JSungei 
Ujong, and used to halt for the night at Parui in bungei Ujong. 
He was displeased that there was no one there to provide him 
with lodging and food and drink, so the Klana and the Bandar 
consulted together to apoint a Penghulu Bagang for Parui who 
should attend to the wants of the Yam Tuan in his journeys to 
and fro. Having consulted they appointed as Penghulu Bagang 

the grandson of Batin Ghalong, CAj^) and for his sulsisteiic^e 



62 ATUKAN SUNGEI UJONG. 

allowed him to collect taxes on the produce of the district — fowls, 
and ducks, and goats and buffaloes, and tin, etc., etc. 

Klana Badur died and was succeeded by Klana Leha in the 
Bandarship of Bandar Mogah. It was the Klana Leha who con- 
sulted with the i^.andar about appointing chiefs to have authority 
under the Dato' Mendika and the Dato' Maharaja di Kaja. They 
appointed the Dato' Mentri and lato' Leilah Bang^ea, and Dato' 
Ma'raja Leilah and Dato' Johan, and Dato' Eaja di Muda, each 
to l)e head of his respective suku ( tribe ) in the Waris di Darat. 
'i he Bandar appointed, under the Dato' Kaja, the Dato' Si Ma'raja, 
the Dato' Paduka Eaja. and Dato' Pangliina Besar (for the Waris 
di Ayer). Now^ when in time the Klana Leha had returned to 
the Meicy of God, the I ato' Mendika took counsel with the 
I'ato's under him, and without consulting the Bandar or the Dato' 
Eaja, they chose Klana L'ahi to succeed Klana Leha. Upon this 
the 1 ato' Ma'iaja di Eaja went to the 1 ato' Bandar, and the Ban- 
dar Laving oicered him to make inquiries, he went to Pantai to 
question the lato' Mendila. " Who has elected the Klana?" he 
eaid, and the J ato' Mendika answeied "Klana Bahi has been 
electtd." To this the Lato' Eaja replied " A^ ait, Diito' Mendika, 
till the gi:ns aie ready," and then departed. 

Soon after this, cue day when Klana Bahi had gone to bathe, 
Kawal api eaied at his hoi.se ar.d asked the Klana Bahi's wife 
to sh'ow him the Klana's seal. The Klana's wife fetched the seal, 
and while she \\as sLowirg it to him, he snatched it away, and 
made away with it straight to the lato' Eaja. The Dato' Eaja 
took it to the Bandar who theieupon oideied that Kawal should 
be made Klana. This was done, and Kawal was declared Klana 
and pi oceeded to Pantai. A fight ensued, in which Panglima 
Besar Badji Saleh was wounded in the aim by a bullet. By the 
intervention of the I ato' Eaja, a meeting was arranged between 
Klana Bahi and Klana Kawal, and hostilities were suspended. 
Finally, Klana Bahi retired in anger to Setul, and shortly after- 
wards he died there, and no one was afterwards elected Klana in 
his stead. Now Klana Kawal appointed his younger brother 
ramed Sindarg to be Lalxsanana with the same rank of Pang- 
hma Betar, and he was the fir>t Laksan ana in the State. The 
Laksamana is the first of the Klana's officers, and the Panglima 
Eesar is the first of the Bandar's (kepala juhak). And because 
the descendants of the adopted sou of PeDghulii SaJat had he- 



ATURAN SUXGEI UJONG. 63 

come numerous, the DAio' Klana and the Da to' Bandar consulted 
what should be done with them. They named them the Waris 
Si Silah because they were not the direct descendants of Peng-- 
hulu Salat, but only by adoption. They inherited the titles of 
To' Batin, and To' Leila Perkara, and To' Datar. The To' Batin 
was their Penghulu or Undang and had jurisdiction over the hills 
and valleys of the deep forest. The To' Leila Perkara and the 
To' Datar were their Lembaga, and ruled the cultivated kam- 
pongs and fields (kampong yang bersudut, sawah yang berlo- 
pak.) It was ordered that they should appear with the Dato' 
Mendika to pay their respects ( to the Klana ) at the Hari Raya, 
and should any quarrel or disturbance arise which they might 
be unable to settle they were to refer the matter to the Dato' 
Klana and the Dato' Bandar. On the occasion of the Klana's 
feasts or ceremonies they were expected to provide saffron and 
pepper and yams and kladi, and other jungle produce for his use. 

When the Klana Kawal died he was succeeded by Laksamana 
Sindang' — whose title was assumed by Sayid Abdulrahman, in the 
Bandarship of Bandar Nuggal, whose Panglima Besar was 
Ahmed. 

Klana Sindang was succeeded in the Klanaship by Laksamana 
Sayid Abdulrahman and Raja Hussein became Laksamana. 
Shortly after his appointment, Klana Sayid Abdulrahman visited 
Singapore, and on his return he held a meeting of the Dato' 
Bandar, and the Lembaga and the Waris of both branches, and 
thus addressed them : " Our country is small, and our means of 
" defence are little. It were better, I think, for us to make friends 
" with the English and to take shelter under their flag ; we would 
" then live in security and fly our own flag in peace." The Dato' 
Bandar made answer : •' If this is what is going to happen it is 
" against my wish. It is not according to our constitution to take 
" shelter with the English. We are vassals of the Yam Tuan of 
" Sri Menanti, and the question must be referred to him." So 
nothing was settled, and the chiefs separated. 

After this, while the Klana was seeking for some way of 
carrying out his wishes in the matter, a letter came from the 
Governor in Singapore, to request that the Klana would not 
allow^ Raja Mahmud and his people, who were hostile to the Raja 
of Selangor and Tunku Kudin, to enter Sungei Ujong, and to 
say that the Governor would not be responsible if anything 



64 ATURAN SUNGEI UJONG. 

happened in consequence of such a proceeding. 

The Dato' Klana according-ly informed the Dato' Bandar 
of the Governor's wishes and the Dato' Bandar replied as follows : 
" It is indeed true that Raja Mahmud is an enemy of the Raja 
" of Selangor and of Raja Kudin and has been driven from the 
" country by them, but he having come to this country as a 
'' stranger, is it proper that we should turn him out who has done 
" us no harm ? " 

This letter filled the Klana with anger, and he summoned 
the Pantai Lembagas and the Dato' Raja of the Waris Ayer, and 
Panglima Besar Ahmad [the present Dato' Bandar. — R. B.] and 
thus addressed them, when they had presented themselves : — 
" I have sent for you because I have received a letter from the 
" Governor asking me not to give shelter to Raja Mahmud, who 
" is an enemy of the Raja of Selangor. I have requested the 
" Dato' Bandar to cease doing so, and he has refused to obey my 
*' order. Now I ask for your advice what is to be done. If we 
" continue to shelter Raja Mahmud, we will most certainly have 
" to fight Raja Kudin — and I think it will be better for us to have 
" Raja Mahmud as an enemy than Raja Kudin. Raja Mahmud 
" is being supported by the Dato' Bandar, and it seems to me that 
" we had better make the Panglima Besar here Bandar. If a 
" Bandar has to be supplanted, it should be by a Bandar, a Klana 
" by a Klana." Then the Dato' Klana appointed Panglima Besar 
Ahmad as Dato' Bandar and told hira that he might have to 
fight with the other Bandar. The Panglima Besar (Ahmad) 
replied that he gladly accepted the office that the authority of 
the Klana had conferred upon him according to right and custom, 
and asked that a written confirmation of his ancient rights, as 
between Klana and Bandar might be granted to him. This was 
agreed to and a written letter of agreement* was given to 
Panglima Besar Ahmad who was then formally appointed to be 
Bandar. Shortly after this, the Klana and Bandar Ahmad and 
all the Lembagas commenced operations against the Bandar, but 
for some ten or fifteen days nothing happened. Then the Bandar 
sent Raja Mahmud to attack the house of the Dato' Klana, and 
Raja Mahmud nearly took it — most of the Klana's people having 
run away — but before he had taken it, an order came from the 
Bandar to Raja Mahmud not to destroy the Klana's house that 
* This letter has been seen by me. — R, N. B. 



ATURAN SUNGEI UJONG. 65 

day ; so Raja Mahmud returned home. 

Eaja Mahmud having" retired, the Klana sent a letter to the 
Governor asking for assistance from Singapore. This having 
been obtained, the war against the Bandar was renewed, and 
not long after, the Bandar tied to Singapore and Raja Mahmud 
with him, and both were detained there. 

After this came the war with Sri Menanti. The cause of 
this was that when Tengku Antar became Yam Tuan of Sri 
Menanti, the Dato' Klana refused to recognise his authority over 
Sungei Ujong and thus incurred the Yam Tuan's displeasure. 
He attacked Sungei Ujong, but in the end he was defeated and 
compelled to fly, and from that time there has been no Raja over 
Sungei Ujong. 

The Dato' Klana Say id Abdulrahmau went to Mecca on a 
pilgrimage, and died there. He was succeeded by Dato' Leilah 
Setia Mohammad Usuf. He, after some time, was compelled to 
resign because he did not adhere to the ancient customs of the 
State, and was succeeded by the Klana Mamur, who is Klana at 
the present time. 

The following are the chiefs who, under Malay rule, were 
entitled to share in the State revenues. The Klana and the 
Dato' Bandar had the right to collect dues (import and export) 
in their own markets. The Dato' Si Maraja collected at Liat. 
The Ditto' Kanda (Laksamana) at iVmpangan. Panglima Besar at 
Ranak, and the Waris Pantai at Sikamat. Each collected his own 
dues. The Lmggi dues were divided into three parts, one went 
to the Dtao' Klana, one to the Dato' Bandar, one to the Dato' 
Muda and his Waris. The share of the latter was obtained 
because it was the duty of Dato' Muda to collect all the Linggi 
taxes. The poll tax of $1 a year on all Chinese went to the 
Klana only, while the taxes on all boats went to the Dato' Ban- 
dar only ; the tax was $3 on each boat. The Panglima Besar 
levied taxes on the road to Lukut, 15 cents a man. The Waris 
(di Darat and di Ayer) had a right to taxes on the produce of their 
respective lands. 



This information relative to Sungei Ujong has been collected 
for me by Haji Bakar, whose title is Dato' Maraja, a Lembaga 



66 ATURAN SUNGEI UJONG. 

of the Waris di Ayer, by order of the Peng-hulu Haji Abdulrah- 
man, Peng-hulu in the District of Labu. 

R. N. BLAND, 

Officer in charge at Kwala Pilah in the 
Negri Sembilan, 
March, 1895. 



THE DATO' MUDA OF LINGGI. 67 



A 

The Dato' Muda of Linggi. 

A little has hitherto Veen stated about the Dato' Muda of 
Liugg-i. I add the following note* : — 

The lower part of the Linggi seems to have been left 
mostly to the " Orang Eayat" or Jakun, under their Batin, till 
towards the close of the last century. About the year 
1783 a colony of Buggis from Rhio settled there under live 
headmen, during the war between the Raja Muda of Ehio 
(Kaja Haji) and the Dutch. Their kampong was Permatang 
Pasir, about ten miles from the mouth of the River, some four or 
five miles above Sempang Linggi. One of the five headmen, 
Inche Ahman, was appointed by the Klanaas Ketua'an Kampong, 
and afterwards received the title of Dato' Linggi. The Dato' of 
Rembau had nothing to do with this Settlement. The settlement 
of Langat people at Kuala Linggi did rot take place till much 
later — about 1833. A Rembau man named Che Mohamed Katas, 
married one of the 1 ato' of Linggi's darghters, and settled in 
Linggi, at Pengkalan Kundong above Pengkalan Pasir, with one 
llaji Mohamed. About 1824 Dato' Ahman died, and Che Moham.ed 
Katas was appointed DTito' Muda Linggi bj' the Klana — probably 
with the consent of the Penghulu of Rembau. There has been 
since no Dato' of Linggi other than the 1 ato' Muda. There aie 
two branches of the A\ aris — the AVaris Liu and the Waris Solok — 
from which the I'ato' Muda may be elected. 



Adat Sungei Ujong. 

The folluMirg is the order of ceremonies to be obt^erved by 
the AVaris di Darat and the AA'aris di Ayer of Sungei Ujong at the 
Hari Ray a. 

* Taken chiefly from Ne\v£ou>. 



68 ADAT SUNGEI UJONG. 

As regards the Waris di Darat : — 

On the 30th day of Kamathan, the Lembaga, and the Dato' 
and the Waris, and the Orang Dagang (Foreign Malays) living at 
Pantai, if they desire to slaughter a buflalo, shall bring the same 
to the Klana's house, and, having slaughtered it, shall present a 
portion (ramik-ramik daging bertundok) to the Dato' Klana and 
some of the steak to the Chiefs and Lembagas present without 
requiring payment. This having been done, the buffalo meat may 
be sold. 

On the 30th of Ramathan, at two or three o'clock in the 
afternoon, the L>ato' Klana shall fire the five guns allowed to 
him as insignia of his rank in order to warn all inhabitants of 
the country that the next day will be Hari Kay a. When these 
signal guns have been fired by the Dato' Klana, the Dato' Men- 
dika shall fire three guns, and then all the other Dato' shall reply. 
At five o'clock next morning five guns shall be fired, as a signal 
that that the Dato' Klana is going to bathe, accompanied by the 
Laksaiuana and the officers of his retinue (juhak) bearing the two 
bendeiong, the two swords, the two long krises, the two um- 
brellas, the two tunggul, the two pajar machin, and the two 
ular-ular. When the Klana has bathed, five more guns shall be 
fired, and then the Klana shall return and all his chiefs and 
officers shall pay their respects to him. 

On the 1st of Shawal, at 7 or 8 in the morning the Dato' 
Klana goes to offer up the " sunat" prayers at the mosque. Five 
guns aie fired and he is accompanied by the Laksamana and all 
his offi'cers carrying the State insignia. W hen the prayers are 
over five more guns are fired and the Dato' Klana returns and pro- 
ceeds to read Kotubah at the Telaga (well). Ihis Telaga is at 
Inche Zeinab's house, and he is accompanied by the Lembaga, 
and all the chiefs and elders and his officers bearing the insignia 
of State. When he arrives at the house where the Telaga is, 
he is greeted with five guns, and invited to sit and read the 
Kotubah. When that has been done, five more guns are fired, 
and the Dato' Klana returns to his house, and the people who 
are with him separate. 

On the 3rd of Shawal, the Dato' Mendika, the Dato' Mentri, 
the Dato' Raja di Mud a, Dato' Johan, Dato' Leilah and the Dato^ 
Dagang bring their people, men and women, (to pay their res- 
pects). The Dato' Mendika carries one benderong (spear with 



AD AT SUNGEI UJONG. 69 

tuft) as bis insignia, and the Dato' Johan one benderong, so 
also tlie Dtito' Leilah. The other Dato's have no insignia. They 
march in procession with guns, and when they approach the 
Klana's house, the Klana's officers, bearing a spear (benderong) 
come out to meet them and salute the insignia borne by the Dato' 
visiting' the Klana. Five guns are fired, and all are invited to 
come up into the Klana's house. The Laksamana enters to pay 
his respects, and is invited to take a seat near the Klana on the 
raised dais. The officers stand on the right and left of the 
Klana, holding the swords and long krises and spears unsheathed. 

The Dato' Mendika first approaches the Dato' Klana to do 
reverence in the ceremonial manner. He squats in the manner 
known as "bersila" and also on his knees (telimpoh) raising his 
hands joined together to the level of his nose and doing, obei- 
sance with them five times towards his front, and five times turn- 
ing backwards. When the Dato Mendika has performed this 
ceremony, the other Dato's rise and go through it in turn, then 
the Waris and any of the men present who desire to pay their 
respects. 

When all the men have finished, the Laksamana invites the 
Klana to the inner room where he takes his seat on a raised 
pile of mats and cushions (kabesaran) and all the women present 
pay their respects to him in the same way as the men. AYhen 
all is over the Klana comes down from his raised seat and five 
guns are fired as a sign that the Klana has held his levee. 
Food is provided for everyone, and when the eating is over, 
five more guns are fired and everyone prepares to leave. When 
this has been done, people are free to pay ceremonial visits to 
their relations for a space of seven days. 

Between the 4th and 7th days, the Dato' Akir of Rantau, the 
Dato' Dagang of Parui, the Dato' Datar of Setul, and the Dato' 
Dagang (Lenggong) come to pay their respects to the Klana, 
bringing their people, men and women, with them. Sometimes 
they all ccme on the same day sometimes on diffeient days, 
but they must always con:ie between tl e 4th and 7th Shawal. 
The Dato' Akir of F(antau is the only Dato' who is allowed to 
bring his insignia consisting of one spear "benderong." This 
Dato' is received in the same way as the others (as above) with 
one spear " benderong," and a salute of five guns. The other 
Dato's carry guns only. They are received with five guns, and 



70 ADAT SUNGEI UJONG. 

invited to enter the Klana's house. They pay their respects in 
the same way, and are entertained and saluted with five guns 
in the same way. 

Once in three years the Dato' Bandar goes to the Klana's 
house, and the proper ceremonial for him to observe is stated 
hereunder in dealing- with the Waris di Ayer. From the 1st to 
7th days of Shawal five guns must be fired at 6 o'clock in the 
morn'.ng as a signal for placing the State insignia in the open 
space (halaman) before the Klana's house, and at six in the even- 
ing five guns are fired as a signal for taking them up again, 



Ceremonies of the Waris di Ayer. 

These are much the same as m the case of the "Waris di 
Darat." and may be briefly stated as follows : — 

1. — Waris slaug-htering buffaloes on 30th Ramathan near 
the Dato' Klana's kampong must send certain portions to the 
Dfito' Bandar, and to the Dato' Raja. 

2. — On that day also people must assist to hang- the langit- 
lano-it (canopy) cloths in the verandah of the Dato' Bandar's 
house and arrano-e the "kabesaran" (insig'nia and State mats 
and pillows.) 

3. — As soon as the Dato' Klana has fired the first five signal 
guns on the 30th Ramathan, the Dato' Bandar may fire five guns, 
then the Dato' Raja three guns, and the other Lembagas entitled 
to, three guns. 

4. — On 1st Shawal five guns are fired at 5 a.m. as a signal 
that the Dato' Bandar is going to bathe. He is accompanied by 
the Panglima Besar and his officers bearing the Bandar's insignia 
the two spears, "benderong," two swords, two long krisses, two 
umbrellas, two "tunggal," two " pajar machin," two small flags. 
\Vhen the Dato' has bathed five more guns are fired. 

5. — At six o'clock, the insignia are displayed in the "halaman," 
or enclosure round the house. At 7 or 8 a.m., the Dato' 
Bandar with his officers goes to the mosque : five guns are fired 
when he sets out and five on his return. On this day the Bandar 
entertains his officers. 

G. — On the 2nd Shawal, the Waris and elders and whoever 
wishes to do so, go to the house of Dato' Paduka Raja in pro- 
cession. They are received with three guns, and the Dato' enter- 
tains the people with food. 

7. — On the 3rd Shawal, the Dato' Paduka Raja goes in pro- 
cession to the house of the Dfito' Raja and is saluted with three 
guns. The Dato' Raja sits in State in the verandah of his house 
with his officers bearing the spears and swords on his right 
and left. The Dato' Paduka Raja pays his respects first, squat- 
ting on his knees, raising his hands towards his chin three times 
to his front and three times turning' backwards. He is followed 
by all the men present. The Dato' Raja then goes inside the 
house and all the women present approach him in the same way, 
one after the other. The people are afterwards entertained, and 
three guns are fired as a signal for them to take leave. 



72 CEREMONlfes OF WARIS Dl AYER. 

8.- — On the 4th Shawal, the Dato' Raja, with Paduka Raja and 
the Waris, and their people, men and women, pay their respects 
to the Dato' Bandar. They come in procession, each Dato' bring- 
ing- one spear, kris panjang-, sword, etc,, etc. The insignia of the 
Dato' Bandar are sent out to meet them, a sakite of five guns is 
hred, and the people are invited to come into the verandah of the 
house. The Panglima Besar brings the Dato' Bandar to sit in 
State, and the spear and sword bearers stand in order on the right 
and left. The Dato' Raja does reverence, raising his hands five 
times forwards and backwards to the level of his nose. He is 
followed by the Ditto Si Ma'raja and the Mentri Penghulu 
(Ampai)gan) and by the other chiefs and Waris in order. When 
all the men have presented themselves the Dato' Bandar goes 
within the house and receives the women in like manner. When 
this ceremony is over, five guns are fired, then food is served, and 
fi\e more guns fired before the people depart. 

9. — Once in three years the Dfito' Bandar goes to the Klana's 
house accompanied by the Dato' Raja, and To' Paduka Raja, and 
To' Si Ma'raja, and the Mentri Penghulu and his people generally. 
The insignia are brought in procession, two spears, swords, krises, 
&c. The Klana's insignia go out to meet them, and a salute of 
five guns is fired. The Laksamana brings the Klana to his seat 
under the canopy, together with the Dato' Bandar, the Klana 
sitting on the right, the Dato' Bandar on the left. The Dato' Raja 
pays his respects first (in the usual manner) to the Dato' Klana, 
and then to the Dato' Bandar ; then Dato' Paduka Raja and the 
rest in order. After the men, the women perform the same cere- 
mony inside the house. After a salute of five guns, food is served, 
the Klana and the Dato' Bandar being served from the same tray 
(bertudong handong). A final salute of five guns is fired and 
the people are free to depart. 

10. — From 1st to 7th of Shawal, five guns are fired (by the 
Dato' Bandar) at five o'clock, morning and evening, when his 
insignia are taken out and brought back into the bouse. 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 73 



THE CROCOraLES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO 

IN THE SABAWAK MUSEUM, 

WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SUPPOSED NEW SPECIES, 

AND 

THE VARIATION OF COLOURS IN THE SEVERAL 
SPECIES DURING LIFE. 



By EDWAPvD BARTLETT, 

CURATOK OF TflE SVEAWAK MUSEUM. 



April, 189L 

Lizards at all times are lively, harmless and interesting* rep- 
tiles, their movements are g-raceful and smooth, in some genera, 
while others are rather uncouth, but all have that cunning quick 
attractive eye which calls one's attention to them at once. 

There is no doubt that a large proportion of the lizards are 
more or less chameleon-like as regards the habit of changing 
colour, but at the same time there are many whose colours are 
permanent or attained during the breeding season ; and these 
permanent colours are assumed by gradual development and ag-e. 

If ornithologists are justified in making three species of 
Halcyon forqiiatufi, /{.fortesi, mid H. molimhiciis, on such slender 
variations,* I consider that where we find a considerable number 
of different constant (permanent) colours in these lizards we 
are equally entitled to treat them as separate species. 



* To quote anotlier instance of species differing in colour only — and 
that to a trivial extent — it becomes a question in my mind whether it is age 
or sex that causes the distinction between Eurystomus onentalis and 
£. calonyx, the two species being fouud together. 



74 THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 

The number of species of lizards found in Borneo, is not 
very great considering the size of the island, viz.: — 
1 Crocodile. 
1 Gavial. 

61 Lizards, two of which are doubtful Bornean species, 
viz., Tareniola Delalandii. and Mahuia Delalandii. 

To facilitate quick reference, I have retained Mr. Boulenger's 
nomenclature of the species; each species will be found with a 
reference to the pages of the three volumes : 

Catalogue of Chelonians, 1880. 
Catalogue of Lizards, 1885-7. 
Those marked S. INI. are in the Sarawak Museum. 



Nominal List of the Crocodiles and Lizards of Borneo. 

1. Crocodilus porosus, Miill. 

2. Tomistoma Schlegelii, Mlill. 

3. Gymnodactylus marmoratus, Kuhl. 

4. ,, consobrinus, Ptrs. 

5. Gonatodes Kendalhi, Gray. 

6. ,, ornatus, Bedd. 

7. CElurosaurus felinus, Gthr. 

8. ,, dorsalis, Ptrs. 

9. Hemidactylus frenatus, D. & B. 

10. ,, Brookei, Gray. 

11. ,, platyurus, Schn. 

12. Gehyra mutilata, Wiegm. 

13. Lepidodactylus aurantiacus, Bedd. 

14. Gecko verticillatus, Laur. 

15. „ stentor, Cant. 

16. „ mouarchus, D. & B. 

17. Ptychozoon homalocephalum, Crev. 

18. ,, Horsfieldii, Gray. 

19. Tarentola Delalandii, D. & B. 

20. Draco volans, Linn. 

21. ,, cornutus, Gthr. 

22. ,, aflfinis, n. sp. 

23. ,, rostratus, Gthr. 



THE CROCODILES A^D LIZAlilJiS Oi' BOMNEO. 75 



24. 


Draco limbriatu^, Kulil. 


25. 


,, cristalellus, Gthr. 


26. 


,, bivmatopogan, Gray. 


27. 


,, tfeniopteriis, Gthr. 


28. 


,, quinquefasciatus, Gray. 


29. 


,, maximus, BlgT. 


30. 


„ inicrolepis, BlgT. 


31. 


,, nig-riappendiculatus, n. sp. 


32. 


,, g-randis, n. sp. 


33. 


Aphaniotis fusca, Ptrs. 


34. 


Gonyoceplialus dorian Ptrs. 


35. 


liogastor, Gtbr. 


3'-.. 


„ iiiio tympanum, Gthr. 


37. 


,, bonieensis, Schleg\ 


38. 


grand is. Gray. 


3!l. 


JapaUira nigiilabris, Ptrs. 


40. 


Calotes cristatellus, Kuhl. 


41. 


Lanthanotus borneensis, Stdchr. 


42. 


Vaianus Dunieritii, Schleg-. 


43. 


heteropboHs, Blgr. 


44. 


rudirollis, Gray. 


45. 


salvator, Laur. 


411. 


Tachydromus sexHneatus, Daub. 


47. 


Mabuia Delahmdii, D. & 15. 


48. 


rug-ii'era, Sto]. 


40. 


rubricolHs, n. sp. 


50. 


,, multifasciata, Kuhl. 


51. 


rudis, Blgr. 


:)2. 


kuchiiigensi>. n. >p. 


53. 


i.ewisi, n. sp. 


54. 


saravacensis n. sp. 


-')0. 


I.ygosoma variegatum. Ptrs. 


oC). 


,, khiabaluensis, n. ^p. 


57. 


,, olivaceiim. Graj. 


oi-^. 


,, vittatum, Edel. 


59. 


,, nitens, Ptrs. 


00. 


parietale, Ptrs. 


Gl. 


Lyg-osoma (Kiopa) I^ampfyldei, n. sp. 


G2. 


Tropidopliorns Beccari, Ptrs. 


03. 


Brookei, Gray, 



76 THE CROCUDILES A^D LlZxVRUS OF BORNKO. 



1. — Crovodilus poroms, Boiilen. Cat. Chelon., p. 284, 1889. 

Schneider's crocodile. Biu'iia of the Malays. S. M. 

The crocodile is plentiful along the sea coast, and in all the 
rivers of Borneo. It attains a great length in this country, and 
also becomes very robust. One specimen in this Museum from 
the Baram river, obtained by Mr. C. Hose measures over 17 
feet. 

Sarawak river (E. Bartlett); Baram Kiver (C. IIosc). 

Another species is reported to exist in some parts of the 
country, which I presume must be Crocodilus palustris, by the 
description of it, viz.: — " that the head is much longer and 
narrower," but up to the present moment I have not discovered 
any difference in the series we have in the Museum. 

Many instances of its ferocious habits are reported from 
time to time; it generally catches bathers who are unaware of its 
presence. One curious rescue of three little children occurred 
some time ago; it appears that they were bathing together when 
a crocodile seized one of them ; one got hold of its legs while 
the other, a little girl, got on top of its head and gouged its 
eyes until the brute released the other ; they were all saved. 

2. — Tomistoina Schlegelii, Boulen., Cat. Chelon., p. 1^76, 1889. 

Schlegel's Gavial. Buaia sniulong- of the Malays. S. M. 

This gavial is, from all I can gather, restricted to the 
estuary and Sadong liver. The two specimens in the Museum 
were brought down alive, having been caught by the Malays 
with the a/(-lir cross bar. 

Length 11 feet. 

Skull of the largest 2 feet G^ in., width across base 14^ 
inches. 

Sadong estuary and river (E. Bartlett and FliUlipf<)\ Mulla 
{O. Barlow). 

S.' — Gi/nriwdaciuhis rnarnwraius, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 44, 1885. 
A single example is in the collection. 

Sarawak (l)oria and Beccari); Mount Dulit {C. Hose); 
Kucliing fE. Bartlett). 

.^. — Gymriodactijlus contobrinut:, Boi;len.. Cat. Lizards, 
vol. i, p. 47, 18<s7. S. M. 



THE CKOCOUILEb AlSD LIZARDS OF BOKNEO. 77 

A siugle example is in the collection. 

Sarawak (Don'a and BccaaiJ: Belaga river, Kejangv (C. A. 
BanqtfyUU). 

'5. — Goindocks Kt'/idallii. Boulen., Cat. Lizardis, vol. i, 
p. Co, 1885, S. M. 

Lately obtained near here. 

Matang-, Sarawak {G. A, BohIcikjcv). Sarawak f//. Loirj. 
Kuchiug (E. Bart/eft). 

6. — Gonatode.^- onuffus, Bonlen.. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
V <■,?, LS85. S. M. 

(leneral colour above grass-green maibled all over with 
brown ; a black line from hind corner of eyes to occiput, bnt not 
conlluent; a black oblong spot occupies the centre; three black 
^pots hi front of the shoulder and three behind ; six black dursal 
spots or streaks; under-parts yellowish green; with a pale 
purple patch on the throat and another on the middle of the 
belly. 

/'. — <Eltiro:<auriis /cl(i(i(^\ Boulen.. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 7"). 1885. S. M. 

J^otJieo f\\\(!/(ic('). 

Penkalan Ampat, Sarawak (Dr, G. IK lf((riluiid). 

8. — (]£birosaurus dorsalL^-, Boulen.. Cat. Jjizards, vol. i, 

p. 74, 1885. 
Sarawak (JJon'a and Becctni) 

i). — Ilcitddaciiflus Jrtiiatus, Boulen.. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 120, 1885, S. M. 

Not common ; frequents houses. 

Borneo f7*J. BeJcher): Kuching, Sarawak (E. Bartletf). 

10. — lleiindactiihis Brookei, Boulen.. Cat. Lizards, ^ol. i, 
p. 128, 1885. S, M. 

Probably introduced years ago. 

Borneo (E. BeUhcrJ: Sarawak (77. Loir); Kuching {E. 

Barf/ctt). 



78 THE CKOCODILES AND LI^AEDS OF BORNEO. 



il, — He/nu(acti/lus plafifiuu^-, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i. 
p. 143, 1885. S. M. 
Not often met with : frequents houses. 

Borneo (E, Belcher and Cantor); Sarawak (Dvria and 
i>cc*(;w?^; Kuching, Sarawak ( E. BartlettJ : Sarawak (^//. Lo/rj. 

J2 — GeJiyra /nutilata, Boulen., Oat. Lizards, vol. i. 
p. 148, 1885. S. M. 

Not uncommon in hou-es. 
Kuching- and Banting {E. Bart/eft). 

IS. — Lepidodactijlus aurantiaeas,{/ ) Boulen., Cat. Lizards, 
vol. i, p. 1G4, 1885. S. M. 

Very rare. 

Sautubong- (E. Bart I el t). 

IJ/.' — Gecko vertlclllatus, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 183, 1885. S. M. 

Very scarce. 

Rejang* Eiver, Sarawak (('. A. Bampf/jlde). 

lo. — Gecko stentor, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 184. S. M. 

Singed with pale green all over ; eye bright g-rass green. 

This gecko is not abundant, it inhabits hollows in old trees 
and liouses, it is a great annoyance at night on account of the 
liorrible sepulchral noise it makes. 

Banjermassing (Blecl-er): LahuSiU (Colt in (jirood); Kuching, 
Sarawak (E. Bartlett) : Mount Dulit {C Hose) ; Kejang river 
(C A. Bantpftjlde and Lei/s) ; Undup {W. Hotvell). 

26. — Gecko monarchas, Boulen., (Jat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 187, 1885. S. M. 

Chichak of the Malays. 

Very abundant throughout all the places which 1 ha\e 
visited; in every house and bungalow, also on the barks of trees 
which are exposed ; but not a jungle gecko. The colour varies 
from dark dirty brown to almost pure white ; the black mark- 
ings or marbling is very intense in some individuals, while in 
otherti it is very faint. 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 79 

Borneo fE". Belcher, Cantor, and DillwyttJ ; Matang-f^ Barthit 
and Boalenijer); Sarawak (Doria and Beccari); Undup (W- 
Hoivell) ; Kuching", Sarawak (E. Barflett and G. D. Huviland) ; 
Mount J)ulit (C. Ilo.^ej. 

17. — rtiichozoon Iwnialocephahim, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, 
YoL i. p. 190, 1885. S. M. 

Comparatively rare in the Kuching* district. 

Borneo (L. L. Diliwyn) ; Sarawak (Doria and Beccari) ; 
Barang", Sarawak {G. D. Haviland) ; Kuching, Sarawak 
(E. Bartlett). 

18,—Piurhozoon Tlorsfieldii, Boulen., P. J. S., 1892, p. 505. 

I have not seen this species yet, which is no doubt rare. 
Mount Dulit (C. Ho,^e). 

19. — Taventola Delalandii, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 109, 1885. 

Taventola bovneensis, Gray, Cat., p. 1G5. 

A doubtful Bornean species. 

Borneo ( E. Belcher ); Sarawak (//. Low). 

I find in Mr. Boulengei's catalogue an entry "r— s. Ad. ? 

Sir. E. Belcher (P.), (Types of Tarentolahorneensk)\' and Mr. 
H. Low\ also gives this species in his list of Lizards in the 
appendix (p. 112) to his "Sarawak; its Inhabitants and I'roduc- 
tions," 1848. It is highly probable that Sir E. Belcher procured 
his specimens from the same source, when he visited Borneo; 
at the same time Mr. II. Low gave specimens to the British 
Museum, which are not mentioned in the catalaafue. 



"in' 



.20. — Dt-aco volant. Boulen.. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 256, 
1885. S. M. 

Adult male. — Above gieyish white marbled and freckled 
with black: crowni of head and orbits bluish-green; wing- 
menbranes above marbled with brick-red and yellowish green ; 
under surface pale blue; gular appendage bright yellow, veiy 
long. 

Adult female. — Gular appendage short and dull blue. 

Saraw^ak (Doria and Beccari)-, Borneo (E. Belcher, Cantor, 
and /?. 7\ Lowe) ; Kuching, Sarawak (E. Bartlettj. 



so THE OHOrODILES AND LIZARDS QF BORNEO, 

Yerv al)iiiKlant on the trunks of trees on the roadsides 
througliojit the district of Kiiching' ; on very hot days the^^ can 
be seen dartinsi' from tree to tree, with lig-htning'-like rapidity. 

21. — Draco cornyfus, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. ii. p. 258, 
18ft5. S. M. 

Tarano^ burong' of the Malays. 

1. Adult male. — Upper surface of body bright gTass green, 
varied with black, the green forming five distinct bands across 
the back; interorVutal spot, l)lack enclosed in a pale green circle ; 
nuchal spot, another on lower part of neck and one on each side 
of it, before the shoulder, black ; wing-membrane deep red, spotted 
and streaked with black, margins black, ting-ed with green and 
grey ; sides of lower jaw and chin with three or four irregular 
pale green bands ; chest under surface of limbs and belly greyish 
blue ; under surface of wing-membranes brick-red tinged with 
blue, spotted and streaked with black, these black markings are 
opposed to those on the upper surface : gular appendage yel- 
lowish orange, base bluish. 

2. .1 duU malp. — Whole of back variegated with bright grass 
green; wing-membranes black ; under parts blue ; gular appen= 
dago bright salmon-red. edges paler, base bluish. 

This very beautiful winged lizard is not a common species in 
this district. I procured a line male on Matang at SOO ft. 

It is the brightest coloured of all the species found here. 
J3orneo (E. Belcher); Kuching and Matang {K. Bart!etf). 

22. — Draco cijfinis, n. sp.. S. M. 

Similar to D. cornutus, but without the large spine-like scale 
above the eye. Gular appendage very small; in the female it 
is almost absent. 

^fale. — Back dull brown, tinged with green; three distinct 
greyish white transverse bands on the back; wing membranes 
above, bright brick red spotted with black, with broad black 
outer margins, a pale bluish grey line down the centre of the 
belly; under side of wing membrane dull l)rick red ting-ed with 
blue, and spotted with blackish lirown, margined with blotches 
of black and greyish white. 

Adult /e?«rt/e.— Back grey mottled with dark brown and 
tinged with green; wing-meml)ranes bronze green spotted with 



THt: CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. Si 

black, with a broad black band on the outer margin; g-ular 
appendage small, yellowish g'reen; chest blue; aline down the 
centre of belly and under part of hind limbs pale blue, sides of 
body greyish white mottled with black, underside of wing- 
membrane yellowish green, outer margin blue. 

^3. — Draco rostratus, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 261, 

1885. 
Borneo (E. Belcher). 

24. — Draco fimbriatus, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 2G5, 
1885. S. M. 

Very rare in this district. 
Sarawak {E. Bartlett). 

2o. — Draco cristatelliis, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. 1, p. 266, 
1885. S. M. 

Mate. — Above grey tinged with brown and black dotted 
all over ; a black mterorbital spot ; nuchal crest reddish brown ; 
wing-membranes blackish-brown, with a series of longitudinal 
streaks of yellowish scales ; chin grey tinged with green and 
dotted ; gular appendage nearly white ; beneath lateral wattles 
bright buttercup yellow, with a black hind margin to same ; belly 
pale green ; under surface of wing-membranes pale blue tinged 
with yellow. 

Not abundant here. 

Kuching, Sarawak (E. Bartlett). 

26. — Draco hojmatopogan, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 

p. 267, 1885. S. M. 
Kuching, Sarawak ^E'. Bartlett). 

27. — Draco tceniopterus, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 269, 1885. S. IVI. 

I found this scarce species on Matang at 800 to 900 ft., in 
June, 1893. 

Sarawak {Doiia and Beccari); Matang, Sarawak (E. 
Bartlett). 



82 THE CKOCUDILES A:sD LIZAiiDS Ok' BUKNEO. 

28. — Draco qui)iquefasciatus, Boiilen., Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 267, 1885. S. M. 

Male. — General colour above reddish or dirty brown dotted 
all over, and tinged with bright grass-green over the other 
colours, it also extends round the margin of the wing-membranes 
and on all the longitudinal curved lines and ribs, forming rows 
of green scales ; live broad dark brown bands extend across the 
body and wing-membranes, the broad interspaces are brick-red ; 
a single brown band across the shoulders ; under surface of 
wing-membranes dull yellowish green, crossed by three narrow 
black bands; body greyish flesh colour; chin greenish ; gular 
and lateral appendages bright yellow, striated with bluish-green, 
base black ; iris golden. 

Female. — Resembles the male in all the markmgs, which are 
paler and broader, the light grass-green scales are intermixed 
with scattered white ones, especially on the sides of the head, 
neck, wing-membranes, and base of tail ; a double brown band 
on the shoulders ; under surface like the male ; gular and lateral 
appendages blackish grey faintly striated with greenish white, 
a yellow spot in the centre of the latter and a blackish .stripe on 
its base. 

Rather plentiful about the jungle near Ku hing. 

Sarawak {Doria and Beccaii) ; Kuching, Sarawak {^E. 
Bartlett)\ Mount DuUt (C. Hose). 

29. — Draco raaximut', I)Oulen., P. Z. S., 18Uo, p. b'22. 
Mount Dulit (C. Hose). 

30. — Draco viicrolepis, Boulen., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 523. 
Merabah, North Borneo {A. Everett). 

81. — Draco )iigriappendicu'atus, n. sp, S. M, 

Habit slender ; much more so than D. volaus ; head very 
small, snout short ; nostrils vertical directed upwards ; tym- 
panum naked, ery small ; all the scales above nearly equal, round, 
and very small; six elongated keeled scales between the nostrils 
in a line directed backwards ; two series of small elongated scales 
on crown of head forming two slars; a few shaip edged scales 
in front of the eye ; six sets of enlarged scales, three on each side 



THE CT^OCODILES AND LTZAKDS OF BORNEO. S3 

of body; guiar appendage long and narrow covered with large 
flat scales ; scales on under parts all keeled and sharp pointed ; a 
few sharp pointed scales along sides of base of tail : tail covered 
with keeled scales with many fine points. 

Male. — Above reddish-buff, marbled with pale brown, and 
tinged all over with grass green ; a small interorbital black spot ; 
three sharp pointed white lateral scales on the sides near the 
hind legs ; wing-membranes nearly black, spotted all over with 
orange-yellow ; ribs covered with yellowish green scales forming 
five longitudinal streaks on each side; chin finely vermaculated 
with greyish browm ; gular appendage very long and jet black, 
which extends across on to the front portion of the lateral wattles, 
the hinder half of which is pure white ; belly and under parts 
dirty white, brown dotted ; under side of w4ng-membranes dull 
brown tinged with yellowish green, the orange spots of upper 
surface being conspicuous. 

Total length 9 inches. 

Female. — Like the male ; but the gular appendage Is short, 
and black with white base. 

Not uncommon in the neighbourhood of Kuching. 

Total length 8^ inches. 

Kuching, Sarawak (E. Bartleit). 

■32. — Draco grandifi, N. Sp. S. M. 

Habit, robust; head, large; limbs, short and thick; nostrils, 
directed outwards, tympanum large and naked ; two large keeled 
scales directed backwards, on the top of the snout ; two behind 
the eye; a series of round edged scales on each side of the 
mouth above the upper labials; scales of limbs, feeble keeled 
except along the hind edges; scales of belly, all keeled and sharp 
pointed ; gular appendage, nearly as long as the head, co\ ered 
with minute elongated scales, lateral wattles large. 

Total length 10| inches. 

Bright reddish brown above, variegated with dark brown 
and greyish lines and marbling of black; interorbital space 
grey, behind vrhich is a black W. ; two elongated nuchal black 
blotches; wing-membra :es greyish brown, with a series of longi- 
tudinal yellowish scales on the ribs, and three very faint bands 
across each ; gular appendage, greyish white speckled with dirty 
brown; under parts, grey spotted and mottled with black; under 



84 THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 

surface of wing-membranes, blueish white spotted with black. 
Sarawak, Matang 800 feet {E. Bartlett). 

S3. — Aphaniotis fusca, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 274, 

1885. 
I have not observed this species yet. Sarawak (Dorki and 
Beccari); Borneo (Bonfeiir/er). 

SJf. — Goriyocephahis dorue, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 

p. 284, 1885. 
Kare. Sarawak (Dorm and Beccari); Sarawak (A. Everett). 

So. — OoniiocephaJus Uoqaster, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
' p. 286, 1885. S. M. 
Rare. 

Borneo {Doria, Bleelcer and Wallace); Kuching, Sarawak 
{E. Barlh.1t). 

S6. — Gonyocephalus miofympamim, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 287, 1885. 
Borneo (Gunther) ; Labuan {Dilhvyn). 

S7. — Gonyocephalus horneensis, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
288, 1885. 
Borneo (Schlegel) ; Sarawak ( Doria and Beccari). 

38. — Gonyocephalus grandis, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, 
p. 298, 1885. S. M. 
Matang, Sarawak (Bouleuger); Mount Dulit (C. Hose) Pen- 
kalan Ampat, Sarawak {G. D. Haviland). 

39. — Japalura nigrilahris, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 311, 
1885. S. M. 

Upper surface, reddish -brown tinged with green, variegated 
with yellow^ish white ; a broad Y between the orbits black, in 
front and behind it deep chestnut ; five blackish -brown wavy 
bands across the back with light spots in the centre of each, 
which gives them the appearance of W's, these band are much 
blacker on the sides; interspaces pale yellowish green varied 
with whitish scales, the first band is in front of the shoulder; 
legs marbled with brown ; tail with broad brown bands ; on the 
base of tail and loins there is a spear-shaped fold, the barb and 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 85 

shaft black, edged with yellowish buff; gular appendage strait- 
ed with yellowish white, brown, and pinkish-red; lower part 
of throat and chest deep brick-red tinged with pink; belly and 
under-part of limbs yellowish white spotted and streaked vvith 
brown. Eye pale brown, pupil round and black with a gold 
ring. 

Rare. 

Sarawak (Doria and Beccari) ; Matani^- {Boulenner) : Kuching 
{E. Barfhtt). 

JfO. — Calotes cnsfafellus, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. i, p. 31 G, 
1885. S. M. 

The colours in this species are very variable ; some are bright 
grass green without dark markings; another is tinged with l>lue 
with dark brown markings, while another greenish brown with 
darker marblings. 

Xot uncommon on hedges and in g'ardens; it is easily 
caught with the hand. 

Borneo [E. Belcher and Dillicijn)\ Kina Balu {G. D. Havi- 
land); Kuching (E. Bartlett). 

Jfl. — Lanthanotiis horneensis, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. xi, 
p. 302, 1885. S. M. 
Very rare. 
Sarawak i Boulenger); Rejang River, Sarawak (C A. Bamp- 

Jf.2. — Varanus Dumeriln, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. xi, p. 312, 
1885. S. M. Beyawak, Malays. 
Not uncommon in gardens and jungle. 
The largest in the collection is three feet. 
Sarawak {H. Low, Doria and Beccari) : Penkalan Ampat 
(G. D. Haviland) ; Baram and Mount Dnlit {C. Hose); Kuching 
{E. Bartlett). 

JfS. — Varanus heferoplwUs, Boulen. P. J. S., 1892., p. 500. 
Rare. 
Mount Dulit (C. Hose). 

4-^' — Varanus rudicoUis, Boulen. Cat. Liznrds. ^•oI. xi, p. 313, 
1885. S. M. 
Xot common in the Kuching district. 



86 THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNE(^ 

One specimen measures three feet nine inches. 
Sarawak {Boidenger); Baram River (C. 7/o5g); Penkalan 
Ampat {G D. Raviland).; Kuching and Matang {E. Bartlett). 

Jf5. — Varaaus salvator, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. ii, p. 314, 
1885. S. M. 
Not very common in the Kuching- district. 1 have not met 
with very large specimens here ; the largest we have are from 
Baram. Length 6 feet 8 inches ; is the largest in the collec- 
tion. 

Borneo (DUhvyn); Sarawak (ZT. Low, Doria and Beccari) ; 
Sadong (G^. D. Raviland)', Baram (C. Hose); Mount Dulit (C. 
Hose) ; Kuching and Santubong {E. Bartlett). 

46. — Tachydromiis sexHneatus, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, 

p. 4, 1887. S. M. 

This extraordinary and beautiful lizard is rather abundant 

in and about Kuching, frequenting grassy lanes and fields, or 

grassy gardens. It attains a length of 14 inches, the tail being 

more than 5 times the length of the body. 

Sarawak {Doria, Beccari and H. Low) ; Borneo {E. Belcher); 
Matang (Boulenger) ; Matang and Kuching (E. Bartlett). 



On the variation of the colours in the genera 

Mabuia and Lygosoma, with descriptions 

of new species. 

During my residence here, I have had an opportunity of 
examining a very large series of nearly all the species of lizards 
found in Borneo, but Mabuia and Lygosoma being the most abun- 
dant, I am able to give more details of them, than of the other 
genera at present. 

To make sure that my observations on the species are 
correct with regard to the markings and coloration, I have 
examined the various individuals for the purpose of determining 
the sex, and I think that these are most important points in as- 
certaining which assume the various colours during the breeding 
time (which appears very precarioLis) and in doing so I have found 
a variety of intermediate stages of markings and colours which 



THE ClvOCUDlLEb AND LIZARDS OF BOKXEO. S7 

are very deceptive, and liable to mislead one vv'ith regard to a 
species or even the sex, but having' a large series of both sexes 
before me, it was much easier to settle. 

In drawing up the descriptions I have selected some of the 
largest and most adult specimens of both sexes, and by the 
following short diagnosis of each sex they can be distinguished 
at once. 

I may remark that all the characteristic beautiful colours 
of each species are lost in spirit specimens. 

1. Mabuia Rugifera. 

^Jale. — Tail, carinated to tip. Xearly black above; imma- 
culate above and below. Throat, cobalt blue. 

Female. — Above, blackish-brown; with pale bro^vn longitu- 
dinal striations. Throat, green, black spotted. 

2. Mabuia rubricollis, n. sp. 
Male, — Tail, carinated to tip. Similar to J/, ncjlftra. Throat, 
brick-red. 

Female. — Similar to M. ruyijera. Throat, vermilion. 

3. Mabuia multifasiata. 

Male adult. — Not polished above (dull) ; tail, perfectly 
smooth for half its length ; not spotted on the sides of the body ; 
a few rectangular white black sided spots on the sides of the 
base of the tail. Throat, chrome 3-ellow. 

Female aclu't. — Highly polished above : sides of body closely 
covered with white black sided rectangular spots from corner 
of mouth to base of tail. Throat, greyish white. 

4. Mabuia rudis. 

Male. — Not polished above (dull); tail, tri-bi-and unicari- 
nated from base to tip ; no white spots on the sides ; a few yellow 
edged scales on the sides of the base of tail. Throat, blue. 

Female. — Dull above ; a yellowish white line from corner of 
mouth, which passes the shoulder and ends in yellowish white 
tipped scales in front of the hind leg. Throat, greenish-brown. 

5. Mabuia Lewisi. n. sp. 
Male adult. — Not polished above (dull) ; Tail, tri-bi-and 
unicarnated to the tip ; no spots of white on the sides, a few 



S8 THE CliOCUDlLES AND LIZABDS OF BORNEO. 

white-tipped scales on the sides of the base of tail. Throat, 
orange red. Similar to M. rudis, but larger. 

Female. — Like M. rildis, with line and spots, white not 
yellow. Throat, white. 



47. — Ewprepis belcheri, H. Low, Sarawak ; Inh. and Prod. 
Appen. p. 411, 1848. 
Mahuia Delalandi, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, p. 158, 1887. 
A doubtful Bornean species. 

The species is given in Low's list 1. c, but it must be an 
error. The types in the British Museum are without a locality 
and presented by Sir E. Belcher ; is it probable that these speci- 
mens were collected by H. Low and given to him? 

48. — Mahuia rugifera, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, p. 184, 
1887. S. M. 
Male. — Upper part of head, sides of neck, dark bronze- 
green ; rest of upper surface bright red-brown, finely vermacula- 
ted with black; chin and throat, pale cobalt blue with scattered 
yellow spots ; chest, lemon yellow ; rest of under parts deep 
vermilion red. 

Mabuia rugifera. 
Male. — Throat, pale cobalt blue, tinged with green on the 
chest and fore-limbs ; belly, under-side of hind legs and tail, sal- 
mon pink. 

Mabuia rugifera. 

Male. — xibove, blackish-brown, immaculate ; chin and throat, 
bright grass-green ; belly bent and under-side of tail, salmon- 
red. 

Obtained June, 1893, near Kuching. 

Mabuia rugifera. 

Male. — Above, blackish-brown, immaculate; eye-lids, upper 
and lower lips, chin, throat and upper part of chest, lemon yellow; 
belly and under part of tail, salmon red. 

Two males procured Nov., 1893, are marked and the colours 
are exactly alike. 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 89 



Mabuia rug'ifera. 

Female, — Above dark brown, streaked with yellowish brown, 
from superciliary line and corner of mouth to base of tail ; lips, 
chin and Ihroat, pale blue, tinged with gTee,n ; nearly all the 
scales have a black terminal band, these black bands are irregu- 
lar and give the throat a variegated appearance ; chest, yellowish 
green ; belly and under part of tail, pinkish salmon. 

Obtained October 13, 1893. 

Mabuia rugifera. 

Female. — Chin and throat, yellowish green, spotted with 
black; belly, under-side of hind-limbs, reddish salmon tinged 
with greenish blue; under side of tail, reddish salmon. 

Obtained September, 1893. 

This beautiful little species is rather abundant near Kuching'. 
I have had an opportunity of examining a very fine series of 
males and females ; in the adults the colours are very brilliant. 

They inhabit the sandy paths in the jungle. 

All the species of Mabuia and Tijcjosoma, are called by the 
Malays Benkarong. 

Matang, Borneo (Boulenger); Sarawak {Dona and Beccari) 
Kuching, Sarawak {E, Bartlett). 

Jf.9. — Mabuia rubricqllis, n. sp. ? S. M. 

3Iale. — Similar to M. rugifera. Above, blackish brown ; 
upper and lower lips, orange-red fading off on the sides of the 
neck ; chin and throat, lemon yellow ; chest and rest of under 
parts, tinged with salmon pink. 

Mabuia rubricollis, n. sp. 
Male. — Above blackish-brown ; lips, chin and throat vermi- 
lion red ; rest of under parts, salmon pink. 
Obtained October 27, 1893. 

Mabuia rubricollis, n. sp. 

Female. — Above, dark brown, or blackish, streaked and 
spotted with bright red-brown ; lips, chin, throat and chest, 
brick-red, brightest on the chin ; rest of under parts, salmon pink. 

Mabuia rubricollis, n. sp. 

Female. — Superciliary streak, lips chin and throat, bright 
vermilion red ; belly, pinkish tinged with green ; under parts of 
tail, pale salmon pink. 



§0 THE CKOCODlLliS A^'D LlZAKDb Uii BORNEO. 

Have separated tliis form from J/, rugiftva on account of 
its brilliant red throat, whereas in M. rugifera in the adult it is 
pale cobalt blue, otherwise the two lizards are similar, but at 
the same time we obtain males and females of the two species 
constantly in the same district, therefore, we may consider it 
a local race or a district species, especially when we look at the 
three species of Halcyon given by Mr. R. B. Sharpe in the British 
Museum Catalag'iie. 

This lizard is certainly not so abundant as M. rugifera^ al- 
thoug^h it inhabits the same sandy lanes and jungle paths about 
Kuching, and the district. 

I have examined the sexes of a large series. 

Kuching, Sarawak {E. Bartlett.) 

50. — Mahuia miihifasciata, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, 
p. 186, 18«7. S.M, 
Male. — Sides, unspotted; upper and lower lips, brick red; 
chin and throat, chrome yellow ; belly, dark grey tinged with 
green ; under part of tail, pale brown. 
Obtained October, 1893. 

This is an adult male in breeding colours, and many have 
the sides of the neck brick-red. 

Mabuia multifasciata. 

Male. — i'orso-lateral band, bright-red ; upper and lower lips, 
brick-red ; chin and throat, greyish-white speckled with yellow ; 
belly, pale yellowish-browm. 

A young male assuming the yellow throat. 

Mabuia multifasciata. 

Male. — Above, dark brown ; dorsolateral line, pale brown- 
ish-buff ; sides, dark-brown, unspotted ; chin and throat, grey ; 
lips, tinged with brick red ; chest and belly, dull green; under 
part of tail, silvery white. 

A young male. 

Mabuia multifasciata. 

Female. — Above, dark-brown, with five longitudinal black 
Ihies ; dorso-lateral streak, pale brown ; sides, blackish-brown ; 
a series of yellowish white spots from the ear along the sides to 
the base of tail; chhi and throat, silvery white; chest beljy and 
underside of tail, yellowish-biown. 

Old female in breeding colours. 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 91 

Mabuia multifas<-iata. 

Female. — Above, dark-brown, and iridescent; sides below 
the dorso-lateral streak, brown tinged with bright vermiHon-red, 
and spotted with yellowish-white: throat, DTeyish-vdiite : belly, 
yellowish brown. 

Obtained September 21, 1«93. 

Young- female. 

The average length of this species is from 10 to 12 inches. 

This is the most abundant species in Saraw^ak ; it is found on 
the trunks of felled trees and on the ground in every road and 
path throughout the country. I have carefully examined hun- 
dreds of them and find a great variety of colours in the males, 
some with metallic green and red bands on the sides of the neck, 
while others are brilliant, brick-red on the sides of the neck, and 
above the shoulders ; at the same time they are easily distinguish- 
ed from all the other males by the smooth terminal half or two- 
thirds of the tail. 

Sarawak, {H. Low, Doriaand Beccari) ; Kuching Sarawak, 
{E. Bartktt), Borneo, (Cantor). 

51. — ]\fahin'a rinlifi, Boulen.. Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, p. 188. 
1887. S. M. 

Male. — Above, dark greenish-brown with four longitudinal 
rows of blackish spots ; dorso-lateral streak, pale greenish-brown ; 
sides, red-brown variegated with black from ear to base of tail ; 
upper surface of legs, red-brown ; chin, throat, and sides of neck, 
bright cobalt blue; chest, belly and under-parts, grass-green; 
scales of vent and under part of tail, silvery-white. 

Mabuia rudis. 

Male. — Above, rich red-brown; dorso-lateral streak, yellow- 
ish Vjrown; sides, rich brown tinged w^ith vermilion, each scale 
edged with black ; upper surface of legs, like the back ; a bright 
green stripe from the ear to the shoulder, which is gradually lost 
on the sides of the body; chin, throat and chest, g-reenish blue 
variously speckled with orange-yellow; belly, sides of same, and 
under part of fore limbs, pale vermilion-red tinged with green, 
the latter colour brightest on the abdomen and hind-legs ; scales 
of vent and underpart of tail, silverv-white. 

Obtained Sept. 19, 1893. 



92 THE CROCODILES AND LIZAKDS OF BORNEO 

^'^ Mabuia rudis. 

Male, — Sides, unspotted; upper and lower lips, chin, throat, 
and fore part of chest, pale blue, much speckled with black; chest 
and belly, grass-green ; under part of hind limbs and tail brown. 

Obtained November 2, 1893. 

Mabuia rudis. 

Mrt/e. — Sides, unspotted; chin and throat, cobalt blue with 
a few scattered orange-yellow and black spots ; chest and rest of 
under parts, grass-green. 

Obtained October "i^o, 1893. 

Mabuia rudis. 

Female. — Above, chocolate-brown, with four longitudinal 
rows of black spots, some confluent ; a well defined light dorso- 
lateral streak ; sides, blackish ; a yellow line from the corner of 
the mouth passes over the shoulder and terminates in blackish 
yellow-edged spots on the sides of the tail; fore limbs, brown 
with black yellow-edged spots on the hinder surface ; throat and 
belly, greenish- brown. 

Obtained August 30, 1893. 

Mabuia, rudis. 

Female. — Above, brown ; sides, nearly black ; streak from 
corner of mouth to beyond the shoulder, greenish yellow ; chin, 
throat, and chest, pale grass-green ; belly and under parts, light- 
brown faintly tinged with green. 

Sept. 21, 1893. 

Mabuia rudis 

Female. — Above, red-brown, with five distinct black longitu- 
dinal dorsal streaks ; dorso-lateral line, pale-brown ; sides, blackish 
brown ; from the corner of the mouth a bright yellow streak 
which passes over the fore arm and ends in yellow spots in front 
of the hind leg, also a few yellowish spots on the sides of the 
base of the tail ; chin, throat, and belly, dark greenish-brown. 
Mabuia rudis. 

Female. — Sides, yellow spotted from the cheeks to hind legs, 
with a few chrome yellow spots on the neck, on a line with the 
ear; without the usual white line from corner of mouth; chin 
and throat, greyish white; chest and rest of underparts, dull- 
brown tinged with yellow. 

Obtained October 26, 1893. 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 93 

The average length of adults of this species is from eight 
to ten inches. 

Plentiful, but not so common as M. muUifasciata. 

1 have described the colours of several individuals which 
are very brilliant when alive. This lizard is easily distinguished 
from all the others, being very robust in habit, the tail is carina- 
ted to the tip, and very dark-lDrown, almost black above. 

Matang and Kuching, Sarawak. {E. Bart left), 

52. — Mahiiia rudis, var. Kuching ensis^ n. sp. S. M. 

Female. — Above, dark brown ; dorso lateral band, nearly 
black; sides of neck and body to base of tail, closely barred with 
bright chrome yellow-edged black spots ; chin and throat, greyish 
white ; chest and rest of under parts, dull brown tinged with 
yellow. 

This specimen is so distinctly marked and readily distinguish- 
ed from the true M. rudis. 1 considered it worth separating 
for the present. Almost appears like a hybrid. 

Kuching {E. Bartlett). 

53. — Mahuia Lewisi, n. sp. S. M. 
Male. — Habit, robust. Above, dark brown ; dorso-lateral 
streak, pale brown ; sides, dark-green unspotted ; upper and lower 
lips, chin, throat, chest, and sides of neck, rich orange red ; under 
part of fore arms, and belly, bright lemon-yellow ; scales of vent 
and under part of tail, pure silvery-white. 

Mabuia Lewisi n. sp. 

Female. — Above, brown paler than the male ; dorso-lateral 
stripe, pale brown; sides of body, dark brown; a buff coloured 
streak from the corner of the mouth to hind limb ; chin and throat, 
white ; belly, yellowish-g'reen ; under sides of limbs and tail, pale 
greenish-brown. 

Similar to Mabuia rudis, but the carinations are not so bold, 
and the points do not overlap like those of M . rudis. It is with- 
out the four or five longitudinal rows of small black specks on 
the back, which is alwaj^s present in M. rui:is; and easily dis- 
tinguished when alive by its bright-red throat, and other colours. 

This fine species I procured on Santubong at about 200ft., 
others near Kuching. I have much pleasure in naming it after 
M, J. E. A. Lewis, who always takes much interest, and does a 



94 THE CROCODILES AND LIZAKDS OF BORNEO. 

great deal towards increasing the collection, besides rendering 
me valuable assistance respecting the particulars of the speci- 
mens. 

54. — Mahuia saravacensis, n. sp. S. M. 

Habit, robust; head, broad behind; scales, twenty-eight 
round the body ; back, nearly the whole length of tail and upper 
surface of fore Hmbs, tricarinate; hind limbs above, bi- and tri- 
carinate; under parts, smooth. 

Above, pale dull-brown, with irregular transverse bars of 
black yellow and white-edged spots, which pass over on to the 
sides of the belly; two distinct round black spots on the parietals; 
eyelids, yellow ; whole of underparts, bright grass-green. 

Rare in this locality. 

Santubong and Kiiching (E. Bartlett). 

55. — Lygosoma variegatum, Boulen. Cat. Lizards, iii, 
p. 246, 1887. S. M. 
Male. — Above, dull brown ; marbled, and with two longitu- 
dinal rows of unequal sized spots down the back; chin, throat, 
and breast, deep cobalt blue ; paler blue on the chest and belly ; 
under sides of fore arms, vent and hind legs, dirty yellow ; under 
surface of tail, french grey, or bluish grey. 

Lygosoma variegatum. 

Female. — Above, like the male; chin, and throat, whitish; 
whole of under parts including limbs, bright yellow ; under side 
of tail, bluish-grey. 

She is the most beautiful of all the lizards found here. In 
old males, the cobalt blue of the throat is very brilliant. 

It is not very abundant. 

Borneo (L. L. fJilhvyn) Kuching, Sarawak (E. Bartlett). 

56. — Lygosoma Mnahaluen^is, n. sp. S. M. 

Male. — Similar to L. variegatum, but the back is mottled 
and without striations, and without a distinct dorsolateral band. 

This small species is quite distinct, therefore, I name it to 
distinguish it from the others at present, until I can procure 
more specimens. 

Being a spirit specimen, I am unable to give the decided 
colours. Kina Balu, N. Borneo (G. D. Haviland.) 



THE CKUCODlLEb AMJ LIZaRDS UF BORNEO. 95 

57. — Lygosoma o!ivaceu?n, Bouleu., Cat. Lizards, vol. iiii, p. 251, 
1887. S. M. 

Back buff, with nine pale interrupted bands across the back ; 
hind legs, barred like the back ; a buff band above the hind leg ; 
chin and throat, yellowish green; rest of under parts, grass- 
green, tinged with blue. 

This appears to be a very scarce species in the district, having 
only procured two specimens. 

Borneo fA.IL Wallace); Sarawak fA.UveretJ; Kuching. 
(E. Bartlett). 

58.- — Lygosoiiia vittatuni, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, p. 252, 
1887. The Verandah Lizard, S. M. 
3Iale and Female. — Above, black, variegated with buff 
speckles ; a greenish w^hite streak between the eyes ; a greenish 
white superciliary streak which extends beyond the shoulder and 
fades away on the back ; another greenish white -streak from tip 
of snout passes under the eye and fades away beyond the 
shoulder ; lower lips, green black-spotted ; chin, throat, and belly, 
bright grass-green, tinged with blue on the throat. Sexes alike. 
This very pretty and active lizard is to be found in nearly all the 
jungle houses and espe ially about the verandahs, picking up 
ants, and various insects which are always numerous in these 
places. 

Borneo (L. L. DiUivijn) ; Sarawak (JJoiia caul Beccari) ; 
Rejang River (C A. Bampfykle) ; Santubong and Kuching, 
{E. Bartlett). 

59. — Lijgosoiita nitens, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, 
p. 262, 1887. S. M. 
Very rare in this district. 
Sarawak (Doj'za a/it? 5e6*c«y■^),• Kuchiug {E. Bartlett). 

60. — Lifgosorna parietale, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. in', 
p. 299, 1887. S. M. 

Male and Female. — Above, grey tinged with green ; under 
parts, pale yellowish buff. 

I cannot detect any variation in the colour of the sexes of 
this species. It is tolerably common on the sea shore. 

Sarawak {Doria and Beccari) ; Santubong and Kuching 
{E. Bartlett). 



96 THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 

61. — Lygosoma (RioiKt) Bampfuldei^ n. sp. S. M. 

Kabit, stout ; limbs, short and thick ; scales, all smooth ; six 
upper and six lower labials ; ten small preanals. 

Pale brown, above and below, immaculate ; with a dark 
brown patch on the front part of the head, another on the crown 
and hind neck, divided from the former by a pale band from eye 
to eye ; upper surface of limbs and tail dusky brown. 

Rejang River, Sarawak (C. A. Bampfulde). 

62. — Tropidophorus Beccari, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, 
vol. iii, p. 360, 1887. Beccari's Lizard. 
Sarawak {Doria and Beccari); Matang (G. A. Bonlenger). 

63. — Tropidophorus Brool'ii, Boulen., Cat. Lizards, vol. iii, 
p. 361, 1887. The Raja's Lizard, S. M. 
Upper and lower lips, red-brown ; under parts, white, 
Sarawak (//. Low) ; Sarawak {E. Belcher) ; Santubong- and 
Kuching- {E. Bartlett). 



On a New Species of ''Phiientoma.'' 
By EDWARD BARTLETT, 

Curator oj the Sarawak Museum. 



1. — Philentoina velatum, Blyth. Adult male. — General colour, 
bright greyish blue; face and fart of the throat, black; lower 
part of throat and breast, maroon. 

2. — Philentoma pyrrhopterurn., Blyth. Adult male. — Head, 
neck, mantle, lesser wing'-coverts, chin, throat, and sides of 
breast, greyish-blue ; greater wing-coverts, secondaries and tail 
chestnut ; primaries, dusky brown ; under-parts, dirty white ; 
thighs, blue. 

3. — Philentoma Maxivelli, n. sp. 

Adult male. — Similar to P. pyrrhopterum^ but with a dark 
chestnut patch on the middle of the breast ; the blue of the head 
and neck much brighter : the chestnut of the wing-coverts 



THE CROCODILES AND LIZARDS OF BORNEO. 97 

secondaries and tail, much darker and richer ; some of the outer 
webs of the inner primaries also chestnut ; under-parts much 
purer white ; thig-hs buff, not blue like those of P. pyrrhopterum. 

This species was obtained in the jung-le not far from 
Kuching-. 

In describing" this new bird, I considered it advisable to give 
a short diag-nosis of the two older and well known forms, of 
which this museum contains a fine series. 

In referring- to Mr. Sharpe's description of P. pyrrhopterum, 
(vol. iv., p. 365), I find that he says the " wing-s and tail, chestnut" 
in the young male, but at page 366, he states that " the quills and 
tail-feathers are dusky blackish on the inner web, greyish blue 
externally " ! I have examined all our specimens carefully and 
cannot find a trace of the latter colours on the tail-feathers ; and 
certainly no greyish blue on the primaries. 

I have much pleasure in naming this new species after the 
Hon'ble F. R. 0. Maxwell, Resident of Sarawak. 



0CCA8I0NA L NOTES. 



THE INDONESIAN NUMERALS. 

In a pamphlet"^ recently presented to the Straits Asiatic 
Society, Dr. T. H. Pardo DE Tavera, of Manila, discusses 
the origin of the names of the numerals in the Tagal and 
(incidentally) in the other Indonesian languages. 

The following short table will illustrate the wide area over 
which these or kindred numerals are used : — 

Malay. Maori. -Tagal. 

1 Sa Tahi Isa 

2 Dua Rua Dalaua 

3 Tiga Toru Tatlo 

4 Ampat Wha Apat 

5 Lima Rima Lima 

6 Anam Ono Anim 

7 Tujoh Whitu Pito 

8 Delapan Waru Walo 

9 Sembilan Iwa Siyam 
lo Sapuloh Ngahuru Sangpulo 

The origin of these numerals is also discussed by the Rev. 
D. MacDonald, of Efate, New Hebrides, in the Journal of 
the Polynesian Society for June, 1893. 

Dr. Pardo DE Tavera points out that the Indonesian 
numerals were originally substantives, such as *' a couple," 
" a trio," '' a dozen," rather than numerals in the ordinary 
sense of the word. In the languages of Timor Laut and 
Fiji the article is still used before these numerals. In the 
Pampango language (Philippines) it survives in a-dua, a-tlo, 
a-pat, a-nim, a-pulu. In Malay it is still used in sa-puloh and 

* " Consideraciones sobre el origen del nombre de los numeros en Tagalog " 
— Manila. 



Malagasy. 


Formosa. 


Fiji. 


I ray 


Sha 


E-dua 


Roa 


Lua 


E-rua 


Telo 


Telu 


E-toIu 


E-fatra 


Pat 


E-va 


Dimi 


Rimi 


E-lima 


Enina 


Num 


E-ono 


Tito 


Pitu 


E-vitu 


Valo 


Waro 


E-vala 


Sivi 


Iwa 


E-siwa 


>Tolo 


Pulu 


E-tini 



lOO OCCASIONAL NOTES. 

probably survives in ampat 2.x\Aa-nam. In some languages a 
second article has even been added when the first has become 
incorporated in the numerals. 

Dr. DE Tavera also draws attention to the quinary system 
upon which the original numbers w^ere based doubtless owing to 
the convenience of using the hand in enumeration. The word 
lifna ox rima still means '^hand'^ in many of the dialects 
of Formosa, the Malay Archipelago and Polynesia. The 
inhabitants of 1 riton Bay in New Guinea, of Santo, Efate and 
Ambrym in the Nev>^ Hebrides, of the Island of Engano near 
Sumatra, and some of the wild tribes of Formosa still use 
quinary systems. The Malay delapan (8), derived by RiGG 
from dua-lepan (two turned down), takes us back also to a 
time when the fingers were used in counting. Sa-lepan, Sem- 
bilan (sa-ambilan), and the Achinese Sa-kurang (9) are all 
extensions of the same idea. 

The etymologies suggested by Dr. DE Tavera for the 
Philippine (and Oceanic) numerals are as follows : — 

Lua, dua, or rua (2) from a root signifying a double or copy, 

as in the Philippine ka-lu-lua, a ghost. 
Telo, tolu, torn (3) from a root signifying triple connected 

wilh tali ^ rope (triple strand). 
Pat, fa, ha (4) from a Polynesian root signifying " a com- 
plete set," " a company." The Javanese sa-kawan, 
Hawaii sa-kaima, has these meanings. 
These were the oldest numerals. For higher quantities the 
hand was used in enumeration. 
Lima, rima (5) the hand. 
A-nav/i, ono, ne (6). The root appears to be ne, but 

the meaning cannot be traced. 
Pitid, hitii, titii ij) from an old Polynesian root fia, 
"three," and the root tu "to shorten" [tua, to 
shorten, Tahiti). 
Walo, varo (8) from the Polynesian 2£'^ ^' a space," and 

rua or lua ''two" ; two spaces, i.e., dua-lepan. 
Siam, siwa, iwa (a), the "s" and '^ m " being accretions, 

from wa "a space," and the article " i." 
Pulo, fulu, hulu (10) from a root meaning totality [pulus,- 
ail, Tagal.) 



OCCASIONAL NOTES. lOI 

The Abbe Favre in his Dictionary is guilty of two errors 
in assuming sa " one," to be a contracted form of snatii, and 
di4a, " two," to be derived from the Sanscrit dwi. Suatu. 
he subsequently admitted to be a corruption of sa-batu, as 
the Javanese sa-wiji or siji is a corruption of sa-hiji. 

The Rev. D. MacDonald of Efate, New Hebrides, going 
further than Dr. Pardo DE Tavera, suggests a Semitic 
origin for the Oceanic numerals. The theory is a very daring 
one, for the Oceanic languages with their simple constructions 
and soft syllables are utterly unlike the Semitic languages 
with their harsh consonants, elaborate grammar,"^ and compli- 
cated vowel inflexions, and no ethnologists would be likely to 
support a theory that the Dyaks, for instance, are the lost ten 
tribes of Israel. The points also to which Dr. DE TaverA 
has drawn attention combat this theory, for the x^rabic nume- 
rals are not collective nouns, nor do they show any connection 
with quinary system. 

The resemblances traced by Mr. MacDonald between 
Oceanic and Semitic forms are not so clear as to necessitate 
his opponents explaining them away by any theory of coinci- 
dences. 

The following table shows the "original forms" suggested 
by him, together with the nearest existing forms in the Semitic 
and Oceanic languages respectively : — 

Nearest Semitic form. Nearest Oceanic fnrm. 

Ihda (Arab) Aida (Timor) 

Tarawah (Socotra) Roa (Maori) 

T'laa (Syriac) Telo (Malagasy) 

Arbaat (Arab; Bate (Efate) 

Khams i-rab) Ikma (Aneit) 

Sitt (Arab) Butanga (Gilolo) 

Sabat (Arab) Mbut (Malicolo) 

T'man (Arab) Delapan (Malay) 

Esro (Syriac) Siyam ;Tagal) 

Eseru (Amharic) Sarone (Timbora) 
These resemblances hardly carry conviction. In fact the 

* "There are thirty-three ordinary methods of forming the plural." — Socin's 
Arabic Grammar. 





Original form. 


I 


'd' 


2 


r' 


3 


tT 


4- 


'b't 


■5 


k'm' 


6 


t' 


7 


b't' 


8 


I'p'n 


9 


s m 


10 


s'n' 



3 02 OCCASIONAL NOTES. 

attempt to connect anam with sitt by means of the word 
butan^a is apt to recall the sarcasm of VOLTAIRE "pour 
Messieurs les etymologistes les voyelles n'y sont pour rien 
et les consonnes pour tres peu de chose." The selection of 
the Malay '' I'p'n ^' as an original root is singularly unfortunate 
in view of the well-known derivation of delapan from dua 
lepan. A reference to a table of Indonesian numerals 
will show that the forms selected are, in several cases, 
the exception rather than the rule. As for the Semitic 
numerals Mr. MacDonald has been in one or two cases 
misled by the transliteration. The " t' " in flaa is not 
" t ^' ( "-^ ) but '^ th " ( <-^ ) and generally corrupts to '' s " in 
other languages as hari thalatha, for instance, becomes hart 
selasa ; Othman corrupts to Osman. The ''k" also in 
Khamis is not the Indonesian "k" in Iknia. The Malay 
language contains some of the Semitic numerals in the names 
of the days of the week, but they do not corrupt to the forms 
suggested by Mr. MacDonald. 

It would be unsafe to base any arguments as to the origin 
or movements of the Indonesian races upon the resemblances 
between the numerals alone. The numerals, however, illustrate 
very fairly the theory of Polynesian migrations expounded 
by M. DE QuATREFAGES,^ in that they are used by the Melane- 
sian tribes who lie along the routes which the migrating tribes 
from Ceram and Bourou are believed to have followed on their 
way to the South Seas. Mr. A. R. Wallace, while unwilling 
to admit the common origin of the Indonesian and Polynesian 
races, fully recognised the remarkable similarity in language, 
a similarity, as he points out, of " words " not mere roots, and 
which he explains by suggesting that Malay traders must 
have visited the South Sea Islands. Of this, however, there is 
no historical evidence, and the primitive condition of the 
Polynesians when first visited by Europeans militates against 
the theory that they had commercial dealings with the com- 
paratively civilised Malays. The resemblance in language 
cannot be a mere coincidence. Attempts have been made to 
minimize its extent and importance by writers who argue in 
favour of the Oceanic races being the relics of the autocthonous 

* " Les Polynesiens et leurs migrations" — by M. A. dk Quatrefages. 



OCCASIONAL NOTES. I03 

inhabitants of an old Pacific continent ; but the connection 
between the Indonesian and Polynesian languages is now- 
becoming more generally recognised. The numerals furnish 
perhaps the best illustration of this relationship. ^ 

R. J. W. 

* The Indonesian numerals can be found in the following works, most of 
which are in the Society's Library ■, — 

Sumatra, Java, and Adjacent Islands. — Favre's Javanese Grammar gives the 
numerals in Javanese, Kavvi, Sundanese, Batak, Lampong, Madurese, and 
Balinese. The Nias Island numerals may be found in J. S. B. R. A. S., June 
1880 ; and those for the Isle of Engano in Mr. MacDonald's paper. 

Borneo. — The numerals in ii languages of Borneo are given in J. S. B. R. A. 
S., June, 1880. 

Celebes, the Moluccas, &c. — The numerals in Bugis are given in Favre's Ja- 
vanese Grammar. Crawfurd gives the numerals in the languages of Manatoto, 
Timor, Rotti, Savu, Ende and Mangarai (Flores); while Wallace (Malay 
Archipelago) gives them in 31 other languages of these parts. 

Philippines and Formosa. — Prof. Terrien de la Couperie gives the numerals 
in 32 languages of Formosa and 7 of the Philippines. (Formosa Notes, 
J.R. A. S. 1886). To these may be added the numerals in the Tag-benua 
language (J. S. B. R. A. S., 1880). 

Micronesia and Melanesia. — Crawfurd (Malay Grammar) gives the nume- 
rals in 3 Micronesian languages, Mr. McDonald gives them in 4 languages of 
the New Hebrides, and Dr. de Tavera in one language of New Guinea and in 
the language of Timor Laut, 

Polynesia, Madagascar and Fiji. — The numerals in 9 Polynesian languages, in 
Fijian and in Malagasy are given in Tregear's ' Maori Comparative 
Dictionary." 

Total — including Malay — 119 languages. 






[No. 29.] 

JOURNAL 



OF THE 



STRAITS BRANCH 



OF THE 



ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JULY, 1 896. 



SINGAPOHE: 

FlilNTKD AT THE GoYEHTsMENT PeINTIJS^G OefICE 



A(iHNiS OF THE SuciETV : 

Loudon ami America. ... Teuenkk Jc L\k 

Paris, ... EiixEsT Lkkotjx k Cie. 
(xermauY. "... Otto Hareassowitz. Leipzig 



q31^2. 



[No. 29.] 

JOURNAL 



OF THE 



STRAITS BRANCH 



OF THE 



ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JULY, 1896. 



SINGAPORE : 
Feinted at the Goveenment Feinting Offici. 



Agents of the Society : 

London and America, ... Teubner & Co. 

Faris, .. Ernest Leeoux & Cie. 
Germany, ... Otto Haeeassowitz, Leipzig. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Council for 1895, ... ... .. ... v 

Annual Eeport of Council for 1895, ... ... vi 

Treasurer's Account for 1895, ... ... ... viii 



Notes on the Folk-lore and Popular Religion of the 

Malays— 5j/ C. O. Blagclen, ... ... ... 1 

A Vocabulary of the Besisi Dialect — ly W. W. Skeat, ... 13 

A Bibliography of Malaya from July, 1893 to June, 1894 — 

C. Davies Sherhorn, T.&.s., F.z.s., ... ... 33 



THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Council for 1895. 

The Eight Eev. Bishop Hose, President. 

The Eev. G-. M. Reith, Vice-President^ Singapore. 

D. Logan, Esquire, Vice-President, Penang. 

R. J. Wilkinson, Esquire, Honorary Secretary. 

J. O. Anthonisz, Esquire, Honorary Ih^easurer. 

G-. T. Hare, Esquire, 

Dr. W. N. BoTT, 

A. H. Lemon, Esquire, ) Councillors. 

H. H. Hudson, Esquire, 1 

A. Knight, Esquire, ^ 



VI 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

COUNCIL 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

FOB, THE TEAR 1895. 

The Council are happy to state that the affairs of the 
Society continue to be in a satisfactory condition. 

The following new members have been elected at or since 
the last general meeting: — 



Dr. R. Hanitsch. 
Dr. H. L. E. LUERING. 
Mr. C. J. Saunders, 

Mr. E. ROSTADOS. 



The Hon'ble J. A. SwET- 

TENHAM, C.M.G. 

Mr. J. R. Hamilton. 
Mr. S. R. Groom. 
Mr. J. R. Dunn. 

During the year, Nos. 28 and 29 of the Society's journal 
have been printed. In addition to these regular journals, the 
Council of the Society under Rule 24 have sanctioned the 
separate publication of four works — a Monograph on Wai- 
seng Lotteries by Mr. G. T. Hare; a Malay iale, edited by 
Mr. Hugh Clifford ; a translation of the same tale by Mr, 
Clifford ; and a Life of Sir Stamford Raffles by the Rev. 
G/M. Reith. 1 he three first have been already published; 
the fourth will, it is hoped, appear in the course of the next 
two months. 



ANNUAL REPORT. VU 

A proposal was made during the year by the Government of 
Perak that the Native States Governments should undertake 
the work of prep?iring the map of the Malay Peninsula. To 
this the Council agreed, offering to place all the material now 
in possession of the Society at the disposal of the Survey 
Offices of the Native States. The scheme was, however, 
recently abandoned by the Government owing to its cost. 

The Council are unanimously of opinion that the following 
he substituted for Rule 6 : — 

" No member shall receive a copy of the Journal or other 
publication of the Society until his subscription for the cur- 
rent year has been paid/' 

The Council also unanimously recommend that members 
be allowed to compound for life membership of the Society 
on payment of $50. 



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NOTES ON THE FOLK-LORE AND 

POPULAR RELIGION OF THE 

MALAYS. 

[ Read before the Straits Philosophical Society. ] 



X" 




HE folk-lore and the popular religious beliefs and 
practices of any race form a wide subject which it 
is hardly possible to compress within the limits of 
a short paper. I do not propose here to give a 
complete survey of the subject, but merely to offer 
a few notes illustrating the general character of 
Malay ideas and customs under this head so far as they have 
come within my own personal observation. 

A good deal has been written on these matters, and amongst 
other papers I would refer particularly to that by Mr. W. E. 
Maxwell, which appeared in the seventh number of the 
Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, in 
1881. The chief point made in that paper is the thoroughly 
non-Muhammadan character of many of the common Malay 
beliefs and practices. That characteristic Is also perhaps the 
only one that I can claim to illustrate. 

Malays in the country districts are in fact only superficially 
Muhammadan. It is true they often carry out all the ritual 
precepts of that religion : many of them pray the required 
number of times daily, most attend the Mosque with decent 
regularity on Fridays, and a fair proportion (but by no means 
allj keep the fast of Ramadhan. But to their Muhammadan 
observances they superadd a good many practices which, from 
the Muhammadan point of view, are at least unorthodox, in 
fact almost pagan, and which can often be traced to a heathen 
origin. 

For instance, although officially the religious centre of the 
village community is the Mosque, there is usually in every 



2 FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RF:L1GI0N OF THE MALAYS. 

small district a holy place known as a kramat, at which vows 
are paid on special occasions, and which is invested with a 
very high degree of reverence and sanctity. 

\ hese kramats abound in Malacca territory ; there is hardly 
a village but can boast some two or three in its immediate 
neighbourhood, and they are perfectly well known to all the 
inhabitants. 

Theoretically, kramats are supposed to be the graves of 
deceased holy men, the early apostles of the Muhammadan 
faith, the first founders of the village who cleared the primeval 
jungle, or other persons of local notoriety in a former age ; and 
there is no doubt that many of them are that and nothing 
more. But even so the reverence paid to them and the 
ceremonies that are performed at them savour a good deal 
too much of ancestor- worship to be attributable to an orthodox 
Muhammadan origin. 

It is certain, however, that many of these kramats are not 
graves at all : many of them are in the jungle, on hills and in 
groves, like the high places of the Old Testament idolatries ; 
they contain no trace of a grave (while those that are found in 
villages usually have grave-stones) and they appear to be really 
ancient sites of a primitive nature-worship or the adoration of 
the spirits of natural objects. 

Malays, when asked to account for them, often have recourse 
to the explanation that they are kramat jin, that is, "spirit"- 
places ; and if a Malay is pressed on the point and thinks 
that the orthodoxy of these practices is being impugned, he 
will sometimes add that the yV;? in question is a //;« islam, a 
Muhammadan and quite orthodox spirit! 

Thus on Bukit Nyalas, near the Johol frontier, there is a 
kramat consisting of a group of granite boulders on a ledge 
of rock overhanging a sheer descent of a good many feet ; 
bamboo clumps grow on the place, and there were traces of 
religious rites having been performed there, but no grave 
whatever. This place was explained to me to be the kramat 
of one Nakhoda HUSSIN described as 2i jin (of the orthodox 
variety) who presides over the water, rain and streams. 
People occasionally burned incense there to avert drought 



FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 3 

and get enough water for irrigating their fields. There was 
another kramat of his lower down the hill, also consisting of 
rocks, one of which was shaped something like a boat. I 
was informed that \\i\s jin is attended by tigers which guard 
the hill and are very jealous of the intrusion of other ticrers 
from the surrounding country. He is believed to have revealed 
himself to the original Pawang of the village, the mythical 
founder of the kampong of Nyalas. In a case like this it 
seems probable that the name attached to this object of 
reverence is a later accretion and that under a thin disguise 
we have here a relic of the worship of the spirit of rivers and 
streams, a sort of elemental deity, localized in this particular 
place and still regarded as a proper object of worship and 
propitiation, in spite of the theoretically strict monotheism 
of the Muhammadan creed. Again, at another place, the 
kramat is nothing but a tree, of somewhat singular shape, 
having a large swelling some way up the trunk. It was 
explained to me that this tree was connected in a special way 
with the prospects of local agriculture, the size of the swelling 
increasing in good years and diminishing in bad seasons ! 
Hence it was naturally regarded with considerable awe by 
the purely agricultural population of the neighbourhood. 

As may be imagined, it is exceedingly difficult to discover 
any authentic facts regarding the history of these numerous 
kramats : even where there is some evidence of the existence 
of a grave, the name of the departed saint is usually the one 
fact that is remembered, and often even that is forgotten. 
The most celebrated of the Malacca kramats, the one at 
Machap, is a representative type of the first class, that in 
which there really is a grave : it is the one place where a 
hardened liar respects the sanctity of an oath, and it is occa- 
sionally visited in connection with civil cases, when the one 
party challenges the other to take a particular oath : a man 
who thinks nothing of perjuring himself in the witness box and 
who might not much mind telling a lie even with the Koran 
on his head, will flinch before the ordeal of a falsehood in the 
presence of the " Dato' Machap." The worship there, as with 
most other kramats, consists of the burning of incense, the 



4 FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 

offering of nasi kunyet (yellow rice) and the killing of 
goats ; but I also noticed a number of live pigeons there which 
illustrate the practice, common in Buddhist countries, of 
releasing an animal in order to gain " merit" thereby. 

To return to the elemental spirits : it was explained to me 
by a Malay, with whom I discussed the subject at leisure, 
that apart from the spirits which are an object of reverence 
and which when treated with proper deference are usually bene- 
ficent, there are a variety of others. To begin with, spirits 
(the word used on this occasion ^2iS hantu) are of at least two 
kinds — wild ones, whose normal habitat is the jungle, and 
those that are, so to say, domesticated. The latter, which 
seem to correspond to what in Western magic are called 
" familiars," vary in character with their owners or the persons 
to whom they are attached. Thus in this particular village 
of Bukit Senggeh, a few years ago, there was a good deal of 
alarm on account of the arrival of two or three strangers 
believed to be of bad character, who were supposed to keep 
a familiar spirit of a particularly malignant disposition which 
was in the habit of attacking people in their sleep by throttling 
them. One or two cases of this kind occurred, and it was 
seriously suggested that I should make the matter the subject 
of a magisterial enquiry, which, however, I did not find it 
necessary to do. But familiar spirits are by no means 
necessarily evil : indeed the Pawang (a functionary of w^hom 
more will be said later on) keeps a familiar spirit, which in 
his case is a hantu pusdka, that is, an hereditary spirit which 
runs in the family, in virtue of which he is able to deal sum- 
marily with the Vk^ild spirits of an obnoxious character. The 
chief point of importance is to keep these wild spirits in their 
proper place, viz. the jungle, and to prevent them taking up 
their abode in the villages. For this reason charms are hung 
up at the borders of the villages, and whenever a wild spirit 
breaks bounds and encroaches on human habitations it is 
necessary to get him turned out. Some time ago, one of 
these objectionable hantus had settled down in a kerayong 
tree in the middle of this same village of Bukit Senggeh, and 
used to frighten people who passed that way in the dusk : so 



FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 5 

the Pawang was duly called upon to exorcize it, and under his 
superintendence the tree was cut down, after which there was 
no more trouble. But it is certain that it would have been 
excessively dangerous for an ordinary layman to do so. 

This point may be illustrated by a case which was reported 
to me soon after it occurred and which again shows the 
intimate connection of spirits with trees. A Javanese coolie, 
on the main road near Ayer Panas, cut down a tree which 
was known to be occupied by a hantu. He was thereupon 
seized with what from the description appears to have been 
an epileptic fit and showed all the traditional symptoms of 
demoniac possession. He did not recover till his friends had 
carried out the directions of the spirit (speaking through the 
sufferer's mouth, it seems), viz., to burn incense, offer rice and 
release a fowl. After which the hantu left him. 

In many places there are trees which are pretty generally 
believed to be the abodes of spirits, and not one Malay in ten 
would venture to cut one down, while most people would 
hardly dare to go near one after dark. On one occasion an 
exceptionally intelligent Malay, with whom I was discussing 
the terms on which he proposed to take up a contract for 
clearing the banks of a river, made it an absolute condition 
that he should not be compelled to cut down a particular tree 
which overhung the stream, on the ground that it was a 
"spirit" tree. That tree had to be excluded from the contract. 

The accredited intermediary between men and spirits is the 
person who has already been referred to several times as the 
Pawang : the Pawang is a functionary of great and traditional 
importance in a Malay village, though in places near towns 
the office is falling into abeyance, in the inland districts, 
however, the Pawang is still a power, and is regarded as part 
of the constituted order of society, without whom no village 
community would be complete. It must be clearly understood 
that he has nothing whatever to do with the official Muham- 
madan religion of the Mosque : the village has its regular staff 
of elders — the hnam, Kliatib and Bilal — for the Mosque 
service. But the Pazuang is quite outside this system, and 
belongs to a different and much older order of ideas ; he may 



6 FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 

be regarded as the legitimate representative of the primitive 
'' medicine-man " or " village sorcerer " and his very existence 
in these days is an anomaly, though it does not strike Malays 
as such. 

Very often the office is hereditary, or at least the appoint- 
ment is practically confined to the members of one family. 
Sometimes it is endowed with certain ''properties" handed 
down from one Pawang to his successor, known as the kabesd- 
ran, or, as it were, regalia. On one occasion I was nearly 
called upon to decide whether these adjuncts — which consisted, 
in this particular case, of a peculiar kind of head-dress — were 
the personal property of the person then in possession of them 
(who had got them from his father, a deceased Pawang) or 
were to be regarded as official insignia descending with the 
office in the event of the natural heir declining to serve ! 
Fortunately I was spared the difficult task of deciding this 
delicate point of law, as I managed to persuade the owner 
to take up the appointment. 

But quite apart from such external marks of dignity, the 
Pawang is a person of very real significance. In all agri- 
cultural operations, such as sowing, reaping, irrigation works, 
and the clearing of jungle for planting, in fishing at sea, in 
prospectmg for minerals, and in cases of sickness, his assist- 
ance is invoked. He is entitled by custom to certain small 
fees : thus, after a good harvest, he is allowed, in some villages, 
five gantangs of padi, one gantang of rice {beras) and two 
chupaks of emping ( a preparation of rice and coco-nut made 
into a sort of sweetmeat ) from each householder. After re- 
covery from sickness, his remuneration is the very modest 
amount of tiga wang baharuy that is, yi cents. 

It is generally believed that a good harvest can only be se- 
cured by complying with his instructions, which are of a 
peculiar and comprehensive character. 

They consist largely of prohibitions, which are known as 
pantang. Thus, for instance, it is pantang in some places to 
work in the rice-field on the 14th and 15th days of the lunar 
month ; and this rule of enforced idleness being very congenial 
to the Malay character is, I believe, pretty strictly observed. 



FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION' OF IHE MALAYS. 7 

Again, in reaping, certain instruments are proscribed, and 
in the inland villages it is regarded as a great crime to use the 
sickle ( sabit ) for cutting the padi : at the very least the first 
few ears should be cut with a tiiai, a peculiar small instrument 
consisting of a semi-circular blade set transversely on a piece 
of wood or bamboo, which is held between the fingers and 
which cuts only an ear or two at a time. Also the padi must 
not be threshed by hitting it against the inside of a box, a prac- 
tice knowm as banting padi. 

In this, as in one or two other cases, it may be supposed 
that the Pawang's ordinances preserve the older forms of 
procedure and are opposed to innovations in agricultural 
methods. The same is true of \.^^pantan^ rule which prescribes 
a fixed rate of price at which padi may be sold in the village 
community to members of the same village. This system of 
customary prices is probably a very old relic of a time when 
the idea of asking a neighbour or a member of your own tribe 
to pay a competition price for an article was regarded as an 
infringement of communal rights. It applies to a few other 
articles of local produce"^ besides padi, and I was frequently 
assured that the neglect of this wholesome rule was the cause 
of bad harvests. 1 was accordingly sometimes pressed to fine 
transgressors, which would perhaps have been a somewhat 
difficult thing to do. The fact, however, that in many places 
these rules are generally observed is a tribute to the influence 
of the Pawang who lends his sanction to them. 

In agricultural operations the animistic ideas of the Malays 
are clearly apparent : thus, before the rice is cut, a sort of 
ritual is performed which is known 2l?> puji padi^ and which is 
regarded apparently as a kind of propitiatory service, a sort 
of apology to the padi for reaping it. The padi is usually 



* In Bukit Seng-geh the articles subject to this custom are priced as follows — 


Padi, 


3 cents a gantang. 


Beras, 


10 cents a gantang. 


Kabong suv^ar, ... 


2^ cents a " buku" of two pieces and 




weighing a kati. 


Coco-uuts, 


I cent each. 


Hen's eggs, 


o\ cent each. 


Duck's eggs, 


0^ cent each. 



8 FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 

Sprinkled with tepong tdwar ( flour mixed with water ) before 
the reaping is commenced, and the first lot cut is set apart 
for a ceremonial feast. 

At planting there are also ceremonies : as a rule the begin- 
ning of the planting season is ushered in by a visit of the 
whole body of villagers to the most highly revered kramat 
in the neighbourhood, where the usual offerings are made and 
prayers are said. Sometimes, however, there is a special ser- 
vice known as bapud,^ consisting of a sort of mock combat, in 
which the evil spirits are believed to be expelled from the rice- 
fields by the villagers : this is not done every year but once in 
three or four years. 

Another occasional service of a peculiar character which is 
not of very frequent occurrence is the ceremony which would 
perhaps be best described as the propitiation of the earth- 
spirit. Some years ago, I happened by chance to be present at 
a function of this kind, and as its details may be of some in- 
terest as illustrating the wide dispersion of certain points of 
ritual, I will end these notes by giving a full description of it, 
as noted down at the time. It was in the month of October, 
and I happened to be out shooting snipe in the padi-fields of 
the village of Sebatu on a Sunday morning, when I was met 
by the Penghulu, the headman of the village, who asked me 
to leave off shooting for an hour or so. As I was having fair 
sport, I naturally wanted to know the reason why, so he ex- 
plained that the noise of gunshots would irritate the hantu 
and render unavailing the propitiatory service which was then 
about to begin. Further enquiry elicited the statement that 
the hantu in question was the one who presided over rice-lands 
and agricultural operations, and as I was told that there would 
be no objection to my attending the ceremony, I went there 
and then to the spot to watch the proceedings. The place 
was a square patch of grass-lawn a few yards wide, which had 
evidently for years been left untouched by the plough, though 
surrounded by many acres of rice-fields. On this patch a 

* Menangkabau and Naning pronunciation for berpuar. Puar is the name 
of a jungle plant, said to be akin to cardannunn, the stem of which is used as a 
sort of javelin in this mock combat, 



FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 9 

small wooden altar bad been built : it consisted simply of a 
small square platform of wood or bamboo raised about three 
or four feet above the ground, each corner being supported 
by a small sapling with the leaves and branches left on it and 
overshadowing the platform, the sides of which appeared to 
face accurately towards the four cardinal points. To the 
western side was attached a small bamboo ladder leading from 
the ground to the edge of the platform. At the four corners 
of the patch of grass were four larger saplings planted in the 
ground. On the branches of all these trees were hung a num- 
ber of kefupats, which are small squarish bags plaited of strips 
of the leaves of the screw-pine [mengkuang] or some simi- 
lar plant, like the material of which native bags and mats are 
made. A larger ketupat hung over the centre of the altar, 
and all of them were filled with a preparation of boiled rice. 
On the altar were piled up various cooked foods laid on plantain 
leaves, including the flesh of a goat, cooked in the ordinary 
way, as well as rice and different kinds of condiments and 
sweetmeats. The Pawang was present as well as a number 
of the villagers, and soon after my arrival with the Penghulu 
the ceremony began by some of the villagers producing out 
of a bag the skin of a black male goat with the head and 
horns attached and containing the entrails (the flesh having 
been cooked and laid on the altar previously ). A large iron 
nail four or five inches long and thick in proportion was placed 
vertically in a hole about two feet deep which had been dug 
under the altar, and the remains of the goat were also buried 
in it with the head turned towards the east, the hole being then 
closed and the turf replaced. Some of the goat's blood, in 
two coco-nut shells {tempurong), was placed on the ground 
near the south side and south-west corner of the altar close to 
the ladder. 

The Pawang, after assisting at these preliminaries, then 
took his stand at the west side of the altar, looking east- 
wards : he covered his head, but not his face, with his sarong 
wrapped round it like a shawl, and proceeded to light a torch, 
the end of which was tipped with incense ( kemenyan ). V/"th 



lO FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. 

this he touched the bottom of the altar platform four times. 
He then took a cup of tepong tdwar and dipped in it a small 
bundle of four kinds of leaves, with which he then sprinkled 
the north-west and south-east corners of the platform. He 
then coughed three times — whether this was part of the ritual, 
or a purely incidental occurrence, I am unable to say, as it was 
not practicable to stop the ceremony for the purpose of asking 
questions — and again applied the torch under the altar and 
sprinkled with tepong tdwar all the corners of it, as well as 
the rungs of the ladder. 

At this stage of the proceedings four men stationed in the 
rice-field beyond the four corners of the patch of turf, each 
threw a ketupat diagonally across to one another, while the 
rest of the assembly, headed by the Penghulu, chanted the 
kalimah, or Muhammadan creed, three times. 

Then a man holding a large bowl started from a point in 
the rice-field just outside the north side of the patch of turf, 
and went round it (first in a westerly direction). As he 
walked, he put handfuls of the rice into his mouth and spat 
or vomited them out, with much noise as if to imitate violent 
nausea, into the field. He was followed closely by another 
who also held a bowl filled with pieces of raw tapioca root and 
beras hertih (rice roasted in a peculiar way) which he 
threw about into the field. Both of them went right round 
the grass-plot. The Pawang then took his cup of tepong 
tdwar and Sprinkled the anak padi, that is, the rice-shoots 
which were lying in bundles along the south and east sides 
of the altar, ready for planting. Having sprinkled them he 
cut off the ends, as is usually done ; and after spitting to the 
right and to the left, he proceeded to plant them in the field. 
A number of others then followed his lead and planted the 
rest of the rice-plants, and then a sweetmeat made of coco-nut 
and sugar was handed round and Muhammadan prayers were 
said by some duly qualified person, an orang ^alim or d^lebei, 
and the ceremony was concluded. 

It was explained to me that the blood and the food were 
intended for the hantu and the ladder up to the altar was for 
his convenience: in fact, the whole affair was a propitiatory 



FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS. II 

service, and offers curious analogies with the sacrificial cere- 
monials of some of the wild aboriginal tribes of Central India, 
who have not been converted to Hinduism or Islam. That 
it should exist in a Malay community within twenty miles of 
the town of Malacca, where Muhammadanism has been 
established for about six centuries, is certainly strange. Its 
obvious inconsistency wnth his professed religion does not 
strike the average Malay peasant at all. It is, however, the 
fact that these observances are not regarded with much 
favour by the more strictly Muhammadan Malays of the 
towns and especially by those that are partially of Arab des- 
cent. These latter have not very much influence in country 
districts, but privately I have heard some of them express 
disapproval of such rites and even of the ceremonies perform- 
ed at kramats. According to them, the latter might be 
consistent with Muhammadan orthodoxy on the understand- 
ing that prayers were addressed solely to the Deity : but the 
invocation of spirits or deceased saints and their propitiation 
by offerings could not be regarded as otherwise than poly- 
theistic idolatry. Of course such a delicate distinction — almost 
as subtle as that between dulia arid latria in the Christian 
worship of saints^-is entirely beyond the average Malay 
mind ; and everything is sanctioned by immemorial custom, 
which in an agricultural population is more deeply rooted 
than any book-learning; so these rites are likely to continue 
for some time and will only yield gradually to the spread of 
education. Such as they are, they seem to be interesting 
relics of an old-w^orld superstition. 

I have mentioned only a few such points and only such as 
have been brought directly to my knowledge: there are hosts 
of other quaint notions, such as the theory of lucky and 
unlucky days and hours, on which whole treatises have been 
written, and which regulate every movement of those who 
believe in them ; the belief in amulets and charms for averting 
all manner of evils, supernatural and natural ; the practice 
during epidemics of sending out to sea small elaborately con- 
structed vessels which are supposed tc carry off the malig- 
nant spirits responsible for the disease (of which I remember 



12 FOLK-LORE AND POPULAR RELIGION OF THE MALAYS, 

a case a few years ago in the village of Sempang, where the 
beneficial effect was most marked) ; the widespread belief in 
the power of menuju, that is, doing injury at a distance by 
magic, in which the Malays believe the wild junglemen 
especially to be adepts ; the belief in the efficacy of forms of 
words as love-charms and as a protection against spirits and 
wild beasts — in fact, an innumerable variety of superstitious 
ideas exist among Malays, and, of course, it is quite impos- 
sible even to refer to them all here. I must also leave ta 
others the task of citing parallels from the folk-lore of other 
races and can only conclude this paper by expressing the 
hope that some of the facts I have mentioned, though in 
themselves trivial, may derive additional Interest from sucb 
comparisons. 

C. OTTO BLAGDEN, 



VOCABULARY 

OF THE 

BBSISI* DIALECT 

BY 

VV. W. SKEAT, 

Acting District Officer, Ulii Langat, Selangor. 



Above (Atas) : Tih. 
Abscess or Boil (Bara) : Tes. 
Accustomed (Biasa) : Dasa, 

e. g., dasa dalam merl. 
^OLiAN Bamboo (buluh pe- 

rindu) : Ding dioi. 
After, behind (Di-blakang): 

Chenib. 
All, the whole (Semua): Na- 

doyt— 

(Doyt = habis). 
Alive (Hidup) : Ris. 
Alone (Sa'orang) Mui kur 

mah : a single man. Two 

together : mai kur mah. 

Three together : 'mpe 'kur 

mah.f 
Also (Juga) : Kla or Klo. 
Angry (Marah) : Kachi. 
Ant (Semut) : Pohs or Poys ; 
The following are some 
of the varieties: — 

1. Poys maet. 

2. Poys ush or uis. 

3. Poys podoi. 



A. 



Poys podoi kiak. 
Poys podoi ta'ang. 
Poys podoi kintog. 
Poys lilin (lilin). 
Poys kinggak (koring- 

ga). 
g. Poys anei (white ant). 

Ape (Brok): kok. 

Apparently (Rupa-nia) : bo 
or ba, e.g., Apparently near 
= i\Iing ba or ming bo. 

Arm (Lengan): Chembeh. 

Arms (Senjata) : 

1. Hau kres, (kris.) 

2. Hau p'dang, (pedang). 
Hau tohok. 
Hau badik (badik). 
Hau pahut (raut). 
Hau golok (golok). 
Hau sewa (sewa) has a 

curv^ed point. 
Hau nunyk (chenang- 

kas). 
Hau katok (katok or 

pandak.) 



* An aboriginal tribe of the Malay Peninsula. 

f Mai=mbar 'mar or ma': in rapid speaking ma' ikur mah (two tail of 
men ) turns into " maikur mah.'' 

N. B The ordinary "Romanized" system is used with one or two 
exceptions in the case of new sounds, thus : 6 is pronounced as in German 
bose, n as in Spanish canon, &c. 



H 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 



A . — Con tinned. 



10. Hau katep (pisau lidah 

ayam lipat). 

11. Hau bandak (pisau 

blanda). 

12. Hau chandong (pisau 

chandong). 

13. Hau kdchip. 

14. Hau kemeng (pisau 

kechil). 

15. Hau ali (pisau ali-ali). 
Arrive, from, to (Tiba) : Ni- 

mul (or Timbul). A saluta- 
tion between friends is mani 
nimul hinong ( Derimana 
tiba sekarang ) . Where do 
you arrive from ? Tabek 
met or jaga met are also 



used by those who meet in 

a jungle-journey. 
Assault, To, (Pukol): Kapet. 
Attack, To, to come in col- 
lision with; langger or lander. 

To rush upon ( t e r k a m ) : 

nekam. 
Assuredly (Benar): Nenek, 

e. g., (chelaka benar) = che- 

laka nenek: (jauh benar) 

lop nenek. 
Astray ( wSesat ) : Yong or 

uyong, e. g., (sesat d a 1 a m 

hutan)=yong meri. 
Aunt (Mah-sudara): Gomoh. 
Await (Menanti): Dedoi. 



Back (B'lakang):Chelon, e.g., 
back of a parang, chelon 
hau. 

Backbone Ja'ang Kh'ong: to 
carry on the back = klek. 

Bad (Ta' baik): Lem ngot or 
jehet. 

Bamboo (Buluh): Ding. 

Banana ( Pisang ): 'Ntor or 
h'ntor. The varieties known 
to the Sakais are as fol- 
lows : — 



Hntor 


ambun 


)> 


bakar 


?j 


brangan 


)) 


bula 


} > 


bungak 


•, 1 


cheroi 



gading 



Hntor habu 

jelong 
„ jengkak buaiak 

(t. e. lower jaw 
of crocodile). 

klat 
,, klat (kedoyt) 

kljng 
,, minyak 
, , nangkak 

pinang 
,, raja 
,, rindah 

royt 
,, tok (wild plantain) 
,, tuntong 
,, tusu 

Banyeng : the Sakai name of 
a musical instrument con- 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT 

B, — Continued. 



15 



sisting of a bamboo with 

strings to it (=Keranteng ?) 
Bark, of a tree (Kulit kayu) 

Lantok long, e. g., lantok 

tengkol ( bark of the kayu 

pulai); lantok banti (bark 

of the meranti). 
Bark, of a dog (Salak) Jol e.g., 

chau jol = the dog barks. 
Bat (Klawer): Hap^torSapet, 

flying fox, (keluang) kuang. 
Bathe, To (Mandi): Hu'm or 

hu'm doh e.g. pigi hu'm, to 

go and bathe. 
Bawl To (Triak ): Temo"^. 
Bear, To (Pikul) pikul. 
Bee (Lebah): Tebol :— 

Honey = gulak tebol. 
Beg, To (Minta') : Hagek or 

hagek 'ndol^. ^., minta bras 

sedikit : hagek 'ndol bras 

muntek = ask for a little rice. 
Bent (Bengkok) : Blengkok. 
Betel-leaf (Sirih): Chambai. 
Big (Besar): Kadui. 
Bind, To ( Ikat ): Kabok (Ka- 

bog). 
Bird ( Burong ) : Chim or 

chhim. 
Birds, names of, 

1. Kleteao or Kleteau a 

night bird (undescrib- 
ed). 

2. Oyok=berik-berik. 

3. Kung-kung (" a burong 

rimba," undescribed). 



4. Kochok, pigeon. 

5. Chim w6ao or weau : 

undescribed. 

6. Tatek or tates=eng- 

gang, hornbill. 

7. Chim janggong. 

8. Chim jangsi. 

9. Chim jang hui. 

10. Chim kalongkoit, des- 
cribed as the tiger's 
jackal (anjing) : t h e 
Sakais says if this 
bird sings " kalong ka- 
long kwom " the tiger 
is at hand ; but if it 
sings "koit-koit 
chonggok " it is only 
a pig. It is said to 
sit upon the tiger's 
back. 
Bite, To (Gigit) Kageng. 
Black (Itam): Hiram; pos- 
sibly a misapplication of 
the Malay word hiram or 
heram — quoted by Marsden 
as meaning many-coloured. 
Blind (Buta): Buta"§^. 
Blood (Darah): Maham e.,g., 
maham mah (darah orang) : 
human blood. Maham ketur 
(darah babi) pigs' blood. 
Blow, To : a blow-gun, 
(Menyumpit): Lalah or nao 
Blow-gun, A, ( Sumpitan: ) 

Blau. 
Blunt (Tumpul) : Bekut or 
beku^gt. 



i6 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 



B. — Continued. 



Body (Tuboh): Kret, e. g., 
Kadui Kret ; (badan besar), 
— h'lg of body ; and Kete or 
kete^gk kret (badan kechil), 
= small of body. 

Bone (Tulang): Ja'ang. 

Branch a, (Dahan): Rhoh. 

Break To, (Pechah): Pechak. 

Breast-bone (Tulang dada) 
Ja'ang genos. 

Breath (Nafas): Hawak. 

Breath, To, ( M e n a f a s ) : 
Raha'. 

Brush (Sapu): Tamp'hosor 



Tampois. 

Bullfrog: Bachel. 

Burn, To, (Bakar): tuht to 
burn a clearing: tuht rebak; 
to burn (paper, wood, &c.) 
cho'ong ; to burn, in tr. 
(DImakan api): Kachah( = 
chah) us or uis ; burnt 
(Terbakar) Katut us or uIs. 

Bury, To, (Tanam): Kom. 

Butterfly Klobok kadui 
(Kupu-kupu, the large va- 
riety.) Klobok Kenin (ra= 
ma-rama, the small variety). 



c 



Call, To, (Triak): Temoh. 
Cat (PCuching) as in Malay. 
Cavity (Lobang), e. g., cave 

in rock (gua batu): Serong 

batuk. 
Centipede (Halipan): Ki'itor 

Ke'ip. 
Chameleon (Sumpah-sum- 

pah) Senung poi. 
Chaw AT, (Loin-cloth): Soi or 

sui. 
Child (Anak): Kenon or ke- 

nun or budek. 
Chopper (Parang): 'Hau or 

'sau (pisau). 
Claw, to stick out the claws 

(Menyorong kuku) : Kwom. 
Climb (Panjat) : Yal Ex yal 

long = to climb a tree. 
Clothes (Pakeian): H'ndi or 

k'ndi. 
CofFERj i. e. a tin with a lid 



to it : (tim) Kopi. 

Cold (Sejuk): Teket. 

Colour, the names of all 
colours are taken from Ma- 
lay, except "black" and 
''white." 

Come ( Mnri): 0-h6h a n d' 
o-hok. Ex. " ohok siang' 
= come atpnce. The 
''Orang Treng" are report- 
ed to say "orsok." 
c. p. mai ohok. 
(where mai = mari). 

Confusedly ( Lintang-pu- 
kang:) Lentang kalang. 

Contend with, To (Berkla- 
hi): Gnahek, ^. ^., gnaheh 
hang-ki keh = fight with 
him. 

Cook, To (Masak): Chhi'n. 

Cough, To (Bato'): Akon, 
(as a consumptive person). 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 
C. — Continued. 



17 



Crawl, To— of a child (Mer- 
angkak): Berdabong. 

Creep, To^Glong hel = to 
move in spirals (as a snake). 

Creeper, a (Akar) Chong. 



Crocodile (Buaia): Bayak. 
Cry out, To (Triak): Te- 

mong^ 
Cut, To (Potong): Tot or ka- 

toyt. 



D. 



Dammar (Damar): Dian; 

Katu't dian (pasang damar). 
Dart, of a blow-gun (anak 

sumpitan): domok. 
Dark (Glap): Hagam. 
Day (Siang): Chohoi. 
Dead (Mati): Kebus. 
Deaf (Pekak): Pekang. 
Decayed, i. e., worn out (Bu- 

rok): Lek ; e.g., h'ndi lek 

(kain burok):worn out 

clothes. 
Deep (Dalam): Jer6"&. 
Demand, To, (Minta'): Soi 

or nosoi, e. g., soi uis ha' 

oyn (minta' api sama kita), 

asked us for a light. 
Descend, To, (Turun) Chu- 

lui or chelui. 
Dig, To, (Gali) Chom. 
Directly (Sa-kejap): Men- 

tek or muntek. 
Disappear To, (Hilang): Seh. 
Dislocated, (Salah urat ): 

Kle'che', e. g., kle'che' jong. 
Do, To, or make (Buat): Poi. 

or poi. 
Dog (Anjing): Chau or choh. 



Dollar ringget. 

Don't (Jangan): Bok or odo; 
e. g., don't give Bok jon. 

Drink, To (Minum): Bong 
or cha'doh. 

Drive, To, (Halau): Hanchat; 

DURIAN: Durian. When the 
fruit is ripe and one or two 
durians have fallen the fall- 
en fruit is cooked and ser- 
ved up in a jambar (recep- 
table of banana leaves) to- 
gether with any other fruits 
that are ripe at the same 
time. A space round the 
oldest tree is ornamentally 
railed off with s e r d a n g 
leaves and simple decora- 
tions and a feast is held (the 
feasters sitting inside it) af- 
ter the repetition of the 
usual charm : "■ Ha nahong 
tinibul nenek moyang, jan- 
gan gohup pening bagai." 

Dwell, Fo, (Tinggal): Ka- 
rak; e. g., mani hi karak ? 
(Dimana angkau tinggal). 



i8 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIAI.ECT, 



E 



Ear (Telinga): Teng or Tong. 
Earring ( Subang anting): 

Subar anteng. 
Earth (Bumi): Chok. 
Eat, To, (Makan): Chachar or 

nachar. 
Ebb (Surut): Surut. 
Egg (Telor): Kepok. 
Eight (D' lapan) as in Ma= 

lay. 
Elder Brother (Abang): 

Ye or yek. 
Elder Sister (Kakak): Ga'u 

or ga'u'. 
Elephant (Gajah): Merat or 

m'rat. 
Enter, To (Masok): Lep: Ex. 

lep dalam (masok ka-dalam) 



to enter within : l^p baju 

(masok baju): to put on a 

coat ; to enter the house 

(naik ka-rumah): yal ha- 

dong or 'dong. 

Escape, To, (Lepas): Pesuit 

Evening (Petang): Go'uis. 

Exude (Menitek or Kluar): 

K6h. Ex. k6h getak. 
Eye (Mata): Met. 

A common salutation is 

jaga met take care of 

yourself or tabik met 

by your leave. 

Eyebrow (Kening): Buluk 

met. 
Eyelash (Bulu mata): Ken- 
ting met. 



F. 



Face ( Muka): Mungkak or 

mukak. 
Fall, To, ( Jatoh ): Groyn or 

grofi ; tegot to fall (of a tree 

bong and bedeng. 
Far, distant, (Jauh): Lop. 
Father (Bapa): Ikun. 
Fathom, A (Depa): Depa. 
Feather (Bulu): buluk. 
Fell, To, (Tebang) G6h. 
Fern (Paku): Helen 
Feverish (Sakit demam): 

Ch6hh. 
Finger ( Jari): jar^k. 
Fingernail ( Kuku): Kuku"s 

tih. 



Finished (Habis): Doyt, ^.^., 
the paper is all finished, 
doyt ketas ang 'song (habis 
kretas semua). 

Fire (Api): ush or uis. 

Fish (ikan) kah. 

Five (Lima): limak. 

Floodtide (Ayer pasang): 
doh yal, (lit. climbing or 
ascending water). 

Fly a (Lalat): Roi. 

Fly To, (Terbang): T6'ht 
(to"&). 

Flying Lizard (Kubin): To- 
long. 

Foot (Kaki): J6ng. The 
names of the various parts 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 



19 



of the foot are as f o 1 - 
lows : — 

leg: jong ( = betls), 
Sole of the foot: tampar 

j6ng. 
Top of the foot: k u 1 i t 

jong. 
Great toe: gendek jong. 
Toes : jarek jong. 
Little toe : jarek kaleng 

keng jong. 
Toe nail koko"^t jong 
Instep : buku jong. 
Heel: turn it. 
Ankle: buku lalih. 
Forbid (Larang):'regah. 
Forehead (Dahi): Kening. 



Forest (Utan) : meri ; Ex. 

Orang utan = mah meri, 

/. e., jungle-man. 
Four (Ampat) : 'xMpat. 
From (Deripada): Ken. 
Front In (Di-depan): Chiang, 

e.^., chokleh chiang = jalan 

di-depan_, walk in front. 
Fruit (Buah) : P e 1 e k, 6-. ^., 

durian:=pelek durian. 
Full satisfied or gorged with; 

food, (Kenvang); Lihih or 

bihih. 

Fungus (Sendawan): Petis, 
e.g.. Peti' A a' = the fungus 
known as '' susu harimau" 
or "tiger's milk." 



G. 



Games (Permainan) : Beranta 
balei, or (among the Sepang 
Sakais) main jo'oh, was the 
name of a highly convivial 
orgy now no longer in- 
dulged in, but which for- 
merly followed the p a d i - 
harvest. It must have been 
of a remarkable character 
as it concluded with a gene- 
ral exchanging of wives ! 

Gape To, (Nganga): Ang. 

Gharu Wood (Gharu): 

Long tabak the eagle 
wood of commerce. 

Ghost (Hantu): Hantuk, e.g., 
hantu deguk, (haunting 
graves); hantu tinggijbaj ang 
buru-buru, pontianak, lang- 



weh, lanjing, huton (the 
ghost of a monkey, ungka)^ 

Give To (Bri): jin or jon, e.g.^ 
jon kih-keh = kasih samadia 
= give it to him. 

Go To, (Pergi): Chok, e. g,, 
chok hani ? or hamani ? 
where are you going ? chok- 
a-kit, go there. 

God (Tuhan): Hallang 
(Allah) or Tuhan. 

Gold (Amas): Mas. 

Good (Baik): Lem. N.B. the 
treble superlative (chok) lem 
lem lem is said to be some- 
times used at parting, the 
meaning of course being — 
Take great care of yourself 
(lit: " walk with the great- 



20 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 
G. — Continued. 



est possible care.") 
Grandfather : Nenek. 
Grandmother: Gendoi. 
Grave (Kubor): Kemut or 

Kamuhyt. 
Gravy (Kuah gulei): Jumak. 



Green (Hijau): Biru (properly 

''blue/' 
Grow To, (Tumboh): Belong. 
Growl To, of a dog, : 
Nglehih. 



H. 



Hair (Rambut): Tsuk or 

chuk. 
Hand (Tangan): Tih. 
Hard, of wood (Kras): 

Geheng. 
Hasta, a measure of length : 

Seta or sta. 
Hate (Sakithati): Grehgohup 

lit. sick at heart. 
He or She: Hi. 
Head (Kapala): Koi. 
Hear To, (Dengar): Piong. 
Here (Sini): Tahoh, nahoh or 

naho"g- 
Hill (Bukit): Chong. 
HipBonE: Ja^ang tong keng. 
Honey ( Manisan lebah ) Gu- 



lak tebol. 
Hook (Kail): Ka'y^l. 
Hot, Heat (Panas): as in 

Malay. 
House ( Pondok or Rumah): 

D'ongor hadong. 
How Far To, (Brapa jauhj: 

Bapak lop. 
Howl To, of a dog (Melo- 

long): Ma'ong. 
Hurt To, (Buat sakit): Mem- 

poi gohup. 
Husband (Laki): Helok, ^.^., 

mani haluk helok hinong 

( mana pergi laki tadi) 

Where did your husband 

go just now? 



I, (Sahya): Oyn. the smaller 

Iguana (Geroyang): G i a n g, wak). 

the large variety ; or jawak, 



one [i. e. bia- 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISi DIAUEC T 



31 



Keep To, (Simpan) : Ka'on 
e.g., naho" ka^ofi ( ini sim- 
pan) = Keep this. 
Kill To, (Banoh): Kapong, 
Kindle (Pasang): Tut, ^. g. 
tut us or ui's. 



Knot or joint of a bamboo, 

Malacca cane &c. T e k - 

ing. 
Know To, (Tahu): Sro, e.g., 

sro ngot (ta'tahu): I don't 

know. 



Lately (Tadi): Hinong, e. g., 
namah kabar hinong ( apa 
khabar tadi): What news 
lately ? 

Laugh (Tertawar): Glok. 

Leaf, Foliage (Daun kayu): 
'rok or rhok. 

Lean-TO (Pondok pisang se- 
sikat): Do'ng sikat 'ntok or 
ntor. 



Leap To, (Lompat): H^mur. 

Leg (Betis): Kejol. 

Little, a, (Sadikit): Murtek, 

muntet or muntek. 
Lofty (Tinggi): Cheron or 

serong. 
Long (Panjang) jilong or je- 

long. 
Low (Rendah): gelek, dekis 

jelek. 



M 



Male (Jantan): lemo"^ or le- 

mol. 
Marsh (Paya): Payak. 
Mat or Carpet (Tikar): Tekar. 
Matches (Tarek api): Guris 

or "uis" or " chuleh api.'' 
Measure To, (Sukat): Tek. 
Medicine (Ubat): Ubat. 
Ml ET To, (Jumpa): Chohuh. 
Merteng, a kind of wild dog 

said to hunt deer in packs 

of 20 or 30 : — 
(i) Merak, 
(2) Hiram. 



Mew To, of a cat (Mengiau): 

Ayau. The sound is called 

'yau-'yau. 
Midday (Tengah hari): Pe- 

dih. 
Milk (Susu) Tub. 
Mix To, (Kachau): haru = to 

stir, e. g., haru lempoh to 

stir up durian jam. 
Monkey ( Munyiet ): Munyet. 

The species are : — 

1. Ko' = Bro' besar. 

2. Tembo' = Unka. 

3. Krak=Kra. 



2Z 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 



M. — Continued, 



4. Sikar=Chika. 

5. Lotong=Lotong. 

6. Mungkar (unidenti- 
fied). 

Moon (Bulan): Bulan. 
More (Lagi): Alo or Ngol 

(nol) e.g., jon alo = kasih 

lagi. 
Morning (Pagi): Teng 

shohm. 
Morrow, To-morrow or the 

next day(besok, lusa): Ki- 

sohm, langsohm or 'isong, 



Mosquito (Nyamok): Kebok. 

MoiH^Kladok. 

Mother (Mak): Gadek or 

gendek. 
Mouse (Tikus): Ka'ne'. 
Mouse-Deer ( Pelandok ) : 

Kanchel [cf. Jav. Kanchil). 
Mouth (Mulut): Pang. 
Mouthpiece (of a blowpipe) 

= Teb6ng. 
Much (Baniak): ' N ohm or 

H'nom. 
Murder, To (Bunoh): Pohng. 



N. 



Nail, of the Finger (Kuku): 

Koko"t. 
Naked (Telanjang): Siloyt 

or Kacho'. 
Name (Nama): Gelar. 
Narrow ( bimpit ): Simpit or 

'mpit. 
Near (Dtkat) : Paming or 

'ming. 
Nenek Engkoh ( elsewhere 

given as jungkoh) : Engkoh 

is said to be the name of 

the ancestor of the Besisi 

tribe who fell from heaven. 
Nephew ( Anak sud^ra ) : 

Kenon Sudara' or N o n 

Sudai a'. 
Net (Jala): J^li'. 
Never (Ta'prenah): Prenah 

'ngot. 
Never mind (Tid'apa): 

Ngahi ngot. 



New (Bahru): 'Mpai. New 
clothes, hndi 'mpai. 

Night (Malam). Doi. Last 
night = nihi. 

Nine (Sambilan): Sambilan. 

NiPA Palm leaf (for cigar- 
ettes) =Daun bachap. 

No, Not (Tidak): Ngut or 
ngot. 

Noise (Bunyi): Kyaong, also 
ruh and liok, e.^., liok budek 
ho'^>g = this boy is making a 
noise. 

North (Angin Utara,): Buah 
'lara'. 

Nose (Hidong): Mub. 

Notch, 'lo^'. ^., with a pa- 
rang itetak): Katokng . 

Not Yet (Belum): Woh or 
woa (pronounce as in war). 

Noxious (Bisa): Bisa'. 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT, 



n 



O. 



Oar (Dayong): Dayong. 
Oath fSumpah): Sumpa', 
OBn:Y (Turut): Turut. 

Obscure, Dark, (Glap): Glap 

Odour ( Bau ) Lo'om ? 

Offence (Dosa): Dosa'. 

Often (Selala): Ha'in, e. g., 
timbul ha'in (selalu datang) 
"always turning up ". 

Oil (Minyak): Minyak, e.g., 
minyak' long, wood oil ; mi- 
nyak tek, kerosine. 

Old (Tuah): Soro. 

Omit (Lupa): Lupa.' 

Once, i. e., of old ( Z a m a n 
dahulu) Temai. 

One (Satu): Mui. 



Open, To (Buka): Buka'. 

Oppose, (Lawan): lawan. 

Orchid (Sakat): Teteng. 

Order (Hukum): Hukum. 

Origin (Asal): Asal. 

Orphan (Badak ta'da bapa 
ta'da mak) Badek hap n'uyn 
hap gadek : lit. a child that 
has no father and no 
mother. The usual word 
for father is ikun. 

Other, Another, i. e., differ- 
ent, (Lain): Aseng. 

Our ( Kita punya): Heh 
punya'. 

Out, Outside, (Diluar): luar. 



Padi: Be. 

Pail (Timba): Timba' 

Pain (Sakit): Gohup^.^., gre' 
gohup (Hati Sakit) pained 
at heart, angry. 

Part, A, (Bhagian): Bagian. 

Part. To, cut in two (Blah): 
Bla'. 

Partition ( Binding): Dung 
or Dong. 

Paper ^Kertas): Ketas. 

Pass, To, (Lalu): Broyt. 

Past, /. e., complete or done 
with (Sudah) used as an 
anxiliary ; veyb N d a h or 
'dah e. g. diit 'dah (Sudah 
Habis) completely finished. 

Pastry, cakes, (Kueh): Ni- 
pang. 

Pay, To (Baier): Baiar. 



Pea (Kachang) : Kachang. 

Peel (Kupas): Kupes. 

Pen, European (Kalam): 

Kadam ; Malay pen, 

Hede"^. 
Perfect, Complete, (Genap): 

Genap. 
Perspiration (Pluh): Peloh. 
Pepper (Lada Pedas, Lada 

Itam): Pedas Chong. Chong 

= creeper, also rattan. 
Pick (Petik): Petek. 
Piece, of cloth (Sa-lei): Mui' 

lai. 
Pierce, To ( Masok): Choh, 

e. g., the post will not enter 

the ground — '1 ihang choh 

ngot hateh^ 
Pig (Babi): Ketuh or Ketur. 



24 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 



P. — Continued. 



e.g., ketur Men (Babi utan) 
wild pig. 

Pigeon ( Punei): Koch ok 
(chim kochok, or weyau); a 
Pergam = pegam or chhim 
pegam. 

Pillow (Bantal): Bantal. 

Pineapple (Nanas): Nenas. 

Pirate (Perompak): Baj au 
also Mali Kompak. 

Pit (Lubong): Serong (or 
rong, dalam teli'; lit. hole in 
the earth. 

Pitch, Rosin, (Damar): Dian. 

Pitcher, water jar, ( B u - 
yong, Tempayan, etc.): Bu- 
yong, 'Payan, etc., as in Ma- 
lay. 

Place (Tempat): Tempat. 

Place (Taroh): Oyn or on, 
e. g., to place food etc. rea- 
dy for eating. 

Place, Of, In, (Ganti): Ganti. 

Plain, A, (Padang) Teh Pa- 
dang. 

Plant, To (Tanam): Metong 
or Petong. 

Plant, To, Padi (Berladang): 
Poi humak (buat huma). 

Plant, To, a stake etc., (Cha- 
chak): Kachek. 

Plate (Pinggan): Pingan. 

Pl.AY, To Games (Ber-main- 
main): Chok main, ( perg'i 
main )lit. to go and play. 

Pliant, Flexible (Lembut): 
Lemboht or lembot as in 
bought. 

Pluck. To, leathers etc. 



(Chabutbulu ayam): 

I'otoyt. 
Plump or Fat (Lemak): Be- 

chu'. Mai. Gem6k = Gemuk 

or 'muk. 
Plunge, To, in, Dive (Selam): 

Selam hadoh, lit. to dive into 

water. 
Pock-marked : Jawat. 
Poem (Pantun): Pantun. 
POINT,^ of land (Tanjong): 

Tanjong. 
Puppy (Anak anjing): Kenon 

chau. 
Point, of a weapon : Chhen, 

e.g., chhen gulong=:point 

of tumbok lada. 
Poison : Rachun. 
Poisonous (Bisa): Bisak. 
Populous (Ramei): Ramai. 
Pork (Daging babi): Daging 

ketur. 
Portrait (Gambar): Gambar. 
Positive, certain (Tentu): 

Sentu. 
Post, A (Tiang):Tihang. 
Pot (Priok): Piok. 

also blanga = banga'. 
but kuali = piok-banga\ 
Potatoes (Ubi Benggala): 

Ubi Ngala. 
Pour, To (Tuang ayer): 

Tele"gk doh. 
Powerful, Muscular: Kuat. 
Practice, Learn, To, (Blajar, 

Biasa = bisah. 
Prahu (Prahu): Pahoh. Naik 

prahu=yal pahoh. 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISl DIALECT. 



25 



P. — Continued. 



Prawn, Shrimp (Udang): 

Udang bubo (small) udang 

gagau &c. 
Pray, To (Sembahyang): 
Previous (Kelmarin): Peha- 

mai. 
Present. To, give (Kasih): 

Jnoy or Jon. 
Price, Rate: Hergak. 
Profit (Untong): untong. 
Prohibit, To ( Larang ) : 

Larang. 
Promise, To (Berjanji): Janji. 
Protect, To, bring up, (Pe- 



ready, 



lehera): Pri. 
Provide, To, get 

(Siap-kan): Siap. 
Provisions (Makanan): 

Nachar. 
Proxy (Wakil): Wakil. 
Pull, To, (Tarek): Trek. 
Pumpkin (Labu): i ukal. 
Purr, To, of a cat: Sendoh 

or bersendoh. 
Purchase, To, (Bli): Belik. 
Pursue, To, (Kejer)': Halau. 
Put out. To, extinguish, 

(Padam): Plot us or Uis. 



Q. 



Quake, of the earth. To: Teh 

gempar. 
QuARREL,fight,To,(Berklahi): 

Nahi. 



Question (Bertanya): Herah. 
Quiet ( Diam ) . Sengoyt or 

Kohm. 
Quiver, for blowgun dart : 

lok. 



R. 



Rage (Anger): Kachih. 

Rage, to grow fierce (Ganas) : 
Singah ; described as the 
name of the season in which 
tigers are dangerous (when 
they are said to come down 
from Gunong Ledang), said 
to be during the prevalence 
of north winds. 

Rail, at, To, abuse (Maki): 
Kachih. 

Rain (Ujan): Gemah or ge- 
mar; drizzle, gemah banchi. 

Rainbow (Plangi): Plangi. 

Raise, To, Lift, ( Angkat): 



Ano:kit. 
Rat (Tikus): Kaneh. orkane\ 
Rattan (Rotan): Chung or 
ch 6 ng. 

Tlie following are the 
chief varieties known 
in the neighbourhood. 
Chong kembong: — 
,, biau. 
,, konak. 
n tonggal. 
,, chodol. 
,, chenchen. 
„ segak. 
,, segak badak. 



26 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 
R — Continued. 



Chong segak bras. 
,, krai. 
,, dudok. 
„ lilin. 
,, batu. 
,, krai nong. 
- „ budang. 
,, sabut. 
„ kaneing, 
,, budang tikus. 
„ manan. 
„ kretong. 
„ lelang. 
,, laiar. 
,, tembini ( or 

kedol). 
,, bakau. 
„ 'mambuk, 
,, getab (==dian) 
„ jenang (jer- 
„ nang). 
„ prut avam 

( = HHn). 
„ tapat. 
„ sabut. 
,, dahan [chu- 

dol). 
,, lebun (unknown). 
,, peledas ,, 
,, sengkelah ,, 
„ chichir „ 
n segei ,, 

,, senenyer ,, 
„ dini (?bini) „ 
„ perdas ,, 
Reap, To, (Menue): Netok, 
e.^.y Netok beh. 



Remain behind, To, (TIng= 
gal): Karak. 

Remove, To, (Pin dab) : Gi- 
leh : (a corruption of gilir)} 

Repeatedly, J u 1 i t - j u 1 i t 
(=:Balik-balik). 

Require, To, ask for, (Min- 
ta'): Kasoi e. g., ask him for 
it=Kasoi hangkih. 

RESiDE,To,(Tinggal): Karak, 
e.g., live in the jungle = 
karak meri. 

Retain, keep (Simpan): On 
or oyn. 

Return, To, (Pulang-kan): 
Yut or tyut, e.g., pulang-kan 
sama dia = tyut hangkikeh. 

Rice (Padi): Be or Beh. 

Right ( Tangan kanan): Tih 
kanan, lit. right hand. 

Rigorous, Severe : Geheng. 

Ripe, of fruit: Ndum. 

Rise, To, from a sitting pos- 
ture : lek jong (lek = bang- 
kit, j6ng=berdiri); to get 
up from sleep = lek. 

River : (ayer sungei) ; Doh 
gendek not dohgadeh. Ga- 
deh and gendek both = ibu. 
A brook is Kenon doh. 

River-turtle ( Labi-labi ): 
Yok, yohh or yohh rabi, tur- 
tle-eggs : kepoh yohh. 

Roar, To, (Mengaung) = Ru, 
e.g., the tiger roars, a' a' ru'. 

Roll of hair (:Sanggul): 
Jebol. 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT, 
R. — Conti7tued. 



27 



Root (Akar): Jangkar. RUBBISH (Sampah): Cha'aingt. 

Rotten (Busok): Su'ut or Run, To, (Lari): Dok or duh- 
chu'ut. 



S, 



Sail (Layer): Layar. 
Sarong: (Lep) baju. 
Saucer (Firing): Pereng. 
Scented (Harum): Ro'uhm. 
Scorpion ( Kalajingking): 

Kala or kalajengkeng. 
Scratch (Garis) : Kawait. 

To scratch (garu) = Kakaht. 
Sea (Laut): Bawau, 

(pr. as in bow-wow). 
Sea-sick (Mabok laut): Bui 

bau-wau or kuh ; sick e. g., 

from eating poisonous fruit, 

bul pele'. 
See, To (Nampak): Kai. Kai 

dinalop (nampakjauh-jauh). 
See, To, consider, (Tengo'), 

let me see: kom jeliau 

(kom = dapat ? ) : also kom 

cheliau. 
Seed (Biji): Bejek. 
Seek, lo : Telong. 
Seize, To, to hold (Pegang): 

Pegong. 
Set, To, food for a meal, (Ta- 

roh pinggan) : On or oyn. 
Seven: (Tujoh) as in Malay. 
Sew, To, (Jaii): Jahit. 
•Shallow (Tohor): Jepek. 
Shake, To, (Goyang): Ho'go'. 
Shark (Ikan yu): Kah 'yok. 
Shave, To, (Chukor): Chuku. 



Shell : Siput putar (spiral 

shell) = siput klel : siput pu- 

ting biong = siput puting 

bliong (bliok"g). 
Shine, To, Ale"^t. 
Short (Pendek): Gelek or 

jelek. 
SnoT.ball, bullet, &c. (Peluru): 

Puru. 
Shut, To, (Tutop): Tudong. 
Sick, III, (Sakit): Gohup. 
Silver (Perak): as in Malay. 
Sit, To : Khohm (pr. nearly 

as khawmj. 
Six CAnam): Nam. 
Skin (Kulit): Kulit Kret ; of 

fore-arm : Chembeh. 
Slap, Jo, ( T e m p i 1 i n g ) : 

Sepak. 
Sleep, To, (Tidor): Getek. 
Slippery; to slip ( Lichin, 

tergalinchir ) : Sliyu"^ or 

seliyu. 
Slo\vly (Perlahan-perlahan): 

Pejjoi. 
Sma^ L (Kechil): Tetak or Ke- 

nen. 
Small-pox (Sakit chachar): 

Sakit nachar. 
Smell, To, (Men-chium): Ka- 

hon"^. 
Smoke (Asap): Jelok. 



2S 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISl DIALECT. 



S, — Continued, 



Smoke, cigarettes to: Na- 

char mudut. 
Snake (Ular): Tijau or Tijoh 

The following are some 

of the species :-= 
Tijau = snake. 

1. T. doh. 

2. T. kempes. 

3. T. tentang. 

4. T. tedong. 

5. T. lengkuk. 

6. T. bulan. 

7. T. blerang. 

8. T. 'ku anjing (said to 

live in the ground). 

9. T. dasun. 

10. T. dian. 

11. T. sawak, 

12. T. moyang. 

13. T. sendokng. 

14. T. sampa'. 

15. T. hiram. 

16. T. bakau (described 

as^prato'prato')". 
Soon (Sakejap lagi): Mui 

kejap alo ; or kidim. 
Spear (Lembang): To'ho' or 

Tohok. 
Spider (Laba-laba): Bong. 
Spoor (Jijak, bekas ) : Ti'l, 

e. g. these are a t i g e r ' s 

tracks, Hoh ti'l a' a'. 
Squeeze, To (Pichit): Che 

mu"&t. 
Squirrels (Tupei) : 
(i) r. gendui. 

(2) T. menggas. 

(3) T. belang. 

(4) T. munchong. 



(5) T. daoit. 

(6) T. dalet. 

(7) T. chong (said to 

burrow into the 
earth and travel 
under- g round, 
coming out further 
on). 

(8) T. kinchang. 

(9) T. chameng. 
Stand on end To, as of hair, 

bristles, &c. ( s ram ) : 

= Keteng. 
Stand upright, To, (Berdiri); 

Jong. 
Star: (Bintang) as in Malay. 
Stomach (Prut): U'ut. 
Storm ( Ribut y. Sheluhh or 

luk e. g., there is a storm= 

ari' sheluhh. 
Strangle, To, Choke, (Che- 

kek): Tekom (teko^ m). 
Strike, To, ( Pukol ) Kapet 

or pet. 
String, Rope (Tali): Chong. 
Stroke, To, (Urut): Pusoi, 

6'. ^., stroke a cat=p u s o i 

kuching. 
Sugar-cane (Tebu): Bois. 
Summon, To, (Panggil): Te- 

moh"&. 
Sun : (Matahari) : IVIet arek. 
Swallow, To, ( T e 1 a n ) : 

Geloyt. 
Sweet (Manis): Ni't or nyi't. 
Sweet potato (Kledei): Hi- 

lak. 
Swift (Chepat): Begas. 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT. 



29 



Take To (Ambilj : Gul. 

Tame (Jinak): Legi. 

Tap, To, with a stick (Sakal): 

Tongk"Rk. 
Tadpole : Budu'. 
Tapir (Tenok) Terno'. 
Tear, To (Koyah-kan) : Siat : 

(Trans), Ruht (Intrans.) 
Teeth (Gigi) : Lemoi. 
Ten : (Sapuloh) as in Malay, 
That (Itu): Nake\ 
Thatch (Atap) : Plong, 

plong nipak=nipah thatch, 

plong kerpau=s e r d a n g 

thatch. 
There; at a distance, (Sana): 

Tui e. g., ma' tui" ( orang 

sana) = people over there. 
Thigh (Paha): Beluh or Belo. 
Thin (Kurus): Jit or Jet. 
This (Ini): Ni-h6h. 
Thither (Kasana): Huki' or 

Hoki, e. g., Chok mani-hi ? 

Where are you going? 

Chok huki (pointing with 

the finger), "going that 

way !^' 
Three (Tiga): 'Mpe'. 
Throat: Kangkong. 
Throw away to (Buang): Ka- 

win, ^. ^., Kawin lema^t = 

Buang sampah. 
Thumb ( Ibu jari ) : Gende' 

jarik. The rest of the 

fingers are called by their 

Malay names. 
Tiger (Harimau): Tueh or 

A'a' or Manu. 
Tired (Penat): Lengo'. 



To-day ( Ini hari ) : A r e k 

imong. 
To-morrow (Esok) : Nisom, 
Isong or Es5ng. Day after 

to-morrow=:arek Angsong 

or Lansom (/. e. Langsong). 
To-night (Malam ini): Doi 

kedim. 
1 ONGUE (Lidah): Lida. 
Tree (Pokok) : 'Long or 

D'long. 

The following are a few 
specimens of Sakai tree 
names. ; — 

Perepat=^'KurSi\^ (its suc- 
kers are called longkong, 
M. tunjang). 

Pulai=imgk\i. 

Upih = h2Lr\g\o\ 

Brangan badi = \ong breh 
(bres). 

Kura2{ = \ong sampan. 

Pagar /Si^^^i'^Long penan- 
chang. 
Tremble,, To, or Shiver 

(Menggleter): kruk. 
Trickle, to (Menitek) Teao 

or teau. 
Trouble, In (Susah): Gres. 

(greh) gohup. 
Trumpet, To, of an elephant 

Kreke"^t^ i. e., the noise 

made by an elephant when 

about to charge ; the cry 

with which he calls his 

companions is described as 

Uh-uh-kang. 
Trunk of a tree (Pangkal): 

T^koh. 



30 A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISl DIALECT. 

T ^— Continued. 



Tube or hollow of a sumpit- 
an from end to end: Serong: 
The stem of a sumpitan = 
Tago. 



Turtle (Tuntong) : Yok. 
Twig, A (Ranting) = Ranteng, 
Two ( Dua): H'mbar, M'b^r 
or 'M'ar. 



u. 



Uncle (Bapa Saudara): Ibah. 

Understand, To, (Herti): 
Seho' or Sero, e. g., Sero 
ngot (ta'tahu) I don't under- 
stand. 



Ungka, a' kind of monkey the 
Wah-wah : Tehmok. 

Unwell ( Merasa Sakit): 
Meh dap. 

Upas (Ipoh) : Che' or Ch6s 



V. 



Very (Sakall): Neneh, e. g,^ 
H^nom neneh, e. g., Very 



much. 
Vomit, To, (Muntah): Kuk. 



w, 



Wadding : Nal ; the woolly 
stopping or wad, used by 
Sakais to fill up the orifice 
of the sumpitan when they 
wish to shoot. It is collect- 
ed from a tree called tukas 
(rabok tukas). 

Wait, To, (Nanti): Dudui. 

Want, To, (Handak): Gagar 
or Kagar. 

Wanting, i.e.^ lacking (Ta'- 
da): Hap. 

Water (Ayer): Doh or Doh 
(pr. Do-6h). 



We (Kita): He p4p6k or H^' 
'mpe ( kita-bertiga ) ; kita 
berdua=He babar or He 
'mbar. 

Weave: (Pintal): Hidas, e.g., 
Hidas chong to weave 
rattan. 

Weep (Menangis): Yam. 

Wet (Basah): Tekon"^. 

What (Apa): Nama. 

Whine, To, of a dog, se"s'-it. 

White ( Puteh ), or whitish, 
as a person covered with 
dust, sawdust, etc., Beku"^I 



A VOCABULARY OF THE BESISI DIALECT 



3' 



^ .=-= Continued. 



or beko^l. 

White (of hair only): biok. 

Who (Siapa): Hu'mah or su 
mah e.g., su mah nake' (Sia- 
pa orang itu) who is that 
man ? 

Why ? (Apa sebab) ? Nama 
sebab pon. 



Wife (Bini): Kedo or Kedor. 
Windpipe: Kalengkong. 
Woman: Kedor, Kedo' or Ke- 

dur. 
Wood or Timber (Kayu): 

'Long, or D'long, 
Wound (Luka): risor pres. 
Write, To, (Menulis): vSurat, 



Y. 



Yam (Kladi): Yet. 
Yawn Menguah): Wohai. 
Ye (Angkau-orang Hik or Hi'. 
Yes (Yah): Naleh or Nih 



(Naleh probably = Nah-lah) 
Yesterday: Nihi"p. 
You (Angkau) : Hik. 
Young (Muda): Ny6m. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA." 

Fbom Jitlt, 1893, TO June, 1894. 

BY 

C. DAVIES SHEEBOEN, p.g.s., f.z.s. 

In compiling this Bibliography, all sources of information have 
been utilized. In inserting, therefore, every publication that has 
come under his notice, the compiler hopes that the entries will 
prove of considerable assistance ; but as a large proportion of the 
literature of this district, either never reaches England at all, or 
else arrives so long after as to be too late for examination for this 
purpose, he begs the reader's indulgence for any error that may 
be present. His thanks are due to M. Martinus NijhofE of The 
Hague for information as to some of the more recent books. 

A.— De exjdoitatie van gronding en bevolking in de Kedjawen- 

desa's der Vorsteulanden. Ind, Gids, 1893 p. 1881-r 89. 
Abd-es-samad el Giwt el-Paltmban1. — Hidajetes-sfdikm (Malayan 

Commentary on Gazali's bidfijet el-hidaja). 4to. Btildq, 1310, 

4, 141 pp. 
Abdul Hafith btn McnAMEn Taphe-e. — Al Durat-al-Muziyat. 

8vo. Macassar, 1893, 107 pp. 
Abdoellah bin Abdelkadie Moensji. — Kesah Pelajaran dari 

Singapoera sampai ka negri Kalantan. 8vo. Leiden, 1893, 

156 pp. 

* By " Malaya " is here meant that part of the Archipelago eEclosed in a 
line drawn round the North of Siam and the Philippines, through Maoaesar 
Strait, between Lombok and Bali, round the outlying islands of Java and Su- 
matra and to the East of the Nicobar and Andaman Islands, 



34 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 

Abekdakoi^, J. H.— De Nederlandsch-IndiscLe reclitspraak van, 
1S81-1891. 8vo. Batnvia, 1893, iv, 349, pp. 

Adam, Madame — t. Curzon. 

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Almaxach.— Soendaneesche Almanak. 1893. 8vo. Cherihon, 1893, 
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~" Kegeerings- Almanak voor Nederlandscli-Indie 1893, 

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Anon. — 1 he Clironicle and Directory for China, Corea, Japan, the 
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Consnmptie van wijn uit Grriekenland in Ned. -Indie. 

Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 16S4. 

-Invoer van Sumatra-tabak in Amerika. Lid. Gids, 1893, 



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Handel van Penang met Atjeh. Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 

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1679. 

De politick die men tegenwoordig in Atjeh volgt. Ind. Gids 

1893, p. 1633-L638 
Uitbreidiuii: van kiesrecht en behartiging van koloniale belang- 

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" Het getal pandhnizen in Ned.-Indie. Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 1292. 

Fabrieken en in-en uitvoerhandel te Manilla. Ind. Gids^ 1893, 

. 1291. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 35 

Anon. — Hoe men in 1881 een woel geest op de Aroe-eilanden tot 

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-De productie van Solo in Djokja voor de Europeesche 

Markt. Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 1297. 
Uitbreiding van het Nederlandsch Indische OfScierskorps. 

Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 1521, 1522. 

De Spaarbank voor inlanders te Modjowarno in het jaar 

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Handel van Ned. Indie met Bombav. Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 

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Nord-Borneo. Dm. vol. xix, 1893, pp. 85-87. 



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— Troebelen over de benoemino; van een reiient te Bandoeng 



o 



Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 1783, 1784. 

De diepte van de zee in den Indischen Oceaan en elders. 

Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 1869. 

Het spoorwegnet van Yoor-Indie op 31 Maart, 1893. Ind 

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Een stoomvaart-lijn tussclien Java en de Perzisclie Grolf. 

I7id. Gids. 1893, p. 1860-1865. 

De werking van Opium op het menschelijk organisme. 

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De koloniale reserve. Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 2004. 

Zwitsers bij het Indische leger. Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 2003, 

2004. 

Handel van Ned.-Indie met Bremen. Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 

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Is het irrigeeren van velden op Java reeds laog gebruike- 

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—Een en ander uit de Indische begrooting voor 1891. Ind. 



Gids. 1893, p. 1931-1914. 

De Europeesche ambtoDaren en de inlandsche hoofden. 

Ind. Gids. 1893, p. 1928-1930. 

De comptabiliteitswet en de verzekering van Indische 

baten. Ind. Gids. 189S, ]). lS90-''904i, 



36 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 

Anon. — Die Insel Bangay. Ausland, 1893, No. 16. 

Ter gedachtenis van Mr. H. L. Humme. Ind. Gids. 1893, 

p. 2202-2208. 
— Ter gedaclitenis van Mr. A. W. P. Verkerk Pistorius. Ind, 

1893, p. 2206-2210. 
— — - — Het eerste jaarverslag der Semarangsche ambachts school. 

Ind. Gids. 189a, p 2185-2187. 
Ter gedaclitenis van Mr. H. D. Levyssohn Norman. Ind. 

Gids. 1893, p. 2196-2201. 
Opnemingen aangaande de verhouding van individueel tot 

communal grondbezit en aangaande de ambtsvelden der De- 

sahoofden. Iirl Gids. 1893, p. 2188-2195. 
. De scbeepvaartbewegiug en bet passagiers-verover in bet 

Suez-kanaal. Ind. Gids. Is93^ p. 2183, 2181. 
- — De bescbermde inlandscbe staaten op bet scbiereiland 

Malakka. Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 2182-2183. 
De koeli-immigratie en emigratie van de Straits Settle- 
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Singapore als Steenkolenmarkt. Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 2176- 

2177. 
— — —.-De Handel van Singapore met Ned. -Indie. Ind. Gids, 

1893, p. 2174- 2176. 
— -— ■— Kofiecultuur-getob in den compagnie's-tijd en later. 

Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 2131-2137. 

• Green verminking van oeconomiscbe overzicbten. Ind^ 



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=— =- — — De proef met de opium regie. Ind. Gids, 1893, p. 2115- 

2119. 
— -Een bijdrage uit 'slands kas aan bet weduwen-en weezen- 

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1893, p. 2110-2115. 

— — -Projektierte Expedition durcb Borneo. Tetermanns 
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—"Sacred Songs for Scbool use 16mo. ^ingaiwre, 1893, 24 pp. 

-~ --[Gosper of St. Luke in Javanese]. 8vo. Singapore, 

1893, 109 pp. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 37 

Anon. — Reports on the Protected Malay States for 1892. Pari. 

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Erweiterung der Maclitaphare Frankreiclis in Hinterindien 

Deutsche Bundschan Geogr , 70I xv, 1893, p. 575 

-Trade and General Condition of the Philippine Islands for 



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Straits Settlements Annual Eeport for 1892. Pari. Paper, 

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Trade of the District of Her Majesty's Consulate- Greneral 

at Bangkok for 1892. Pari. Paper, 8vo. London, 1898, 

[6855-154. j 
Eeturn of Most-favoured- Nation Clauses in existing 

Treaties of Commerce and Navigation between Grreat Britain 

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Die religiosen Anschauungen bei den Battak. Berl. Allg. 

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landschen vrouwenbond tot verhooging van het zedelijk 

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vol. xxi, 1893, p. 310 etc. 

Die Insel Borneo. Deutsche Rundsch. Geogr. vol. iv, 1893. 

p. 179 etc. 



38 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 

Anon — Spanische Wirthschaft in den Philippinen. Ostas. LloyJ^ 

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The Buddhist Order in Siam. Journ. R. Asiat. Soc. 1893, 

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Ind., vol. xxi 1893 pp. 390-395. 
Missions-Eundschau. Hmterindien und der Malaische 

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Ned. Ind. vol. xxi, 1893, pp. 482-488. 

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1893, pp. 419-421, map. 
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■Native inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. Journ. 



Anthrop. Inst., vol. xxiii, 1893, p. 198 etc. 
■ Le haut Mekong. La France et I'Angleterre en Indo- 

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Siam. Glolus, vol. Ixiv, 1893, pp. 278-280. 

Le Pensez-y bien ( Sach tu chung yen Ly), Griang ve 

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■Le9ons de lecture en fran^ais et en annamite. 8vo. 



Tan Dinh. ( Saigon), 1893, 35 pp. 



A BIBRIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 



39 



Anon. — Drie Javaansche raadsels uit een Dasanama. Tijdschr. 

Ind. taal-land-volk., vol. xxxv, 1893, p. 480. 
— Eenige foutieve eigennamen in de door Meinsma uitgege- 

ven prozabeweking van den Babab tanah Jawi. Tijdschr. 

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Usi et costumi dei Siamesi. Arch. trad. pop. vol. xii, 1893, 

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1893. 
— Het boek en het schrift in den Indischen Archipel. Tijd-^ 

schr. Ned.-Ind., vol. xxi, 1893, pp. 153-156. 
-= Eenige statistische gegevens betreffende de Indische in= 

stelling te Delft. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 138, 139. 
— Hoe staat het met de koffiecultuur-plannen der regeering? 

Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 78-81. 

Het spoorwegplan voor Java, lid. Gids, 1894, p. 77, 78. 

Het kadaster en het individueel grondbezit. Ind. Oids, 

1894, p. 75, 76. 
Onderzoek van Areng-suiker. Ind. Oids, 1894, p, 139, 

140. 
Een correspondentie over de Bandoengsche troebelen. Ind. 

Gids. 1894, p. 94, 95. 
Een ontwerp-verordening betre:ffende gewestelijke en 

plaatselijke raden en geldmiddelen, Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 244- 

257. 

Lepra-lijders in Indie. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 140, 141. 

De tabakseultuur in Bezoeki. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 264-275. 

Een wetsontwerp tot afschaffing van het uitvoerrecht van 

suiker, met een coneept-ordonnantie tot regeling der suiker- 

belasting. Ind. Gids, 1891, p. 413-^25. 
De wetsontwerpen betreffende gewestelijke en plaatselijke 

raden en geldmiddelen. Ind. Gids, 1891, p. 63-75., 
De vrije suikercultunr in de residentie Bezoeki. Ind. 

Gids, 1894, p. 82-94 ; 257-264. 
-Een circulaire tot bevordering van individueel grondbezit 

Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 275-278. 
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310. 



40 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 



Anon. — Handel tusschen Ned. -Indie en Hamburg Ind. Qidsy 

1894, p. 308, 309. 
De Verklaring en akte van verbrand van den nieuwen 

Keizer van Solo. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 425-431. 
— Een merkwaardige dag voor de Delftsche instelling, 

Ind. Qids. 1894, p. 313-315. 
— ^ — "Eerbied voor de wet in Ned. -Indie. Ind. Gids^ ,1894, p. 

431, 432. 
= Het zielental van de cbristelijke gemeenten in de Mina* 

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Handel tusscben Malakka en Sumatra's Oostkust. Ind. 



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_ -Een doodenfeest op Soemba. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 461-463. 

-=- — - — lets over suikerfabricatie op Java weleer. Ind. Gids, 

1894, p. 463-465. 
——-Dr. Albricbt over de bebandeling van lepralijders. Ind. 

Gids, 1894, p. 465-467. 

■Overeenkomst met den Oeloebalang van Kerti en met den 



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De nieuwe beeren-diensten-regelingen en de practijk. 

Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 599. 
Handel tusscben Nederlandscb — en Britiscb- Indie. Ind. 

Gids, 1894, p. 640-642. 
^-Beperking van de vrijbeid om Suikerfabrieken op te ricbt- 

en. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 899-901. 
-> Overeenkomsten met de bestuurders van Belomaroe, Sigi 

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Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 643. 
-lets uit bet nieuwe jaarsverslag aangaande 's Lands Plan- 

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— De sterkte dor Europeescbe bevolking van Britiscb- Indie 

in 1872, 1881, & 1891. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 780. 

Een bezoek aan de landbouw kolonie Poespo. Ind. Gids, 

1894, p. 646-650. 

—Een vreemdeling over de ontwikkeling van Borneo. Ind, 

Qids, 1894, p. 645, 646. 



A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 41 

Anox. — De Europeesche landbouw op Sumatra's wesfckust. Ind. 

Gids, 1894, p. 650, 651. 
Zout verkoop-pakhuis meesters en regeerings-argelooslieid. 

Ind. Gids, 1894, p 898, 899. 
Yerbruik van Cardift'-steenkolen in X.-I. Ind. Gids, 1894, 

p. 785. 
Europeesche landbouwondernemingen in Palembang. 

Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 788-791. 
Degeneratie van bet suik( rriet door het gebriiik van de 

toppen als plantmateriaal en acbteruitgang Tan bet saccharose 

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De opvoeding van Indit^che Kinderen in Holland. Ind. 

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Zonneschermen als waardigsheidsteekenen van den Java- 

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Handel tusschen Xederlandsch-Indie en Bombay. Ind. 

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p. 934-938. 
De veroordeeling van de 'Soerabaja Courant.' Ind. Gids, 

1894, p. 904-910. 

De uitvoer van Manilla. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 931. 

De jongste verkiezingen en Indie. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 

763-764. 
Productiekosten van een bouw l^awah. Ind. (xzWs, 1894, p. 

933, 934. 
— Eigenaardige gebrniken omtrent de Kebajans in Koedoes. 



Ind. Gids, 1891, p. 939. 

Hazardspelen bij de Eataks. Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 938. 

Uitvoer van katoonen stukeoederen uit Engeland naar 

Ked. -Indie. Ind. Gids, 1894, pT 779. 
— Eene bijdrage tot vereenvoudiging der lands-administratie. 



Ind. Gids, 1894, p. 689-706. 



42 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 

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A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA, 43 

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44 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MALAYA. 

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Novae species aranearum a Th. Workman in insula 



Singapore collectas. Bull. Soc. Entom. Ital., xxiv, 189 , pp. 

902-252. 
Teetjb, M. — De beweerde opneming van vrije stikstof door hoogere 

planten. Teysmannia, vol. v, 1894, p. 182. 
YoEDEEMAK", A. Gr. — Pala lelaki {Ilyristica argentea, "Warb.) Teys- 

majinia, vol. v, 1801, p. 163. 

Rasamala, Teysmannia^ v, 1894, p 108, 

"Wakkee, J. H. — De bestrijding der keverlarven door Botrytis 

tenella-isaria. Med. Proejstat. O.-Java, No. 10 [ ? 1894]'. 
Weft, p. a. F. C. — Eemge bemerkingen over bestrijding der 

ananas ziekte. Med. Broefstation Suilcerriet TV. Java, No. 15. 
Tangerangbibit en de bestrijding der Sireh- 

ziekte. Med. Broefstation Suilcerriet W. Java, No. 3 5. 
And H. C. P. GrEEELiugs. — Over suiker-en 



alcobolvorming door organismenin verband met de overworking 

der naproducten in de riet suiker fabrieken. Med. Broefstat. 

Suik. W.-Java, No. 13 [? 1894]. 
WiESiJEE, J. — TJeber den vorberrscliend ombropHlen Charakter 

des Laubes der Tropengewacbse, iii. Botan. Central}), vol, 

Iviii, 1894, p. 121. 
Pflanzenpbysiologisclie Mittheilungen aus Buiten- 

zorg, i, ii. Botan. Centralh. vol. Iviii, 1894, p. 119. 
WiGMAX, H. J. — Cassia. Teysmannia, vol. v, 1894, p. 200. 
De beilige geest bloom (Peristeria data, Hook.) 

in bloei in dem Botaniscben tuin te Buitenzorg. Teysmannia, 

iv, 1894, p. 609. 
Zeikcl Abedik bik Mohamed Patani. Akidatu-al-Munjian. fo. 

Benang, 1893, 250 pp. 



[No. 30. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

Royal Asiatic Society 



JUtiY, 1897. 



London and America 

Paris 

Germany 



Agents of the Society: 

Trubner & Co. 

... Ernest Leroux & Cie. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzfg. 



SIXGAPOHE: 

Printed at the American Mission Press. 



. ^37-^X 



[No. 30. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

Royal Asiatic Society 



JULY, 189T. 



Agents of the Society: 

London and America Trubxer v5c Co. 

Paris Ernest Leroux & Tie. 

Germany ... Otto IIarrassowitz, Leipzig, 



SINGAPORE: 
Printed at the American Mission Pre; 



TABl^G OF CO)^TE)^TS. 



Rules of the Society 

Council for 1897 .. 

List of Members for 1897 

Proceedings of Annual General Meeting 

In Memoriam -Reinhold Eknst Rost 
Hon. H. O'Brien ... 
Hon. Martin Lister 
H. Vaughan Stevens 

Treasurers Cash accounts for 1896 



V. 

iv. 

X, 
XV. 

xix. 
xix. 

XX. 

xxi. 
xxii. 



A Vocabulary of the Dusun Dialect, — 

by the Rev. Dr. H. L. E. Luering 

List of Malay Plant Names 

by H. N. Ridley. ... 

An account of the Cultivation of Rice in Malacca, by 
Inche Muhammad Jafar, contributed by 
E. M. Merewether, with a translation by 
C. 0. B!agden 

Occasional Notes — 
Protective Charm 
Earthquakes 
The South 
Names of Months 
Benzoin 
Batara Guru 

Calanthe vestita Lindl. in Selang-or 
Boriah 



31 



..285 

, 999 
.. 999 
,. 999 
,. 999 
.. 999 
. 999 
. 999 
999 



The Society is still in possession of a considerable stock 
of the back numbers of its Journal. 

Members can be supplied with them at the rate of 
fifty cents a number to complete their sets. Apphcation 
should be made to the Honorary Secretary. 



It m X. s s 

OF THE 

STRAITS ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



I.— Name and Objects. 

1. — The name of the Society shall be "The Straits 
Asiatic Society." 

2. — The objects of the Society shall be — 

a. The investigation of subjects connected with the 
Straits of Malacca and the neig-hbouring- Coun- 
tries. 
h. The publication of papers in a Journal, 
c. The formation of a Library of books bearing on 
the objects of the Society. 

II.— Membership. 

3. — Members shall be classed as Ordinary and Honorary. 

•4. — Ordinary Members shall pay an annual subscription of 
$5, payable in advance on the 1st January of each year. Mem- 
bers shall be allowed to compound for life membership of the 
Society on payment of $50. 

5. — Honorary Members shall pay no subscription. 

6. — On or about the 30th June of every year, the Honor- 
ary Treasurer shall prepare a list of those Members whose sub- 
scriptions for the current year remain unpaid, and such persons 
shall be deemed to have resigned their Membership. But the 
operation of this rule, in any particular case, may be suspended 
by a vote of the Council of the Society. Xo member shall 
receive a copy of the Journal or other publications of the 
Society until his subscription for the current year has been 
paid. 



vi. RULES. 

7. — Candidates for admission as Members shall be propos- 
ed by one and seconded by another member of the Society, and 
if agreed to by a majority of the Council shall be deemed to be 
duly elected. 

8. — Honorary Members must be proposed for election by 
the Council at a general meeting of the Society. 

III.— Officers. 

9. — The Officers of the Society shall be : — 
A President ; 
Two Vice-Presidents, one of whom shall be selected 

from amongst the members resident in Penang ; 
An Honorary Secretary and Librarian ; 
An Honorary Treasurer ; and 
Five Councillors. 
These Officers shall hold office until their successors are 
chosen. 

10. — Vacancies in the above offices shall be filled for the 
current year by a vote of the remaining Officers. 

IV.— Council. 

n. — The Council of the Society shall be composed of the 
Officers for the current year, and its duties shall be : — 

a. To administer the affairs, property and trusts 

of the Society. 
h. To elect ordinary members and recommend Hon- 
orary members for election by the Society. 

c. To decide on the eligibility of papers to be read 

before general meetings. 

d. To select papers for publication in the Journal, 

and to supervise the printing and distribution of 
the said Journal. 

e. To select and purchase books for the Library. 

/. To accept or decline donations on behalf of the 
Society. 

<j. To present to the Annual Meeting at the expira- 
tion of their term of office a Report of the 
proceedings and condition of the Society 



RULES. vii. 

12. — The Council shall meet for the transaction of busi- 
ness once a month, or oftener if necessa^3^ At Council meet- 
ings, three Officers shall constitute a quorum. 

13. — The Council shall have authority, subject to con- 
firmation by a general meeting, to make and enforce such 
by-laws and regulations for the proper conduct of the 
Society's affairs as may, from time to time, be expedient. 

V. — Meetings. 

14. — The Annual General Meeting shall be held in January 
of each year. 

15. — General Meetings shall be held, when practicable, 
once in every month, and oftener if expedient, at such hour as 
the Council may appoint. 

IG. — At Ordinary General Meetings of the Society seven 
and at the Annual General Meeting eleven members shall form 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

17. — At all Meetings, the Chairman shall, in case of an 
equality of votes, be entitled to a casting vote in addition to 
his own. 

18. — At the Annual General Meeting, the Council shall pre- 
sent a Report for the preceding year, and the Treasurer shall 
render an account of the financial condition of the Society. 
Officers for the current year shall also be chosen. 

19. — The work of Ordinary General Meetings shall be the 
transaction of routine business, the reading of papers approv- 
ed by the Council, and the discussion of topics connected with 
the general objects of the Society. 

20. — Notice of the subjects intended to be introduced for 
discussion by any member of the Society should be handed in to 
the Secretary before the Meeting. 

Visitors may be admitted to the Meetings of the Society, 
but no one who is not a member shall be allowed to address 
the Meeting, except by invitation or permission of the Chair- 
man. 

VI.— Publications of the Society. 

21. — A Journal shall be published, when practicable, every 
six months, under the supervision of the Council. It shall com- 
prise a selection of the papers read before the Society, the 



viii. RULES. 

Report of the Council and Treasurer, and such other matter as 
the Council may deem it expedient to publish. 

22. — Every member of the Society shall be entitled to one 
copy of the Journal, deliverable at the place of the publication. 
The Council shall have power to present copies to other Socie- 
ties and to disting-uished individuals, and the remaining copies 
shall be sold at such prices as the Council shall, from time to 
time, direct. 

23. — Twenty-four copies of each paper published in the 
Journal shall be placed at the disposal of the Author. 

24. — The Council shall have power to sanction the pub- 
lication, in a separate form, of papers or documents laid before 
the Society, if in their opinion practicable and expedient. 

VII.— Popular Lectures. 

23. — Occasional Popular Lectures upon literary or scienti- 
fic subjects may be delivered, under the sanction ,of the Council 
on evenings other than those appointed for General Meetings 
of the Society. 

VIII .—Amendments . 

26. — Amendments to these Rules must be proposed in 
writing to the Council, who shall, after notice given, lay them 
before a General Meeting of the Society. A Committee of 
Resident Members shall thereupon be appointed, in conjunction 
with the Council, to report on the proposed Amendments to the 
General Meeting next ensuing, when a decision may be taken, 
provided that any amendment to the Rules which is to be pro- 
posed by such Committee to the General meeting shall be 
stated in the notice summoning the meeting. 



THE 
STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

Royal Asiatic Society 



Patron. 
H. E. Sir. Charles B. H. Mitchell, G. C. M. G. 

COUNCIL FOR 1896. 

The Right Revd. Bishop G. F. YLo^^Y.— President. 

The Hon'ble W. R. Colly EE, — Vice-President for Singapore. 

The Hon'ble D. Logan, — Vice-President for Penang. 

H. N. Ridley, Esq. — Honorari/ Secretary. 

J. 0. ANTHONTSZ, Esq. — Honorarij Treasurer. 

H. H. ESCHKE, Esq. 

The Hon'ble W. J. Napier, Esq. 

R. N. Bland, Esq. )- Councillors, 

Dr. R. Hanitsch. I 

The Rev. W. G. Shellabear, J 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 





FOR 


1897. 


ANTHONISZ, J. 0., B.A. 


Singapore. 


Bampfylde, C. a. 


Kuching, Sarawak. 


Baenes,AV. D. 


Kinta, Perak. 


Baktlett, E. a. 


Sarawak. 


Belfield, F. ^ 


Selangor. 


Berrtngton, a. T. D. 


Taiping, Perak. 


BiCKNELL, W. A. 


Audit Department, Penang. 


Birch, J. K. 


Penang. 


BLAGDEN, C. 0., M. A., 




(Life Member) 


England. 


Bland, R. N. 


Province Welleslev. 


BOTT, Dr. W. N. 


Singapore. 


Brapdon, Dr. W. L. 


Seremban, N. Sembilan. 


Brandt, D. 


Stanmore, Singapore. 


Brown, The Hon. Dr.W. C. 


Penang. 


Bryant, A. T. 


Penang. 


Brydges, E. H., m.a. 


Singapore. 


Buckley, C. B. 


Orchard Road, Singapore. 


Campbell, A. 


Kuala Kangsa, Perak. 


Camus, M. de 


Singapore. 


Clifford, H. C. 


The Residency, Pekan, Pahang. 


CollYER, The Hon'ble W. R. 


Singapore. 


CONLAY, W. 


Perak. 


Dane, Dr. R. 


Province Wellesley. 



MEMBERS FOK ISdl.—Coiitmued. 



XI. 



Dent, Sik Alfred, k.c.m.g. 


11 Old Broad St., Loudon, E. C. 


Dew, a. T. 


Mataug, Perak. 


DUXKEKLEY. Rev. W. H.. M.A. 


Malacca. 


DUNLOP, C. 


Powell & Co., Singapore. 


DuNX, J. R. 


S. S. Hye Leong, Singapore. 


ECtErtox, Walter 


Singapore. 


ESCHKE, H. H. 


German Consulate, Singapore. 


Everett, A. Hart 


Labuan. 


Everett, H. H. 


Sarawak. 


Fielding, J. 


Scotland, 


Fort, H. 


Singapore. 


Freer, Dr. G. D. 


Malacca. 


Gentle, Alex. 


England. 


Gerixi, Capt. G. S. 


Siam. 


Graham, James 


Glasgow, Scotland. 


Groom, S. R. 


Malacca. 


Haffexdex, Johx 


Singapore. 


Haixes, F. \V. 


British Xorth Borneo. 


Hale, A. 


Tampin, X. Sembilau. 


Hamiltox, J. R. 


Matang, Perak. 


Haxitsch, Dr. R. 


Singapore. 


Hare, G. T. 


Selangor. 


Haughtox, H. T. 


Singapore. 


Havilax'd, Dr. 


England. 


Hawes, M. a. 


Selangor. 


Hervey, D. F. a., c.m.g. 


Buckhold Hill, 


(Hon. Member) 


Paugbourne, Berks. 


Hill, The Hon. E. C. 


Singapore. 


Hose, The Rt. Rev. Bishop G. F., " 


M.A.,D.D. (Hon. Member) 


Singapore. 


Hose, C. 


Baram, Sarawak. 


HOYXCK VAX PAPENDRECHT 




P. C. 


Singapore. 


HuDSOX, H. H. 


Penang. 


HULLETT, R. AV., M.A., F.L.S. 


Singapore. 


Ibrahim bix Abdullah, 




Dato' Dalam 


Johor Habaru. 


Jeffrey, S. 


Singapore. .: •. 


JOAQUIM, J. P. F.R.G.S. 


Singapore. 



xu 



MEMBERS FOR lSd7. —Coutinued, 



Johnston, L. A. M. 
Kegan, Paul, Teenoh, 
Knight, Arthur 
KoE, R. 

Kynnersley, The Hon. C.W.S 
Lawes, Revd. W. G. 
(Hon, Member) 
Lease, Dr. J. T. 
Lemon, A. H. 
Lewis, J. E. A., b.a. 

Little, R. M. 
Logan, The Hon'ble D. 
LUERING, Revd. Dr. H. L. E. 
Machado, a. D. 
MacLaren, J. W. B. 
Maxwell, Sh\ W. E., 

K.G.M.G. (Hon. Mem.) 
MCKILLOP, J., F.C.S. 

Meldrum, Dato J. 
Merewether, E. M. 
Michell, W. C, b.a. 
Miller, James 
Moore, Revd. D. D. 
Munson, Revd. R. W. 
Nanson, W., b.a., p.s.g. 
Napier, The Hon'ble W. J., 

M.A. B.O.L. 

Noronha, H. L. 
Ormsby, G. 

O'SULLIVAN, A. W. S., B.A. 

Owen, F. E. 
Parr, C. W. C. 

Perham. The Ven'ble Archdea- 
con (Hon. Member.) 
RiCKETT, C. B. 

Ridley, H.N., m.a., f.l.s, 
Roberts, W. B. 



Singapore. 

Trilbner & Co., London, 
Singapore. 
Kwala Pilah. 
, Singapore. 

Port Moresby, New Guinea. 

Penang. 

Alor Gajab, Malacca 

Government Printing Office, 

Sarawak. 
British North Borneo. 
Penang. 
Singapore. 
Maliwun, Burmah. 
Singapore. 
Government House, Accra, 

Gold Coast, Africa. 
England. 
Johor. 
Malacca. 
Bindings 
Singapore. 
China. 
America. 
Singapore. 

Paterson Road, Singapore. 

Singapore. 

Labuan. 

Singapore. 

Kuala Pahang. 

Negri Sembilan, 

Singapore. 

Hongkong and Shanghai 

Bank, Foochow. 
Botanic Gardens, Singapore. 
Ulu Pahang. 



MEMBERS FOR 


1897. — Continued. xii 


RODGEK, J. P. 


The Residency, Kuala Lumpur, 




Selangor 


ROSTADOS, E. 


Sing-apore, 


Rowland, \Y. K. 


Rembau. 


Sarawak, H. H. The Raja of ^ 




G.C.M.G. (Honorary 




Member.) 


Kuchmg, Sarawak. 


Sarawak, H. H. The 




Ranee of 


Sarawak. 


Satow, Sir E. M., k.c.m.g. 




(Honorary Member.) 


Tokyo, Japan. 


Saunders, C. J. 


Penan g. 


SCHAALJE, M. 


Medan, Deli. 


Scott, Dr. Duncan. 


England. 


Seah Liang Seah. 


Chop "Chin Hin," Singapore. 


Seah Song Seah. 


('hop " Chin Hin," Singapore. 


Sheleord, The Hon'ble T., 


Broadfields, Paterson Road, 


C.M.G. 


Singapore. 


Shelford, \V. H. 


Singapore. 


Shellabear, Revd. VV. G. 


Singapore. 


Skeat, W. W. 


Kuala Langat, Selangor. 


Skinner, A. M., c.m.g 


England. 


Smith, Sir Cecil C. g.c.m.g. 


England. 


(Honorary Member.) 




SOHST, Theo. 


Singapore. 


St. Clair, W. G. 


Singapore. 


Stringer, C. 


Singapore. 


Swettenham, The Hon'ble 




J. A., C.M.G. 


England. 


Syers, H. C. 


Perak. 


Talbot, A. P. 


Malacca. 


Thomas, 0. V. 


England. 


Van Benningen van 




Helsdingen, Dr. R. 


Sindanglaia, Deli. 


Vermont, The Hon'ble J.M.B. 


Penang. 


Walker, Lt.-Col. R. S. F., 




C.M.G. 


Perak. 


VV ATKINS, A. J. M. 


Selangor. 


Wilkinson, R. J. 


Singapore. 



xiv MEMBERS FOE lSd7 .—Cantinued. ' 

VV^ISE, D. H. Singapore. 

Wray, L. Jr. Perak Museum, Perak. 



Members are requested to inform the Secretary of any 
change of addresii or decease of members, in order that the list 
may be as complete as possible. 

All communications concerning the publications of the 
Society should be addressed to the Secretary ; all subscriptions 
to the Treasurer. 

Members may have, on application, forms authorising their 
Bankers or Agents to pay their subscriptions to the Society 
regularly each year. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 

OF THE 

STRAITS BRANCH 

OF THE 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

HELD AT THE 

RAFFLES MUSEUM, SINGAPORE. 

ON 

FRIDAY, 3l5f JANUARY im(\. 



Present .- 

The Eight Revd. The BiSHOP OF SinGAPOEE President-, 
the Hon'ble W. R. CoLLYEE, H. U. EsCHKE, ESQ., Dr. W. N. 
BOTT, J. 0. Anthonisz, Esq., G. T. Haee, Esq., R. J. WIL- 
KINSON, Esq., H. N. Ridley, Esq., the Rev. \V. G. Shell- 
ABEAE, the Rev. G. M. Reith, C. 0. Blagden, Esq., C. J. 
SauNDEES, Esq., H. L. NOEONHA, Esq., Dr. R. Hanitsch and 
E. ROSTADO, Esq. 

The Minutes of the last General Meeting- were read and 
confirmed. 

The Annual Report of the Council was read and adopted ; 
and the Honorar}- Treasurer's accounts were passed. 

The Meeting then proceeded to the election of a Council 
and officers for the ensuing year and the following were 
elected : — 



xvi PROCEEDINGS. 

President. — The Rig-ht Rev. the BISHOP OF SINGAPORE. 

Vice President— Singapore, The Hon'ble W. R. COLLYER ; 

Penang, DANIEL LOGAN, Esq, 

honorary Secretary. — C. 0. Blagden, Esq. 

Honorary Treasurer. — J. 0. AnthonISZ, Esq. 

' G. T. Hare, Esq., 
R. J. Wilkinson, Esq., 
Councillors. ^ Dr. AV. N. BOTT, 

1 H. N. Ridley, Esq., 

[ Rev. W. G. Shellabear. 

The President then proposed a vote of thanks to the re- 
tiring officers and councillors, with special reference to Mr. 
R. J. Wilkinson and the Rev. G. M. Reith. 

Mr. W. R. CoUyer seconded and the vote was carried by 
acclamation. 

A sub-committee, consisting of Messrs. H. H. Eschke, and 
W. G. St. Clair, was appointed to confer with the new Council 
regarding the expediency of altering the results in the way 
proposed by the late Council in their report. After some dis- 
cussion it was also resolved to refer to this committee the ques- 
tion of reducing the quorum necessary for the transaction of 
business at an ordinary General Meeting. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to February 4th. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ADJOURNED ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

HELD AT THE 

RAFFLES MUSEUM 

ox 
TUESDAY, 4th FEBRUARY, 1896. 



FeESENT : 
The Right Rev. The BISHOP OF SINGAPORE, the Hon'ble 
\V. R. COLLYEE, H. H. ESCHKE, Esq., \\ . G. St. Claie, Esq., 
the Rev. W. G. Shellabeae, Dr. W. N. BOTT, E. Rostados, 
Esq., H. N. Ridley, Esq., C. 0. Blagdex, Esq., R. J. Wil- 
kinson, Esq., and Dr. R. Hanitsch. 

The Council and sub-committee appointed to consider the 
proposed modifications of the Rules recommended by the late 
Council, reported favourably on them to the meeting- and they 
were unanimously adopted. 

On the motion of Mr. W. R. Collyer seconded by Mr. J. R. 
Wilkinson, it was decided to add to Rule 6 the words : 

'• No Member shall receive a copy of the Journal or other 
'' publication of the Society until his subscription for the current 
year has been paid.'* 

On the motion of Mr. R. J. Wilkinson, seconded by Mr. 
W. G. St. Clair, it was decided to add to Rule -A the words : 

" Members shall be allowed to compound for Life-Member- 
" ship of the Society on payment of $50." 

On the motion of Bishop Hose, seconded by Mr. H. H. 
Eschke it was decided to substitute for Rule 16 the words : 

" x^t ordinary General Meetings of the Society seven and 
" at the Annual General Meetings of the Society eleven Members 
" iball form a quorum far the transaction of business." 



xviii PROCEEDINGS. 

And to add to Rule 2Q the words : 

" Provided that any amendment to the Rules which is to 
'' be proposed by such Committee to the General Meeting shall 
" be stated in the Notice summoning the Meeting." 

The sense of the meeting was taken as to the eligibility of 
the Ranee of Sarawak for Membership of the Society, and it 
was unanimously resolved that ladies were eligible, as is also 
the case in the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



IN MEMORIAM. 

Reinhold Ernst Rost. 

The Council of tbe Straits Asiatic Society received with 
great regret the news of the death of Dr. Reinhold Rost, CLE., 
which occurred at Canterbury, on February 7th, 189G. 

Dr. Rosi\ who was born at Eisenberg on February 2nd, 
1822, was Librarian to the Lidia Office from 18G9 till 189 J^, and 
was well known as a distinguished orientalist and Malay scholar. 

He edited for the Society the two series of Miscellaneous 
Papers relating to Indo-China and the Lidian Archipelago, which 
were published in 1886 and 1887, and in recognition of these 
and other services he was elected an Honorary Member on 
March 3rd, 1887. 

Dr. Rost took the deepest interest in the work of the 
Society and many members who knew him personally are 
indebted to him for his valuable assistance, aLvays given readily 
to all who were engaged in any of the various branches of 
research in which he himself took such a profound interest. 



The Society has sustahied a severe loss by the unexpected 
deaths, this year, of two valuable members — the Hon'ble H. 
A. 0'BuiEN,'and the Hon'ble Martin Lister. 

Both gentlemen from time to time wrote papers for the 
Journal and contributed in no small degree to the information that 
has of recent years been obtained about the Malay Peninsula. 

Before the Society was founded in the year 1875 Mr. 
O'Brien accompanied the late Mr. DALY on an expedition across 
the Malay Peninsula, via the Muar and Pahang rivers. The results 
of their joint expedition were recorded in the first Map of the 
Peninsula which was published by the Society in 1879. At that 
time the interior of the Peninsula was a terra incognita and 
the expedition Avas the first attempt to explore the interior and 
involved no small amount of danger and hardship. From an attack 



XX IN MEM.ORIAM..— Continued, 

of dysentery contracted on that expedition Mr. O'Brien never 
really recovered his health. After a severe illness he v^^as in- 
valided home, and his name first appears among-st the list of 
members of the Society in the December number of the Journal 
for 1878. 

In the June number of the Journal for 1883 he published a 
most valuable paper on the obscure nervous disease of Latah, 
which is universally admitted to be an excellent attempt to 
elucidate one of the most interesting- mental anomalies in the 
Malay character. 

In No. 14 of the Journal Mr. O'Brien pubhshed some in- 
teresting- notes on the History of the Constitution of Jelebu, accom- 
panied by a sketch survey of the Sung-ei Triang- which was pub- 
lished with Journal No. 15. At this period Mr. O'BRIEN was 
acting- as Resident of Sungei Ujong- and while so acting the 
agreement was concluded with Sir. F. A. Weld under which 
Jelebu was administered under the advice of the Resident in the 
same w^ay as Sungei Ujong. 

A fall from an elephant, which bolted in the juugle with 
him, in Jelebu. led to a series of complications which terminated 
in an attack of abscess of the liver. From that time Mr. O'BRIEN 
^vas no longer capable of much physical exertion and though he 
took a keen interest in everything connected with the Society 
he was no longer able to contribute in the way he would have 
w^ished, namely by personal observation and exploration of the 
Peninsula. 

While acting as Col. Treasurer in 1891 some old documents 
Jiad to be destroyed to make room for new ones and while 
investigating the blurred and moth-eaten records of 50 years 
before he came across the interesting minutes of Sir Stamford 
Raffles, which was published in No. 24 of the Journal. This was 
his last contribution to the Journal. 

The Hon'ble MARTIN Lister, whose death tookplacein Egypt 
on his way home, in the spring, was also a well-known contributor. 
He took a deep in terest in the Negri Sembilan States and what 
Mr. O'Brien did for Jelebu and Sungei Ujong and Mr. Hervey 
for Rembau, Mr. Lister did for the Sri Menanti and Johol group, 
with which he was for a long time intimately connected. His 



IN MmiORAAM— Continued. xxi 

principal contribution was his paper on the Negri Senibilan in 
Journal No. 19, which he further expanded in his paper on 
"Malay- Law in Negri Sembilan," in Journal No. 22. 

Both Mr. O'Brien and Mr. Listh]r possessed to a prominent 
degree that sympathetic manner which renders Europeans 
popular with Malays, and their loss is equally mourned by 
Europeans and Natives. 

H. T. H. 



We regret to have to record the death of Mr. Hn. Vaughan 
Stevens, an ethnological collector in the Malay Peninsula, well 
known to Members of the Society. He spent many years in 
investigating the ethnology of the Hakais, visiting all parts of 
Malay Peninsula. His collections were chiefly sent to the 
museums of Berlin and St. Petersburg and accounts of them 
were published in the " Yeroffentlichungen ausdem Koniglichen 
Museum fur Volkerkunde" (Berlin), the "ZeitschriftfurEthnologie, 
and Archiv der Pharmacie." (1893). 

Many members will remember a very interesting exhibition 
of his Pahang collections, held at the Raffles Library, in June 
1890, under the auspices of the President and Council of the 
Society. His illness, due to the hardships he had undergone in his 
explorations was of some months' duration, and he expired at 
Kuching, Sarawak, on April 29th, at the age of sixty-two. 

H. N. R. 



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A Vocabulary of the Dusun 
Language of Kimanis. 

The Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal i\diatic 
Society No. 5 (June 1880) contained a h'st of Dusun words, 
collected by Mr. W. H. Treacher at the Tampassuk river. 
The author then added the following note to his vocabulary : 
" I believe there are various dialects of Dusun, more distiuct 
the more inland the tribes live. The Vocabulary is from 
Dusuns in the constant habit of seeing- Iranuns, Bajaus, and 
Brunei ^Falays." 

The following list of words was collected in Kimanis, 
British North Borneo, in the year 1891. There is no doubt 
that the language to which these words belong, is spoken in 
various dialects by the so-called Dusuns of that region. They 
call themselves u/dun Kadasan and utterly deny the statement 
that they are descended from early Chinese settlers on the 
coast of Borneo which has often been made by European tra- 
vellers. Their language certainly does not permit the least 
doubt as to their genuine Bornean origin. In many particulars 
it is one of the oldest and purest in all Malaya. Philology 
proves in regard to its languages what botany and zoology 
has proved with regard to its flora and fauna, that Borneo 
was separated from the western portion of Malaya, i.e., the 
Peninsula and Sumatra, at a very early period. This early 
separation has caused many primitive forms of speech to sur- 
vive which have disappeared in the western territories. 

It is a cause of regret that sufficient material has not yet 
been collected or published by philologists and travellers, to 
enable us to fix beyond the possibility of doubt the position of 



2 VOCABULAKY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 

the Bornean languag-es in relation to the entire Malayan fam- 
ily. Yet the material which has been collected so far seems to 
indicate that such a classification will not be a very difficult 
task. The languages of Borneo proper and those of the mi- 
gratory Bajaus or Sea Gipsies and of the inhabitants of Butong 
(on the maps : Bouton) form one distinct group, which is 
intimately related to two other distinct groups, that of the 
Philippine and of the Sula-Amhoyna languages. These three 
groups are evidently derived from a common source to which 
the name Austro-Malayan language might have been applied, 
had not this term lately been used to signify something very 
different. I propose therefore to call it the Eastern branch 
of the Malayan family of languages. There is also a corre- 
sponding Western branch, of which modern Malay may be 
regarded as type. From a comparison of these two branches 
the Proto-Malayan language may be philologically recon- 
structed. Such a task will, in the end, prove very useful in the 
examination of the relation of the Malayan languages to either 
the Indo-Chinese or the Polynesian families of languages. 

No such comparison is possible now, and if attempted 
would only resemble the unsystematic researches of the past, 
when writers put the Hebrew or Turkish into juxtaposition to 
one or more of the Indo-European languages. 

In the folloM^ing pages I have abstained from entering 
into the domain of comparative philology, and the Malay words 
have been given in the vocabulary rather for the purpose of 
of showing how far the Kadasan is separated from the lingua 
franca of this archipelago. For those who are desirous of 
studying the connection between the Dusun language and the 
languages of the Philippine group I can recommend a com- 
parison of the words I have given with those of the Sulu, 
h}ngli'<h and Malay Vocabulary published by Mr. T. H. Haynes 
in the Nos. 16 and 18 of this Journal. 

In explanation of my slatement above, that the Dusun 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUX LAXGUAGE. 3 

(Kadasan) language contains some very old forms of words, 
I may be permitted to give at least one example : 

The word for egg is : antdhloJc, which may be compared 
with Bajaii v/)//e/M (^better ?/»/6'/o/.-) and B<uiton ontolo. The 
Southern Dayak form t-anteloh is augmented by a peculiar prefix 
not uncommon in Bornean languages.* Here we see in 
Dusun the fullest form with the strongly sounded h before 
the 1, which all other Malayan languages have discarded at an 
early period. Remains of it may yet be recognized i?i a pecu- 
liar combination of sounds in some of the languages of the 
Sula-Amboyna group, expressed by Mr. A. R. Wallace by the 
letters rh. All these languages have not only preserved the 
first syllable, but have added a common prefix m. Siila: metelo, 
Liang nmntiro, Morella muntirkui, Batu-merah (Amboyna) nmri' 
telod, Lariki momatiro (According to A. R. Wallace.) 

On the other hand the Philippine group preserved the first 
syllable less carefully. Tagallo and Bisaya both have itloq, 
Sulu Ihlog. The final g corresponds to the final /.' of antah/ok, 
while Sulu k represents only a local variation of the original t, 
as in lubik = lubit, string, rope. In the Philippine languages 
the word can be traced back to a primitive form *{telo//. An 
explanation of the change in the first syllable may seem desir- 
able. The an- being short and unaccentuated gradually 
changed into en- which would be represented in Indo-European 
comparative philology asn=vowel-n. This sound always 

c 

changed into a short vowel, mostly a, but it became i in a 
good many instances. I need but to allude to Greek and Latin 

* This prefix seems to have had tlie character of an article. It is ali«o 
found in that dialect of the Dusun language of which Mr. W. H. Treacher 
has given a list of words : tidun (uhlun) man, tandoh (onduk) woman, 
female, tinan (inan) body, tulu (ulu) head, tuntulo (antahlok) egg, tu.naH 
(omau) oil, tddau (adau) sun, day, tdpoi (apoe) fire; etc. 



4- VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 

reduplications like gig-nosko, to know, Latin gigno, to bring 
forth, where gi- stands for gn. 

From all the forms here given the original form can be 
derived, representing the Eastern branch of the Malayan lan- 
g-uages, which in fact is the same as the Pusun (Kadasan) 
word. 

It cannot escape the readers of the following vocabulary 
that the language described in this article, possesses a number 
of fuller forms than is found in most Malayan languages. Cf. 
sumnmpaJi, Mai- siinqmh, to swear ; sumakit, Mai. sakit, sick; 
snsndiiJc, Mai. suduk, spoon; etc., etc. 

Another peculiarity needs to be mentioned, namely the 
prefix a— which before adjectives intensifies the meaning of 
the word, while in other cases the signification remains the 
same. e.g. : — 

Afarjal hes'ides fa gaf fMal. brat, herat) heavy. 
Apodos ,. jiodos (^Mal. pedas) pungont. 
A nine I ,. ninek small. 
; • Ahok .. I/Nok (Treacher) hair, etc., etc. 

Pronunciation. 

The simple vowels have the Italian sound, only e is short 
asin Malay menang, ov pedaa. e is English a in race. 

o o 

a is the Swedish a, Danish aa, English aw (in law.) 
. . over a vowel does not modify the sound, but simply denotes 
diaeresis e.g. tahoi pron. ta-ho-i. 

The hyphens are to be absolutely disregarded in the pronun- 
ciation, they are only employed to separate the root from 
prefixes and suffixes, e.g. m-iad must be read miad. 

The consonants have the sound now almost universally recog- 
nized by philologists. I might add that h is always 
distinctly breathed, while h is much stronger. It 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUX LANGUAGE. 5 

resembles Scotch or Swiss ch or Arabic ^' 
k is always audibly pronounced, linal k is soft like Malay final 

S but somewhat more distinctly pronounced than is cus- 
tomary at Singapore. 

Rev. H. L. E. Luering, Ph. D. (?>trassburg\) 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LAXGUAGE 



EmjIisJi. 


Du.s'UN. 


Malai 


One 


iso 


esa 


Two 


lufo 


dua 


Three 


talo 




Four 


apat 


am pat 


Five 


limo 


lima 


Six 


anam 


anam 


Seven 


turo 


tnjoh 


Eight 


bahlu 




Nnie 


sejam 




Ten 


hapod 




Eleven 


hapod-am-iso 




Twelve 


hapod-am-lufo 




Thirteen 


hapod -am -talo 




Fourteen 


hapod -am- apat 




Fifteen 


liapod-am-limo 




Sixteen 


hapod-am-anam 




Seventeen 


hapod-am-turo 




Eighteen 


hapod-am-bahlu 




Nineteen 


hapod-am-sejam 




Twenty 


lufo-hapod 




Thirty 


talo-hapod 




Forty 


apat- hapod 




Fifty 


limo-hapod 




Sixty 


anam -hapod 




Seventy 


turo-hapod 




Eighty 


bahlu-hapod 




Ninety 


sejam-hapod 




Hundred 


hatus 


se-ratus 


Thousand 


sa-ribu 


se-ribu 



VOCx\BULAKY OF THE DUtiUN LANGUAGE. 



10 



•iu 



English. 


Dusati. Malay. 


Abash, to 


male malu 


Abide, to 


m-apiing 


Able 


moleh boleh 


Abolish, to 


taman 


Above 


safat 


Abuse, to 


maki {Mai.), laleh 


Accept, to 


meng-ano 


Acid 


ansom asam 


Across 


se-brong se-brang 


Add, to 


wangtin 


Afar 


sadiik 


All-aid 


meg-asik 


Afterwards 


tab of 


Again (back) 


me-malik balik 


Age 


'omor ( Mai- Arab.) 


Ail- 


ibut libul (sturmj 


Alike 


m-iad 


All 


maHng-ali 


Alone 


iso-iso {sec : one) 


Aloud 


pohod 


Alter, to 


me-olil(')ii 


Always 


se major 


Am 


keniiso 


1 am 


jau kemiso 


Amongst 


pa tod 


Anchor 


sapok 


Anchor, to 


lemaboli berlaboh 


Angel 


malaikat (Mai.- Arab) 


Auger, angry 


hodong 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



;J0 



40 



50 



Euglwh . 


iJusun. 


Malay. 


Ankle 


ampaugil 




Anklet 


long-kaki 


rf. kaki, (foot) 


Answer, to 


semimb4h 


cf. sembah (to answer 
ceremoniously.) 


Ant 


kihiaii 




Ape (orang-ut, 


an) yung-ui 




Are 


kemiso 




Arise, to 


kakat-oii, meu-kakat 


Arm 


Jongon 


lengan 


Arm-ring- 


g-olong 


g-elaug, glaig 


Around 


lumeon 




Arrive, to 


kaikod 




Artful 


bisa (MaL) 




As 


iad-eha 




As long' as 


abufai 




As much as 


agonio, oguuio 




Ascend, to (a 1 


hill) mintakad 


meiidaki 


Asliauied 


uialo 


malu 


Ashes 


ahu 


abu 


Ashore 


hid-lindali {^ee: 1 


land) 


Aside 


sempapiiig" 




Ask, to 


uiobod 




Asleep 


m-odob, iii-odop 




At 


hid 




Aunt 


inai 




Axe 


pe-ualiak 




Baby 


auak-iiiiiek (see : 


small) 


Back 


ikud 


cf. ikut (to follow) 


Bad (wicked) 


yahad 


jahat 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGU.VGK. 



60 



70 



80 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Bag 


kalong 


karong 


Bark (of a tree) 


kuhlit 


kulit 


Bark, to — (to howl 






as a Dayak dog) 


me-g'ugad, iiie-gusik 


Basket 


kapik 




Bathe, to 


me -pa jo 




Battle 


memang 


perang, praig 


Be, to 


kemiso 




Beads 


nok, nuok 




Beak (bird's) 


tindok 




Beans 


kachang {Mai.) 




Bear 
Beard 


baruang' 
janggut {Mai.) 


beruang, bruaig 


Beast 


binatang {Mai.) 




Beat, to 


me-mobog, bobog- 


on 


Become, to 


jadi {Mai.) 




Bed 


odop-on {see : to sleep) 


Bee 


langau 




Beef 


sapi {Mal.-Jav.) 




Beetle, (rhinoceros-; 


) kujung 




„ smaller sorts 


angkub-angkub 


cf. angkup-angkup. ang- 
kut-angkiit, the build 
ing wasp. 


Beg-, to 


me-kianu 




Begin, to 


mula-mula (Mai.) 




Behind 


hid -ku dan 




Believe, to 
Bell 


pichaya 
ganding 


perchaya 


Belly 


tijan 


tiyan 


Belt (of wire) 


sinsing- 





10 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LNNGUAGE. 



English. 


Diisun. 


Malay. 


Beit (other sort) 


ogod 




Beneath 


hid-sibok 




Best 


wasik, fasik 




Better 


wasik-kapijau 




Between 


denga-tangah 


tengah-tengah 


Beyond 


se-brong 


se-brang 


90 Bid, to 


suhu-on 


suroh 


Big 


gajau 




Bill (of bird) 


tindok 




Bind, to 


kakut-an, kakut-6n 


ikat 


^iv& 


arobohlok 


burong 


Bite, to 


meng-okot, meng-okod 


Black 


me-itam 


hitani 


Blind 


bohlaii 




Blood 


yahak 




Blow, to 


me-nofugi 




100 Blow-pipe 


jilo, sapok 




Blue 


otoniau 




Blunt 


amu-atahum=anioli 


: atahum=not sharp 


Board 


papan {Mai.) 




Boat, laro-e 


par ah u 


perahu, prahu 


„ middle sized pa-karang-an (called by the Brunai Ma- 




lays pekerang-an : 


from karang, coral- 




reef : because it is 


well suited for coast 




navigation.) 




„ (dug-out) 


gobaiig 




Body 


Irian 




Boil 


inapak 




Bone 


tulang {Mai) 







VOCABULARy 


' OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 




English. 


Dusun. 


Malay, 


no 


Borrow, to 


m-ohlos 






Bottle 


huak 






Bottle, 








(of earthenware) g'elubang- 






Box 


kaban. 


(cf. Hok-kien Chi 
nese kap-ban) 




Boy 


hlangai-hlangai 


laki-laki 




Brains 


otok 


otak 




Brass-wire 


sin sain g, sinsing {se^ 


r : belt) 




Brave 


asiau 






Bread 


roti (Mal-Rmd.) 






Break, to 


babak 




120 


Bridge 


jambatan 


jembatan 




Bright 


anafaii, hlanak 






Bring, to 


ofit-6n 






Broad 


ahlaab 






Broom 


ungkatab 






Buffalo 


sangahan 






Buffalo, male 


s. kusai 






Buffalo, female 


s. anduk 


ef. indok (female) 




Bug 


asil 






Butter 


mantega (Mai-- Fori 


'-) 


130 


Butterfly 


kuli-mambarg- 






Button (shirt-) 


bumban, ke-bamhan 






Buy, to 


me-mohlik 






Cake 


punganau 


pengana!) 




Call, to 


meng-odim 






Cane, thick 


sego 


saga 




Cane, thin 


ufai 





11 



12 



VOCARITLAKY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE 



EnciHsh. 

Cap 

Care, to 

Carry, to 
140 Cat 

Catch, to 

Chain 

Chair 

Chalk, lime 

Chang-e, to 

Cheap 

Cheek 

Child 

Chin 
150 Claw 

Clean 

Clear 

Clever 

(,'limb, to 

Cloth 

(^lond 

(■oarse 

Coat 

Cock 
160 Coroaniit 

Cold 

Comb 

Come, to 

Come here, to 

Copper 



Dusun. irlalay. 

tangkoluk 

paduli (Mal.-Arah.) 

sanon 

ijong- 

g-okom-on 

rantai (Mai) 

kursi (Mai- A rah.) 

apu 

me -oh Ion 

murah [Mah) 

pingas 

anak (Mai.) 

jook 

senduru 

liungan 

anafaii (.^pp: brio^ht) 

pandai {Ma/.) 

anau 

kain (Mai.) 

afan a wan 

kasar (Ma/.) - -^ 

sia 

manok-kusai 

pi a sail 

sogid sejuk 

sudai 

kaikod 

moei mari 

tambaga (Mai.) 



N^OCARULAT^Y OF THE DTSUX LAXOrAClE. 



13 



English. 


Dusun. yfalay 


Corn 


telus-on 


Cough, to 


meg-ikod 


Cow 


sapi meg-anak 


Crab 


katam ketam 


170 Cry, to 


men-hlufap (c/. to roar) 


Cup 


mangkok (Mai.) 


Dare, to 


asiau 


Dark 


mesiian 


Day 


adau 


Dead 


patai mati 


Deaf 


bongor 


Dear 


hogok 


Debt 


utang {Mai.) 


Deer (rusa) 


tambang 


ISO Die, to 


patai mali 


Dig-, to 


me-mihuak 


Ditch 


papas 


Do, to 


me-nandak 


Dog 


asuk, asu (Mai. -Jar.) 


Done 


udang 


Do not 


adaai 


Door 


binapanoiiii 


Down 


sibok 


Dream, to 


nipik niimpi 


190 Dress, to 


pakai (Mal.j 


Drink, to 


menuni miuiim 


Dry 


atoo 


Duck 


utik itek 


Dumb 


bobau 



14 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE 



English. 


Dusmr. 


Dust 


ansik 


Each 


sufai-sufai 


Ear 


talingo 


Ear-plug- 


simbong 


Ear-ring- 


anting (Mal.J 


200 Earth 


po-mogun-an 


Eat, to 


makan (Mai.) 


^gg 


antahlok, tahlok 


Eig-ht 


bahlu 


Eighteen 


hapod-am-bahlu 


Eighty 


bahlu-hapod 


Elbow 


siku {Mal.J 


Eleven 


hapod-am-iso 


Empty 


hoson 


End 


untok 


Enter, to 


semufang 


Every 


sufai-sufai 


210 Eye 


mato 


Face 


puos 


Fall, to 


atok 


Fan 


kijup 


Far 


sadok 


Fast, swift 


sikapai 


Fast, to 


puasa (Mal.-Sansk.) 


Fat 


hlombon 


Father 


amak 


Fault 


leka-salah 


220 Fear, to 


meg-asik 



Malay. 



telingi 



telor 



kosong 



mata 



kirap(?) 



salah 



VOCABULAKY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



15 



English. 


Dusun. Malay. 


Fence 


ansar 


Fever 


seg4t-on 


Few 


akudik 


Field 


ranuau 


Fill, to 


apaijoh peuob, pnoh 


Find, to 


m-anu {<■/. accept) 


Finger 


tun to h 


Fire 


apoe api 


Fish 


sadak 


230 Fish, to 


men-jahlo menjala 


Flag- 


bandera {Mai.- Port.) 


Flame 


sumikit 


Flat 


moyad 


Flesh 


unsik, unsi 


Floor 


sihliu 


Flour 


dodik dcdak 


Flower 


bung-a (Mat. ) 


Fly 


laug-au (also bee) 


240 Fog' 


atufong- 


Food 


uie-mukad 


Foot 


kakod (but see anklet) 


For 


laja-iteh 


Fork 


sang-kap 


Form 


iad-ku {!^ee alike) 


Fort 


kota (Mai.) 


Four 


apat ampat 


Fourteen 


hapod-am-apat 


Forty 


apat-hapod 



Fowl 



manuk 



16 



VOCABULAKY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Fresh 


pag-ok {see : new.) 




250 Friend 


kehuang 


kawan 


Frog- 


ufak-ufak 




Fry, to 


me-randang- 


rendaug- 


Full 


na-pauoh 


penoh, pnoh 


Gain 


kiuntong 


untong 


Gate 


binapangon, binapangMin 


Gem 


maiiabok 




Get, to 


anu, m-anu, {see fin( 


i) 


Ghosts, (various 






sorts of) 


ambefo, sau yogon 




Girl 


budak-sumandakan 




260 Give, to 


ma-nahak 




Glad 


suka (Mai.) 




Glass 


kacha (Mai.) kassa 




Gnat 


namuk 


nyamok 


Go, to 


m-ugad, ui-ogad 




Go up bill, tu 


mintakad 


meudaki 


Goat 


ambing- 


kambing 


Gold 


amas (.UalJ 




Gone 


na-g-ogad-na 




Good 


wasik, fasik 




270 Grass 


sakod 




Grave 


hlobuong- 


lobang. (hoh 


Great 


gajau 




Green 


ataumaii 




Grow, to 


sumonih 




Gum 


katol 




Gun 


siiapaug- (Mal.-lJutch) 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUX 


LANGUAGE. 1 


English, 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Hair 


abok 




Half 


s-tangah-tangah, 






nian-tangah 


ten gab 


Hand 


longoii 


cf. Jengan, (arm) 


280 Hang, to 


gipis-on 




Hard 


kodaii 




Hat, sun-hat 


tangkolok 




Hate, to 


amok-sagak 




He 


son-ohlun 




Hear, to 


hongau 




Heart 


angkaufijau 




Heavy 


a-fagat 


berat, brat 


Hedge 


ans^r 




Help to 


luen-uhlung 


tolong 


290 Hen 


manuk-andiik 




Here 


hid-te 




High 


safat 




Hill 


nohlu 




Hit, to 


nesuat 




Hog 


bogok 




Hold, to 


pusiis-on 




Hole 


hoak 


goa (?) 


Home, at 


sahlom suhlab 




Hope, to 


pichaya 


perchaya. (believe) 


300 Horn 


sangau 




Horse 


kuda (Mai.) 




Hot (panas) 


hasok 




Hot (pedas) 


a-podos 


pedas 



17 



18 VOCABULAHY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



Eiifjlwlt, 


Jhisun. 




Malay. 




House 


suhlab 








How 


bengku 








Hundred 


hatus 




se-ratus 




Hurt, to, (wound) ne-ganit-an 








I 


jau 








If 


jau-no-pob (?) 








310 111 


awau 








In 


sahlom 








Ink 


dawat (Ma/ -An 


,h.) 






Invulnerable 


kobol 




kebal 




lion 


wasi 




besi 




Jail 


tutup-6n 




tutopan 




Joint 


per-sambong-an 


(Mai) 




Jumb, to 


tumindak 








Keep, to 


tahu-on 




tarob 




Key 


anak-kunchi (M( 


zg 






320 Kick, to 


mengatad 








Kill, to 


pataj-on 








Kind, sort 


m-iad 








Kind, friendly 


kasihan (Mai.) 








King 


raja po-mog-un-i 
(see Earth) 


an 


raja 




Knee 


otod 




lutut 




K nif e 


pisau [Mai. J 








Knock, to 


dunsol 








Know, to 


apandaio 




cj\ paudai, clev 


er 


Lad 


lilangai-blangai 




cf. laki-laki 




330 Lake 


napitas 









Vocabulary of the dusun language. 



19 



English. 


Dvsun.. Malay. 


Lamb 


anak-ambing- anak-kambino- 


Lame 


na-kimpok 


Lamp 


pelita (Ma/.-Pers.) 


Land 


tindah tauali 


Larg-e 


-ajau 


Late 


apag-on 


Laugh, to 


meng'-iak 


Law 


hukum (Mai. -Aral.) 


Lead (metal) 


sinampo 


340 Lead, to 


pot6d-on 


Leaf 


iaun daun 


Learn, to 


belajar {Mal.j 


Left (side) 


g-adibang 


Leg" (femur) 


pook 


Lend, to 


m-ohlos 


Lie down, to 


hlum-ufi 


Lie (untruth) 


niamulud 


Lime (for betel- 


apu 


nut) 




vessel for 


poan |)Uan 


same 




3oO Lip 


numuno- 


Live, to 


mijan 


Lock 


kunrhi (Mal.-JUnd) 


Long- 


hanau 


Look, to 


mug-ontong-. meg'-antang-. 


Lose, to 


no-hihang- hilang- 


Loud 


hliimufap(r/: to roar) 


Mad 


muhlam 



20 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN' LANGUAGE. 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Make, to 


me-nandak 




Male 


kusai ; (of men) hlang'ai-hlang-ai 


MO Man 


uhlun, ohlun, uhlu 


orang 


Many 


og-umo 




Mast 


tihang 


tiang 


Mat 


ikam 


tikar ? 


Meat 


onsi 




Migiit 


kafasa 


kuasa 


Milk 


faig-'do-susu 


ayer-susu 


Mix, to 


ihlot-on 




Money 


wang" {Mai.) 




Monkey, black 


sikok (Semnopithecus 




maurus) 




;'.70 Month, moon 


f uhlan 


l)ulan 


More 


hlabi 


leheh 


Most 


kopijo 




Moth 


kuli-mamhang" 




Mouse 


ikus 


tikus 


Mouth 


kabang 




Much 


ogumo 




Mud 


ohlommi ~ 




Mustache 


jeng-it 




Xail (iron) 


paku (MaL) 




oSO (fino-er-) 


send uhlu 




Name 


ngaiin 


nam a 


Near 


semok 




Neck 


hlioni 




Xest 


yumun 





VOOABrLARY OF THE DVSUN LANGUAGE. 21 



English, 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


New 


fagu {cf: fresh) 


bharu 


News 


habal 


khabar 


Nice 


fasik, og'ingol 




Night 


sodob 




Nine 


sejam 




Nineteen 


hapod-am-sejam 




Ninety 


sejam -hapod 




;}9U No 


amok 




Noise 


ogossok-maiemang- 




None 


okon 




Noon 


tang-ah-adau 




Nose 


adung 


hidong 


Not 


amok 




Do not 


adaai 




Now 


inn 




Oar 


gumajong 




Oath 


sumumpah 


sumpah 


Obey 


semugnd 




400 Oil 


omau 




Old (tua) 


mohoing 




Old (lama) 


abiifai 


- 


On 


safat 




Once 


insan 




One 


iso 


esa 


Only 


nopok 




Open 


sebon 




Or 


antawah 


atan, atawa 


Other 


sufai 




tlO Oug-ht 


patiit {Mai) 





22 



VOCABULARY OP THE DUSUX LANGUAGF. 



English. 


Diifiiin. 


Malay. 


Our 


-ja (as suffix) 




Path 


alun-alun (Jav.) 




Pay, to 


mem-balai 


membalas 


Pepper 


hlado 


lada 


Piece, one 


nopodi 




Pig-, domestic 


bogok 




„ wild 


bakas 




Pigeon, green 


punai {Mai.) 




Place 


ijon-on 




420 Plain (open 






ground) 


tindah-on (s^ee : laiifl) 


Play, to (gamble 1 


\ main, main pakau 


(Mal.-Chin) 


Plougli 


daduk 




Point 


untuk, untu 




Pole 


lumpo 




Poor 


misekin {Mai. -Aral. 


'.) 


Post 


teigi {cf: mast) 


tiang 


Pot 


balanga yaupoh -an 


belanga, blanga, 


Pour, to 


memubus 




Price 


horgo 


harga 


430 Prince 


anak-da-raja 


an ak- raj a 


Pull, to 


kodong-6n 




Pull, a boat 


mibossi 




Pure 


hiung-an 




Pure 






(as clean water) 


an i ting 




Push, to 


tukuhlon 




Put, to 


tahu-on 


taroh 



VOCABULAKY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



23 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Queen 


safo-da-raja 




Quick 


sikapai 




440 Quiet 


pei-ingotas 




Quit, to 


opung-on 




Race, to 


me-lomba 


berlomba 


Rain 


yesam 




Raise, to 


tidong-on 




Rat 


ikus 


tikus 


Read, to 


bassa 


bacha 


Ready 


sedia (Mai.) 




Real 


benar (Mal.j 




Red 


oigang 




Reign, to 


prentah {Mai) 




450 Rest, to 


sanang 


senang 


Rice, paddy 


pahi 


padi 


Rice, unhusked 


fagas 


beras, bras 


Rice, cooked 


kauon 




Rich 


kaya (Mai.) 




Ride, to 


bo-kuda, be-kuda 


berkuda 


Right 


benar (MaJ.) 




Ring- 


susuhlun 




Ripe 


na-ansak 


niasak 


Rise, to 


kakat-6n 




4G0 Road 


jablan 


jalan 


Roar, to 


me-mangkis, 
blumufap 


me-raengki; 


Roast, to 


sahl4h-on 




Rob, to 


liuampas 


rampas 



24 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE 



English^ 


'Duma. 


Malay, 


Rock 


pampang 




Rod 


sukud 




Roe (fish-) 


tahlok-sadak 




Roll, to 


hlufid-on 




Roof 


taab 


a tap 


Room 


hlamin 


halamin 


470 Root 


fakan 




Rope 


tahli 


tali 


,, (made of rattan^ 


) kalat 




Round 


tendugu 




Rub, to 


isu-on 




Ruu, to 


meg-idu 




Sack 


kalung 


karong 


Sago -palm 


umbijau 


rumbiya 


Sail 


hlajak 


layar 


Same 


m-iad, mihaga 




480 Sand 


ogis 




Save, to 






(money, etc.) 


tahu-on 


taroh 


Say, to 


bobs 




School 


iskola (Eui\) 




Scour, to 


isii-on 




Scream, to 


me-mangkis 


memengkis 


Sea 


safa 




Seat 


ikoh-on 




See, to 


atang-an, ontong' 


-on 


Seed 


hlinsan 




490 Seek, to 


ihum-on 





VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUX LANGUAGE 



25 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Self 


pusiison 




Sell, to 


tan -on 




Send, to 


patod-on 




Sense 


'akal (Mai. -Arab.) 




Serve, to 


men-uhlong' 


tolong 


Set, to 


pe-tahu-on 


taroh 


Sew, to 


tambi-on 




Shake, to 


g-uju-on 


goyang 


Shall 


andado 




500 Shame 


amalo 


malu 


Shave, to 


bug'an 




Shelf 


papan {Mai.) 




Shell 


tokoyon 


kuyong, tekuyong 
(a conch) 


Shew, to 


tolok-kan 




Shine, to 


anafau 




Ship 


kapal {Mai.) 




Shirt 


kalung {cf. bag) 




Shoe 


kalus 


kaus 


Shoot, to 


me-madil 


from bedil, gun 


510 Shop 


kadai 


kedei 


Shore 


tindah 


tanah 


Shot 


pilulu 


peluru, bullet 


Shout, to 


gumisak 




Shove, to 


tukuhlon 




Shrewd 


osikap 




Shriek, to 


me-mangkis 


memengkis 


Shrimp 


sesanggau 




Shut, to 


tambahlan 





26 



VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



Knglish. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Shy 


amalo, amalu 


malu - 


520 Sick 


sumakit 


sakit 


Side 


sempaping" 




Silk 


sutra (Mai.) 




Sin 


dusa 


dosa 


Sing, to 


ber-pantun {Mai.) 




Sink, to 


lama 




Sir 


tuan {Mai.) 




Sit, to 


mekau 




Six 


anam (Mai.) 




Sixteen 


hapod-am-anam 




Sixty 


anam-hapod 




Size 


gajau 




530 Skill 


osikap 




Skin 


kuhlit 


kulit 


Skull 


tampohong ohlu 


cf. tempurong- 


Sky 


afan 


awan, cloud 


Slap, to 


pap-on 




Slay, to 


pataj-on 




Sleep, to 


m-odop 




Slime 


ohlomik 




Slow 


okugui 




Small 


ninek, aninek 




540 Smart, clever 


osikap 




Smart, pain 


sumakit 


sakit 


Smash, to 


ababak 




Smell, to 


simud-on 




Smoke 


klisun 





VOCABULARY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



27 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malay. 


Smooth 


hlamau 




Snake 


uhlanu, uhlanut 


ular 


- Snare 


ungkasip 


cf. kachip 


Snipe 


am 




Snore, to 


tinggak 




550 So 


bengkaa 




Soft 


malus 




Soil 


tanah (Mai.) 




Some 


okiidi 




Son 


anak, kusai 




Soon 


chekapai 




Sore 


ganit-an 




Sound 


jeohlu 




Sour 


monsom 


masam 


Sow 


bogok-onduk 




560 Space 


ij6n-on 




Spade 


saug'kol 


cf. changl 


Spark 


lisiin 




Speak, to 


boos 




Spill, to 


obat 




Spoil, to 


be-karaja(lit. medd: 


le 




with) 


be-kerja 


Spoon 


susuduk 


suduk 


Spring-, to 


temindak 




Spy, to 


atahlang 




Stab, to 


tebok-6n 




570 Sun 


adau 




Swim, to 


kumaiing 





28 



VOCABULARY OF THE UUSUN LANGUAGE. 



English. 


Dusun. 


Malajj. 


Ten 


hapod 




Three 


talo 




Thirteen 


hapod -am-talo 




Thirty 


talo-hapod 




Two 


lufo 


dua 


Twelve 


hapod-am-lufo 




Twenty 


lufo-hapod 




Very 


kopijo 




Water 


faig, waig- 


ayer 


We 


jioi 




Wear, to 


pakai (Mai. J 




Weak 


lamah 


lemah 


580 Weep, to 


mihad 




Weigh, to 


timbang-on 


timbang 


Well, of water 


terbong 




Well 


fasik, afasik 




Wet 


nagajad 




When > 


sengiau 




Where ? 


hinombo 




Which ? 


jiisai 




Whip, to 


funduk-on 




White 


apoak --- 




590 Who? 


jisai 




Whole 


ngafi-ngafi 




Why ? 


nunu-sabab 


cf. sebab 


Wide 


bajau 




Wife 


andok 


endok 


Wild 


ossijau 




Will, to 


saga 





VOCABULAKY OF THE DUSUN LANGUAGE. 



29 



English. 
Wind 

Wing 

Wire 
600 Wise 

Wish 

With 

Wood 

Wood (forest) 

Word 

Work 

Worm 

Worth 

Wound 
610 Wrong- 
Yard 

Yell, to 

Yet, not- 

You, thou 



Dusun. 
ibut 

pahlapa 

kafod, kafot 

apandai 

suka (Mai.) 

kahuang 

kaju 

tahlun 

pe-basa-an 

pe-karaja-an 

gijok 

horgo 

ganit 

sahla 

sa-tangah depo 

memangkis 

mopanak 

jiau 



Malay. 
ribut 



kawat 
pandai 

cf. kawan 
kayu 

cf. bahasa 
pekerjaan 

harga 

salah 

s-tengah depa 
memengkis 



Malay Plant Names. 

The Malay language is remarkably rich in names of plants, 
and hitherto these names have either been incorrectly determin- 
ed or not determined at all in the few dictionaries in which one 
might expect to find them. This is the more regrettable since 
these names often possess a considerable amount of interest, as 
they often occur in Malay writings and a very large number of 
names of places are based on names of plants, such for instance 
are Malacca, Pekan, Setul, Penang, Changi, Cape Rumenia, 
TanjongRu, Gunong Pulai. The importance of correctly cor- 
relating the native names of drugs, timbers and other economic 
products with the scientific ones needs no explanation. Dic- 
tionaries and Vocabularies, such as those of Marsden and Favre, 
contain indeed a number of plant names, many of which are 
derived from Pijnappel, Klinkert, and Horsfield, but a consider- 
able proportion of these appear to be Sumatran, and Javanese. 
Nor does Filet (Plantkundige VVoordenboek) help much, for 
most of his Malay words are, as far as I have seen, not known 
in the Peninsula, or if they are in use are applied to a totally 
different plant from that which he gives. Thus the well-known 
plant Ampalas, the leaves of which are used for polishing 
wood, is given as signifying one or other of about ten kinds of 
fig trees, only one of which, as far as I know, is found in the 
Malay Peninsula, while the name is generally used here for a 
climber Tetracera belonging to quite a different order, viz : Dil- 
leniacece. Curiously, Filet does not appear to have made much 
use, if any, of Rumph's Herbarium Amboinense, a work con- 
taining a very large number of native names. Rumph gives a 
good many Malay names for his plants, and some of these are 
decidedly nearer those in use in the Peninsula than Filet's 



32 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

Malay words. I have not incorporated these however as there 
is no reason to think that they belong- to the Malay of the 
Peninsula. 

A list of Malay plant names from Maingay's manuscripts 
at Kev7 was published in the Kew Bulletin 1890 p. 112-134, but 
in many cases these names were miscopied so as to be un- 
identifiable and in some are evidently wrong-ly identified with 
the plants. 

In Jack's descriptions of Malay plants (Malayan Miscellan- 
ies, Bencoolen 1820-22) reprinted in the miscellaneous papers 
of this Society, Series II. Vol. II. pp. 209-295, several native 
names are given and these where they are g-iven for Penang 
plants I have incorporated, adding Jack as authority, some of 
these being otherwise quite unknown to me and perhaps erron- 
eously applied. 

From this list I have excluded some Persian and Hindu 
words, which have been included in some Malay Dictionaries 
and Vocabularies, as the plants intended either do not occur 
here at all or if they do are known under some other name. 
Javanese words usually in use here for cultivated plants, are 
excluded unless often employed, or used for well-knownp lants. 
I have added a few words which are almost certainly Sakai^ 
when I have been able to come across them. 

The list is very far from perfect, for not only have I been 
unable to procure many names from some of the Native States, 
but also a number of plants for which I have native names, 
are either as yet unidentified botanically or absolutely undes- 
cribed. Many of the timber trees and the rattans too have 
names only used for the trade product, and it is by no means 
easy in our present state of knowledge to identify accurately 
the prepared timber with the tree from which it came, which 
often has in the jungle an entirely different native name. 

Most plants have more than one name, and many have a 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 33 

considerable number. This is sometimes due to dialectic vari- 
ation : — thus the horse-mang'o is called Bachang', Machang-, 
Hembachang, Membachang, etc., according to locality. But 
often the local names have no connection with each other, 
being evidently derived from different roots. Again, a Malay 
may call a plant by different names according' to the products 
or properties of it he may be thinking of : thus the Gelenggaiig, 
Cassia alata, is also known as Daun Kurap — the leaf for the cure 
of the disease Kurap. 

Again, sometimes one name is used for several trees with 
apparently no connection, as Resak, which includes one species 
or more of Shorea {Dipterocarperr), an oak, and one or two 
unidentified plants, the name really being applied to the timber 
which in these trees is somewhat similar. It is probable that 
in all these cases the different Resaks will be found to have 
qualifying words to distinguish them apart, but these are 
known to but few Malays. While many of the names are 
remarkably opposite others are either apparentlj^ meaning- 
lessly obscene, or their signification is quite obscure. I have 
added translations of such as are translateable, but many of 
these are only tentative. 

In some cases the obscurity arises in the following way. 
A plant originally receives a suitable name, such as Ati-Ati 
(hearts) for the garden coleus, because of its heart-shaped 
leaves, but some resemblance is noticed between this plant 
and another {Sonerila) and though the leaves of this are not 
heart-shaped, it is called Ati-Ati hutan, that is to say really 
jungle coleus. The Malay has on the whole a very good eye 
for resemblance in plants and some of his identifications are 
really quite remarkable : thus Kerubut is applied to the Rajfiesia 
and a shrub known as Thotfea, two utterly different looking 
plants to the eye of an ordinary observer, but which are con- 
sidered in botany to be allied. Again, he is seldom wrong when 



34 MALAY PLAKT NAMES. 

speaking- of an orchid ( Ang-grek) though I have more than once 
known educated Europeans sadly at fault. 

To all the names given in the list the word Pokok, tree or 
shrub, must be added, unless the plant is a climber, when A/car 
is used, or it is small and herbaceous when Bumput is added. 
There are several Malay words which appear to have special 
meanings when applied to plant-names. Jantan (male) appears 
usually to mean that the fruit is less abundant or conspicuous 
in the species than it is in some other which is qualified by the 
name Betina. Gajah (elephant) conveys the idea of large. 
Tikus or Tupai, (mouse or squirrel) small. Hantu (ghost) 
corresponds to our word "false" as applied to plant names. 
Hutan signifies wild, as opposed to cultivated. Antan, a word 
sometimes used, I have been unable to get any meaning for, 
though there is a word spelt in the same way which signifies 
a pestle : as applied to plants it seems to bear the same mean- 
ing as " false." 

Till we know more of the Malay and allied languages 
it would be premature to form any deduction as to the origin 
of many of the plant-names, or their primitive meaning. Some 
it is true, like Nyur (cocoanut), Nanas (pine apple), Nona (cus- 
tard apple), have evidently accompanied the plants from afar 
and have been introduced with them, and in some cases may 
possibly throw light on the original home of some of the rather 
numerous cultivated plants not known to be wild anywhere, 
and whose origin is not yet known. Other names have evi- 
dent reference to the various properties or the appearance of 
the plant. 

This list must be considered only a preliminary one which, 
it may be hoped, will be considerably augmented as our know- 
ledge of things Malayan increases. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 35 

A DAL- AD AL. (Javanese) 

The croton of g-ardens. Codiirum rarier/atum Bl. (Euphor- 
hiaceae.) 
ADAS CHINA. 
ADAS MANIS. 

Aniseed. lUicium auisatnm. (Magno/iaceaeJ. Used in medi- 
cine. Imported. Also anise (Anetlniin r/raveolens L.j 
according to Clifford, who also gives the variant adis. 
ADAP-ADAP. 

Mussamda variolosa Wall, and Af. glabra Vahl. (Rubiaceae). 
Common climbing shrubs with yellow flowers and cons- 
picuous white bracts. 
ACxALUMUT. (Pahang) 

Sphenodesma barbafa Schauer. (Verbenaceae). A climbing 
shrub. 
AGAR-AGAR. 

Gracilaria lichenoides, J. Ag. A seaweed ; collected and 
used for making jelly. 
AGAS-AGAS. 

Aporosa Maingaiji. Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae.) A shrub. 

AHO-LUMUT. 

Alsodeia echinocarpa. Korth. (Violaceae). A shrub with 
mossy fruit, the seeds used as a purgative. 

AHTCHO. rJohor) 

Mijristica Hookeriana Wall. (Mf/risticaceae.) A large wild 
nutmeg. 

AKAR. 

Any climbing plant. The word is alwa} s used before the 
name of a climber to distinguish it from a Pokok of the 
same name ; e. g. Pokok asam jawa, — the tamarind ; Akar 
asam, — Rourea fulgens, Wall, the leaves of which suggest 
those of a tamarind. 

The word also signifies the root of a plant. 

AKIT. 

Rhizophora coivjugata L. {Rhizophoreae.) One of the Man- 
grove trees (Bakau) used for firewood, and the bark for 
tanning nets. 



36 MALAY PLAXT XAMES. 

ALAI. 

Peltophorirm (Ja.^jjrrachi^ Kurz (Legunnnosae.) A handsome 
tree with yellow flowers. Also known as Batai. 
ALAI BATU. 

Hiidnocarpus castaneufi Hook. fil. (Bixineae.) 

ALBAN also HALBAN. 

\ifex vestita. Wall. {Verbenaceae.J Perhaps a variant of 
Leban, which see. A common tree in secondary jungle 
which is used in native medicine. 

ALL (Akar) 

Srmlax myosotiflora Dec. {Liliaceae.) A climber in jungles. 
The word ali means a sling. The plant is used as an 
aphrodisiac. 

ALIYA see Halia. 

Zingiber officinalis L. (Zingiberaceae) The cultivated ginger. 

ALUMUT. 

Ficus Bibes Reinwdt. (UrticaceaeJ. 

ALWAH. (Persian) 

Aloes ; used in medicine 

AMBACHANG. 

The horse-mango. Mangifera foetida. ( Anaccsixliaceae) 

More commonly Bachang, also Hambachang and Ma- 
chang. 

AM BAKU. 

More commonly Baru, which see. Hibiscus tiliaceus, L- 

AMBELAN BUAH. 

Philllanthus urinaria L. (Eupliorbiaceae.) A common little 
weed in waste ground ; used in native medicine. 

AMBELU. (Akar) 

Psychotria ovoidea Wall. (Rubiaceae). A climber with small 
greenish flowers and white fruits. 

AMBIN BUAH. (Rumput) 

Phyllaathus urinaria L. {Eupliorbiaceae). Also x\mbin 
Dukong anak, see Dukong anak. Mengambin, to carry 
something slung on the bark ; alluding to the fruits being 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 37 

suspended at the back of the leaves. The plant is a 
common little weed ; ut^ed in native medicine as a diuretic. 
AMBIN JANTAX. 

FAiphorhia piluhfera L. {Euphorhiaceae). X common little 
weed. 

AMBONG-AMBOXG. 

Scaevola Koenigii Ya,h\. {Goodeiioriae). Also ambun-ambun. 
A sea shore shrub with white flowers, and fruit. 

AMBOXG-AMBOXG LAUT. 

Premna cordifolia Roxb. (Verbenaceae) . A shrub or small 
tree, with small white flowers in corymbs, leaves strongly 
scented. 

AMBOXG-AMBOXG PUTIH. 

Callicarpa arhorea Roxb. fVerbenaceae). A tree with vio- 
let flowers. 
AMBOXG BUKIT. 

Ebermaiera Gritfithiana Anders. {Acanthaceae.) A small 
herb with white tubular flowers. Common in many jungle 
ravines. 

AMBUX AKAR. 

Lecananthus erubescens Jack. (Rubiaceae.) An epiphytic 
plant with white flowers in heads of purple bracts. 

AMBUX-AMBUX. 

Saevola Koenign Xahl. (Goodenoviae.) .^e^? Ambong'-ambong. 

AMIX-AMIX. 

Sebastiana chaniojlea ^iueU, {Euphorbiaceae.) A small sea- 
side herb with narrow leaves and green flowers. Tsed 
in native medicine for fever. 

AMPADAL AYAM. 

Salacia grandiflora Kurz. (KJiamneae.) A shrub with eatable 
fruit. Lit. fowl's gizzard. 

AMPALAM also AMPELAM. see MAMPELAM. 

Mangifera vidica L. (Anacardiaceae.) The mango. 

AMPALAS also AMPELAS. see MEMPELAS. 

Tetracera assa L, {Dilleniaceae.) 



38 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

AMPALAS GAJAH. AMi\iLAS RIMAU. 

Tetracera viacrophj/lla Hook. fil. (Dtlleniaceae.) A climber 
with rough leaves. 
AMPALAS HARI also MAMPELAS HARI & PULASARI. 

Aljjxia stellata Roem. and A. lucidx Wall. (Apoc//}iaceae.) 
The stems of these climbers are strongly scented like new 
mown hay and are used in native medicine. 
AMPALAS PUTIH also AMPALAS HARI BETiNA and 
AMPALAS TIKUS. 

Dehnia sarnientosah. (Dillemaceae). A climber with small 
white flowers in large bunches. 
AMPALAS WANGI. (Selangor) 

Aljjxia pi/osaMiq. (Apocijnaceae). A climbing herb occurr- 
ing on hills at an altitude of 3000 feet. 

AMPAS TEBU. 

Mijristica Grijfithii Hook. fil. {Mi/n.'^ticaceae.) Lit. sugar 
cane refuse. A wild nutmeg. 
ANDONG. 

The dracaena of gardens. {Cordyline tcrnnnali^.) Probably 
Javanese, but often used by Malays. 
ANDONG HIJAU. 

(C. terminalis). The green leaved form. 
ANDONG MERAH. 

The red variety {var. ferrea). 
ANGA BESA. 

Hedijotis capite/lata Wall. (Eubiaceae) A common climb- 
ing herb. 
ANGGOR. 

The vine, Vifis vinifera, but most commonly wine, the plant 
being unknown here. A Persian word. 
ANGGREK. 

Any epiphytic orchid, really Javanese or Sundanese but 
often used by Malays. The word has been used in science 
to form the generic word Angraecwn, but unfortunately 
applied to a genus which does not occur in this region. 
ANGGREK MERPATI. 

The pigeon orchid. Dendrohmm crumenatumSw. {Orchideae.) 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 39 

ANGGU also INGGU. (Persian) 

Asafoetida the gum of Ferula Narthex. Used in medecine, 
imported. 

ANGKOP MERAH. (Malacca) 

Cijathula prostrata Bl. {Ant(iraiitaceae). A common creeping 
weed. 

ANGOS(Kaju.) (Kedah) 

Chailletia sp. Kedah (Curtis 2579) {Chailletiaceae.) 

ANGSANA. 

Pterocarpus indicus VVilld. {Leguniiiioso^). This is really a 
Javanese word but much used in the Straits, The real 
Malay word is Sena. 

ANIBONG. 

Oncosperiiia tiyillaria (Jack). {Pa/inae\ More commonly 
called Nibong which see. 

ANIS (Bunga Anis) 

The oleander. Nentun oleander L. {Apocynaceae). This is 
given by Favre. 

ANTOI HITAM. 

Drepanantlius priiniferus Hook. fil. Tall straight trees never 
of any very large size. They are used for timber. 

ANTOI PUTIH. 

Drepauanthiis caulijiorus Hook. til. (Anonaceae). 

AOH (Akar Rumput). 

Alteriuinthera sessilis Br. {Amarantaceae) . A common little 
weed with white tufts of f]owers in the axils of the leaves. 
It is eaten as a vegetable. 

API-API. 

A name often applied to mangrovo trees especially Lumnit- 
zera coccinea and Avicennki probably from their being 
used as firewood. And also to various species of mistle- 
toe Lovanthus and Viscum because they destroy the bran- 
ches of their host, so that they look as if burnt. 

API- A PI (Akar). (Malacca) 

Henslowia Lohhiana A Dec. (Santalaceae). A climber vague- 
ly suggesting one of the Viscums (Api-api). 



40 MALAY PLANT NAMES, 

APT-API HUTAN. 

Memeci/ion coerideum Jack. {MelastoviaceaeJ. This proba- 
bly means merely a fire wood tree, compare Medang- api- 
api. A small tree or shrub with blue flowers. 

API-API JANTAN. 

Loranthus a7npu llaceus Koxb. (Loranthaceae.) One of the 
commonest mistletoes with green and yellow flowers. 

API TELINGA GAJAH. 

Ficns diversifoHa iil. (Urticaceae). An epiphytic fig tree 
resembling a Loranthus in habit. Lit. elephant's ear mis- 
tletoe. 

ARA (Akar). 

Aristolochia Roxhurghiana Kl. { Aristolochiaceae). A curious 
climber with brown flowers. 

ARA. 

A name applied to various species of Ficus. ( Urticaceae.) 

ARA AKAR. 

Ficus Binnendylcii King. 

ARA BATU. 

Ficus MiqueHi King. A common tree with green figs. 

ARA BULUH (Akar). 

Ficus villosa Blume. A climbing fig. 

ARA BURUTEH. 

Ficus acamptophy I la Miq. 

ARA DAUN LEBAR. (Johor) 

Ficus vylophylla Wall. 

ARA GAJAH. 

Ficus duhia Wall. A large tree. 

ARA JANGKANG. 

Conocephalus amamus King. ( Urticaceae) A scandent epi- 
phyte. It is more commonly known as Tentawan. 

ARA JEJaWI. 

Ficus retusa L. 
ARA JULUTEH, also JELOTEH. 

Ficus altissima Bl, and Ficus diversifoHa Bl. 



MALAY PLANT NAHES 41 

ARA KECHIL. 

Ficus microstoma Wall. 

ARA KUAP. 

Ficus diihia Wall. 

ARA KUBANG. 

Ficus clubia Wall. 

ARA KELALAWAK. 
Ficus glohosa Bl. 

ARA KUBANGAN ARA KUBUNG. 

Ficus annulata Bl. 

ARA LAMPONG. 

See Kelampong. Ficus Miquelii. King. 

ARA LIDAH RIMAU. 

Ficus pisif era Wall. A shrub with very rough leaves hence 
the name " tiger's tongue." 

ARA LUMUT. 

Croton caudatus Geisel. (Euplwrhiaceae). A climber with 
mossy looking flower spikes. 

ARA NASI. 

Ficus glabella Bl. A shrub or tree with small white figs, 
supposed to look like rice. 

ARA PAYA. 

Ficus glohosa Blume. A shrub or small tree with green 
figs generally found in swampy jungle, 

ARA PERAK. 

Ficus alba Reinwardt. " Silver Fig" from the silvery backs 
of the leaves. A common shrub in secondary jungle. 

ARA SUBURUTEH. 

Ficus pisifera Wall. 

ARASIPADEH. 

Ficus villosa Blume. Compare Supideh. 

ARA SUPUDE. ARA SUPIDE PAYA. 

Ficus pisifera Wall and F. urophylla Wall. 



42 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

ARA TAMPO PINANG. ARA TANDOK. 

Ficus indica Linn. 

ARA TANAH. 

JEujjhorbia pilulifera D. {Euphorhiaceoe.^ 

A RANG (Kayu). (Johor) 

Maha buxifolia Pers. also Diospyros lucida Wall. (Ebenaceae). 
Ebony trees, the word means charcoal. 

ARDANI. (Pahang) 

Alsodeiae chinocarpa Korth. {Violaceae.) 

ARU see RU. 

Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. {Casuarinece). Marsden gives 
Arau as does Filet who however marks the word as a Rhio 
one. 
ARUDA. 

Ruta graveolens L. Rue. (Favre.) The plant is practically 
unknown here being only cultivated occasionally by the 
Chinese. I find, however, in a list by Mr. Hervey a 
name Aruda hutan, but with no clue to what this is. 

ASAM AKAR. (Province Wellesley). 

Eourea fulgens Wall. (Connaraceae.) So called from the 
resemblance of its leaves to those of the tamarind. It is 
more commonly known as Semilat. 

ASAM GELUGUR. 

Garcima atrovirdis Griff. (Guttiferae.) A tree with large 
orange acid fruits used in curries. 

ASAM JAWA. 

The tamarind. Tamarindus indicus L. (Leguininosae.) 
Fruit used in curries. 

ASAM JAWA ANTAN. 

Pithecolohium contortum Mart. (Legummosae.) A common 
tree with twisted red pods. 
ASAM KEf.UBI. 

Zalacca conferta Bl. {Palmae). See Asam paya. 
ASAM LOKAN PUTIH. 

MediniUa Hasseltii Blume. {]\felasto?naceae). An epiphytic 
plant with conspicuous branches of red berries. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 43 

ASAM PAYA 

Zalacca conferta Bl. (Palmae). A thorny palm growing" 
in jungle swamps the fruit of which is very acid. It is 
sold in the markets. In the centre of the Peninsula it is 
known as Kelubi. 

ASAM RIANG (Akar). 

Cissus hastatus Miq. (Ampelideae). A common wild vine 
with an acid taste. Riang, a name often applied to vines, 
means a Cicada. 

ASAM SUSOR. 

Hibiscus surattensis L. {Malvaceae). A herbaceous hibiscus 
with large yellow flowers with a maroon eye. Common 
in and round villages. 

ASAM TEBING DARAT. 

Anadendron montanum Schott. (Aroideae'). A common aroid 
which climbs on trees. 

ASAM TEBING PAYA (Akar). 

Raphidophora Lohhii Hook. fil. (Aroideae). A climbing 
aroid. 

ASAM TIKUS. 

ChamaecladoR Griffithii Hook. fil. (Aroideae). A small 
terrestrial aroid common in jungles. 

ATAP CHUCHUR. 

Calamus castaneus Griff. (Palmeae). See Rotan chuchur. 
One of the few rattans which make no climbing stem. Its 
leaves are used for ataps. 

ATI-ATI. (Singapore) 

The garden coleus. C. Blumei, etc. (Labiatae). From 
its heart shaped leaves. 

ATI-ATI GAJAH. ATI-ATI HUTAN. 

Sonerila heterostemon Naud. {Melastomaceae). Perhaps 
from its suggesting a coleus. A small herb, the leaves 
green with white spots, and pink flowers. 

ATI-ATI PAYA. 

The common water lily, Nymphea stellata, also Cryptocoryne 
cor data Griff, an aquatic aroid, 



44 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

ATUN LAUT. 

Ileritiera littoralis L- {Sterculiaceaej. From atung — to float. 
The fruits float in the sea. A common sea shore tree, 
often known as Dungun. 

AUR. 

A name applied to many kinds of Bamboo. Filet gives 
Aivi (as Sundanese) and Aule as Amboinese. Forbes 
gives Aic as Timorese. 

AUR GADING. 

Bamhusa vulgaris var. The large yellow bamboo with 
green stripes. 

AUR (Rumput). 

Commelina nudijlora L. (Commelinaceae). A common weed 
with fugacious bright blue flowers. 

A YAM- AY AM. (Singapore) 

Lasianthus Jackianus Hook. fil. ( Riihiaceae). A small 
jungle shrub with bright blue berries. 

AYER ANJING. (Johore) 

Homabum foetidum Benth. (^Samydaceae). 

BABI (Rumput.) 

Blainritlea JatifoHa A. de C. (Compositae) A common weed in 
villages, with small white heads of flowers, (lit. Pigweed) 

BABI BUAH. 

Crypterunia puhescens Bl. (Lythraceae). A medium sized-tree 

BABI KURUS. 

Trif/oNochlamys Griffithii Hook. fil. {Burseraceae). Lit. The 
thin pig. A fair sized tree. 

BABORA. (Penang) 

Linostoma ijaucijlorum Griff. {Thymeleaceae). A climber. 

BABUTA. 

Contraction for Buta-Buta, which see. Cerhera odollam L. 
{A2')ocynaceae). 

BACHANG also MEMBACHANG, etc. 

Mangifera foetida Lour. {Anacardiaceae). A well-known 
native fruit; the horse-mango; used in curries, etc. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 45 

BACHANG HUTAN. 

Mangifera species. A tree with bright yellow wood. 

BAGAN (Akar). (Singapore) 

Alyxia lucida, Wall. {Apocijnaceae). A climber; often culti- 
vated for its sweet-scented white flowers. 

BAGAS PUTIH. 

Memecylon Hidleyi, Cogn. {Melastomaceae). A small tree with 
pink flowers, growing in dense jungle. The name Bagas 
is probably a variant of Mangas, a common name for 
several of the Memecylons. 

BAGHAO. 

Xyris indica L. (Xyrideae). A herb with grassy leaves and 
a cone-like head of yellow flowers. It grows in rice fields. 

BAHAR, also BEHAR. 

Which is given as a seaweed in Clifford's Dictionary is a 
marine animal. 

BAIK SALAM (Bunga). Scoparia dulcis L. ( Scrophularineae). 
A common weed, with small white flowers. 

BAKARAS. (Pahang) 

Moesa ramentacea A. de. C. (Myrsineae), A scandent shrub, 
with very small white flowers. 

BAKAU. 

A name applied to mang'rove trees, chiefly Wiizoplioreae. 
BAKAU PUTIH. 

Bruguiera caryophylloides, Blume. 
BAKEK. 

Piper Chaba, Hunter. {Piper aceae). A pepper often culti- 
vated ; the fruit spikes are long and red. 

BAKUNG. 

Crinum asiatimim, L. {Amaryllideae). A large white flowered 
lily-like plant; common on sea shores. 

BAKUNG AYER. BAKUNG PANTAL BAKUNG SUASA. 
Snsuvi anthelmiuticum, Bl. (F/ageUarieae). A common jungle 
plant with large leaves like those of a Crinum; the flowers 
small and green in a panicle. 



46 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BAKUNGAYER. 

Is also applied sometimes to Cliamcecladon angustifoUum, 
Schott. {Aroideae). A small aroid. 
BALA. 

Memecylon Myrsinoides, Bl. (3felasto?naceae). A small tree 
with a hard wood, used for posts. 
BALAI also TINGAL BALAI. 

Aralidium pinnatifidum , Miq. (Araliaceae). A large shrub. 
BALAM. 

Bassia Balem, Miq. (Sapotaceae). A Sumatran word only, 
I think. 
BALAM. 

Pouzolzia pentandra. (Urticaceae.) A common weed. 
BALAU also EMBALAU. 

A large tree producing a good timber much in use. The 
plant has never been identified. It has large strongly 
ribbed leaves, white beneath, and oblong woodj' fruits. 

BALAU BUNGA, BALAU BATU, BALAU TELOR have 
also not been identified. 

BALAU BETINA. 

Siuintonia Schwenkii, Teysm. (Anacardiaceae). (Maingay's 
list). A large tree with good timber. 
BALDU MERAH. 

Haemaria discolor, Lindl. (OrcJndeae). A well-known foliage 
orchid, with deep brown purple leaves veined with gold. 
BALIK ADAP. 

Aussaenda variolosa, Wall, and M. glabra Yahl. {Ruhiaceae.) 
see Adap-Adap. 

BALIK ADAP (Akar). 

Ruhus glomeratus, Bl. (Rosaceae.) A raspberry, the backs of 
the leaves of which are buff-coloured. 
BALIK ADAP BUKIT. 

Mussaenda variabilis Hemsl. {Rubiaceae). A superb climber 
with star-like red flowers turning orange. This species 
does not possess the white bracts oi M. variolosa from 
which the plant takes its native name. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES- 47 

BALIK ANGIN. 

Mallotus Cochinchinensis. {Euphorbiaceae). A common tree 
the leaves of which are white beneath so that when the 
wind blows they turn and show the white backs, whence, 
the name, literally " turn in the wind." 

BALIK AXGIN BUKIT. 

Croton suhlyratus, Kurz. {Euphorbiaceae). A shrub, the 
backs of the leaves of which are silvery. 

BALIK ANGIN LAUT. 

Callicarpa lanata Griff. ( Verbenaceae). A shrub the leaves 
of which are white on the backs. 

BALIK ANGIN PUTIH. 

Macaranga populifolia Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). A large tree, 
with entirely green rather small leaves. 

BALIK KUNING. 

Mallotus macrostachijus, Muell. {Euphorbiaceae.) A shrub, 
the leaves of which have yellowish backs. 
BALISTUR (Akar). 

Trichosanthes cordafa, Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae). A wild pump- 
kin with white flowers and showy scarlet gourds. 

BALONG AYAM. 

Antidesma Ghoesembilla, Gaertn. {Euphorbiaceae) in Penang. 

A shrub or small tree. 
Also Xerospermurii Wallichianum, King. {Sapindaceae) in 

Pahang. A tree with sweet yellow fruit, like those of 

the Rarabutan Pacha t. 
BALONG AYAM BATU. 

Fentaphragma begoniae/blium, Wall. {Campanidaceae). Lit. 

Rock-cockscomb, from the shape of the flower spike. A 

herb with cream coloured flowers ; common on rocks and 

banks in jungles. 
BALONG HIJAU. 

Epiprinus malaijanus, Griff. {Euphorbiaceae). A big tree. 
BALUN HIJAU. 

Dyso.rijhn cauliHoruju Hieru. Also Aglaia minutifora (Melia- 

ceae). This name is applied to a number of Meliaceous 

trees, some of which produce a good second-class timber. 



-48 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BANA(Akar). (Selangor). 

Smilax Helferi^ A. de C. (Liliaceae). A climbing shrub, with 
green flowers in heads. 

BANAUHUTAN. 

Phyllagathis rotundifolia, Blume {Melastomaceae). A low 
herb with large round green leaves and compact heads of 
magenta flowers ; occurs in thick jungle. 

BANGANG. (Singapore), 

Liisea polijantha, Juss. (Laurineae). A large tree with tufts 
of small yellow flowers. 

BANGAS PUTIH. 

Parinarium nitidum Hook. fil. (Rosaceae). A tree with small 
drupes, eaten by children. 

BANGKAWANG see Mengkuang. 

BANGKONG also Bakung, which see. 

Susum anthelnnnticum, Bl. (Flagellarieae.) 

BANGKUDU see Mengkudu. 

Morinda tinctoria L. {Ricbiaceae). 

BANGUS JANTAN. 

Vitex vestita Wall. (Verbenaceae). A small tree with yellow 
flowers; common in jungles. 

BaNIT kijang. 

Xijlopia Malaijana Maingay (Anonaceae). A small tree. 

BANfTAN. 

Goniothakmus Prainianus King. {Anonaceae). 

BANITAN MERAH. 

Schoutenia Master dYimg. {Tiliaceae). A big tree. 

BANGKO. 

Eugenia Maingayi Duthie. (Myrtaceae). A fairly large tree 
with white clove-like flowers. 
BANGKU, (Johor) 

Kopsia probably an undescribed species near K, arhorescens 
{Apocynaceae). A shrub with rather large white flowers. 

BANK. (Johor) 

Macaranga megalophylla Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 49 

BANO. (Akar) 

Dischidia Rafflesiana Wall. {Asdepiadeae). A remarkable 

epiphytic climber easily distinguished by its curious coni- 
cal yellow pitchers. 
Also Sarcolobus glohosus Wall. (Asclejnadeae). A climber 
with small yellow flowers and globose fruits. 

BANTUN. 

Symplocos ruhiginosa Wall. (Styraceae). A large shrub 
with bright green leaves and white flowers. Also a spe- 
cies of Coelodepas (Euphorbiaceae). 

BANTUX HITAM. 

Epiprinus Malacensis {Euphorbiaceae). 

BANTUNAN. 

Aporosa nigricans Hook. til. {Euphorbiaceae). A small tree 
with very dark green leaves. 

BAPULUT. 

Adenosnia caeruleuni Br. (Scrophularineae). An aromatic 
herb with pale lilac flowers. 
BAREK. 

Antidesnia leucoclades Hook. til. {Euphorbiaceae.) A small 
tree or shrub. 

BARONG. (Johor) 

Eleocarpus robustus Roxb. {Tiliaceae). A tree with white 
flowers. 

BARU also WARU and BARU LAUT. 

(Appears as Fau and Vau in Polynesia, and Yarn and Baru 
in Malagasy. Guppy. Ic.) Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn. {Mal- 
vaceae). A seashore tree, the wood used for various small 
articles, and the bast as fibre. The name is also some- 
times applied, perhaps by error, to Thespesia populnea L. 
a seashore tree much resembling it. 

BARU CHINA. 

Artemisia vulgaris L. {Compositae). The common worm- 
wood which is often cultivated by the Chinese. 

BARULANDAK. 

Hibiscus mutabilis L. {Malvaceae). A well known ornamental 



50 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

'shrub with white flowers which turn red in the evening. 

BAKU LAUT. 

This which is really Hibiscus tiliaceus is sometimes appUed 
to Guettarda speciosa L. {Ruhiaceae). 

BARUS. (Malacca) 

Garcinia sp. (Guttiferae). 

BATIL. 

Mangiferafoetida Lour. {AnaGardiace,ae) . More common- 
ly known as Bachang. 

BATU. (Akar) 

Byttneria Maingayi, Hook. fil. (Tiliaceae). X large 
climber with curious white and pink flowers. 

BAVVAL HUT AN. 

Phyllagathis rotundifolia Blume. {Melastomaceae). 

BAWANG, 

An onion or leek. 

BAWANG BENGGALA and BAWANG BUMBE 

Are large-sized onions imported. 

BAWANG CHINA. 

Garlic. Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae). Also BAWANG 
PUTIH. 

BAWANG HUTAN. 

Crinum asiaticum L (Amaryllideae). Also BAWANG TEM- 
BAGA. See Bakung and Tembaga Suasa. 

BAWANG KUCHEI. 

Leeks. Allium porrum L. 

BAWANG MERAH. 

Onion. Allium Cepa L. 

BAWANG (Rumput) 

Fimhristylis asperrima Vahl. (Cyperaceae). A sedge, the 
leaves of which vaguely suggest those of an onion. 

BAYA ROASA (Rumput). 

Corckorus acutangulus Lam. {Tiliaceae). A weedy plant 
with yellow flowers. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 51 

BAYAM. 

Several Amarantaceae used as spinach are known by this 
name. 
BAYAM BADAK. 

Psychotria Mai ay ana Jack. {Ruhiaceae). 

** Rhinoceros spinach." (Jack is the authority for this 
name). It is a low jungle shrub with large leaves. 

BAYAM BETtJL. 

Amaranthus retroflexxis Linn, according to Favre. 
BAYAM DURI. BAYAM HUTAN. 

Amaranthus sptnosus L. {Amarantaceae). A good spinach, 

BAYAM EKOR-KUCHING. 

Celosia cristata L. {Amarantaceae). Lit. Cat's tail spinach. 
The cockscomb of gardens. 

BAYAM MERAH. 

Amaranthus gangeticus L. {Amarantaceae). The red leaved 
spinach. 
BAYAM MUNYET. "Monkey-spinach." BAYAM PUTIH. 

*' White-spinach." Amaranthus viridis L. (Amarantaceae), 

BAYAM PASIR. 

Alternanthera sessilis Br. {Amarantaceae). Lit. sand Spinach. 

BAYAM RUSA. 

Cyathula prostrata Bl. {Amarantaceae). Lit. deer spinach. 

BAYAM SELASIH. 

Amaranthus caudatus L. {Amarantaceae), 

BAYAS. 

Oncosperma horrida {Palmae). A common palm resembling 
the Nibong 0. tigillaria Grifi., but has not the drooping 
leaflets of that species. It is useless as timber. 

BAYAS BETINA. 

Pinanga Scortechinii Becc. {Palmae), A small erect jungle 
palm. 

baYur. 

Pferospermum Jachianum Wall. {Sferculiaceae.) A medium 



52 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

or large tree with small leaves buff coloured beneath. 

BAYUR BETINA. (Penang) 

StercuUa Jackiana Wall. (Sterculiaceae). A small tree con- 
spicuous from its scarlet pods and black seeds. 

BAYUR JANTAN. 

Pterospermum divers If ulium Bl. {Sterculiaceae.) A much larg- 
er tree than P. Jackianum with very large flowers, and 
broad leaves white beneath. 

BAYUR LAUT. 

Heritiera Littoralis Dryand. {Sterculiaceae.) A seashore tree 
with leaves silvered at the back. 

BEBUAS. see Buas-Buas. 

BEDARA. 

Used for many plum-like fruits. 

BEDARA CHINA. 

The jujube. Zizyphus jujuha Lam. {Rhamneae.) 

BEDARA HUTAN. 

Strychnos sp. near pubescens Wall. (Loganiaceae.) A. climb- 
ing shrub with small ovate leaves, and for a strychnos 
small fruits. 

BEDARA LAUT. 

Ximenia Americana L. {Olacineae.) A seashore shrub with 
white flowers and small yellow plums. 

BEDARA LAUT. (Akar) 

Randia fasciculata Dec. {Ruhiaceae). A common seashore 
thorny shrub with white flowers. 

BEDARA PAHIT. 

Eurycoma latifoUa Jack. {Siruaruheae). A shrub the bark 
of which is very bitter and used in medicine for fever. 

Also called, BEDARA PUTIH, BEDARA MERAH and PE- 
NAWAR PAUIT. 

BE DAT. 

Sonneratia acida Linn. fil. {Lythraceae). A seacoast tree. 
BEDi. (Penang) 

Choetocarpus castanocarpus {Euphorbiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 53 

BEDIL LALAT. 

Diospyros argentea Griff. {Ehenaceae). Lit. Hies' gunpow- 
der (or crackers). The leaves when burnt make a crack- 
ling sound supposed to drive away mosquitoes. 

BEDURI. 

Calotropis giganiea Br. ( Asclepiadeae). The Mudar fibre 
plant, cultivated and used in medicine, and the plumes 
of the seed to stuff pillows. 

BEGUNG. 

An Amorpliophallus {Aroideae). Used in making dart poi- 
son (see Likir). (Vaughan Stevens). 

BEKA. (Kelantan and Patani) 

Parkia Roxhurghii Don. {Leguminoaae). Commonly known 
as Petal. 

BEKA-BEKA. (Selangor) 

A big leguminous tree with pale bark, flowers yellow, and 
fruit like a nutmeg. It gives a good timber. I have seen 
neither flowers nor fruit. 

BEKIL. (Perak) 

Lasia spinosa Thw. (Aroideae). A thorny plant growing in 
swamps. The common name for it is Gli-gli. 

BEKWOI. (Penang) 

Crypteronia pnhescens Blume. (Lythraceae). A common tree 
in Penang. 

BELALAI GAJAH. 

Uncaria sclerophyUa Roxb. (Rubiaceae). One of the finest 
wild gamblers, with large heads of silky white flowers. 

BELANGKAS. 

Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae). A Chinese shrub with 
very small yellow flowers, sweetly scented in the even- 
ing. The Helangkas is the king-crab {Liriiidus). Applied 
to plants, it appears to be used for those which have very 
small round flowers suggestive of the little round eggs 
of the king-crab. 

BELANGKAS. (Rumput) 



54 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

Mollugo stricta L. {Ficoideae), A very small weed with 
white flowers. 

BELANGKAS HUTAN. 

Alseodaphne ujiihellifiora Hook. fil. (Lmrinede). A Sinall tree. 
BELANGKAS HUTAN. 

Labisia pothoina, Lindl. (Myrsineae). A small jungle-shrub 
about a foot tall, with little pink and white flowers and 
red berries. 

BELIAN. 

Eusideroxylon Schwageri Teysomm, (Laurineae), The well- 
known Borneo iron-wood, imported here as timber. 

BELIAN WANGI. 

Dichopsis obovata Clarke (Sapotaceae). Maingay's list. A 
well-known timber. The tree also produces a good 
getah-percha. 

BELIMBING. BELIMBING BULUH. 

Averrhoa Bilimhi L. ( Oeraniaceae). A well-known fruit. 
BELIMBING. (Akar) 

Abrus precatorius h. (Leguminosae). A well-known climber 
with lilac flowers and scarlet and black peas. 

BELIMBING BESI. BELIMBING BULAT. 

BELIMBING HUTAN. BELIMBING KERIS. 

BELIMBING KRA. BELIMBING PENJURU. BELIMBING 
PIPIT. 

Connaropsis monophylla Planch. {Geraniaceae). A tree 
with dark-red acid fruits. 
BELIMBING KEMBOLA. BELIMBING MANIS. BELIM- 
BING BATU. - 

Averrhoa Carambola L. {Geramaceae). 
BELUKAP. 

Rhizophora mucronata Lan. (Rhizophoreae). One of the 
mangroves. 
BELUNTAS. BELUNTAS PAYA. 

Pluchea Indica L. (Compositae), A seashore shrub with lilac 
flowers. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 55 

BELUNTAS BUKIT. 

Erythroxylon BurmamcumGiiii. (Lineae). A large tree with 
small deep green leaves. 

BELUNTAS PADI. (Malacca) 

Clitoria cajanaefolia Benth. {Legunnnosae). A small shrub 
with large pale violet or white flowers. Common in 
waste country but probably introduced here. 

BELURU (Akar) 

Entada scanclens L. {Leguininosae). A very large climber 
with immense pods. 

BEMBAN. BEMBAX GAJAH. 

Clinogyne grandis Benth. (Marai^taceae). 

BEMBAN AYER. (Selangor) 
Clinogyne dickotoma. Salisb. 

BEMBAN KELICHAP. (Selangor; 

CI. A species with a very hard stem. 

These plants are stiff shrubby plants with white flowers. 
C. grandis Benth. common in damp jungles, grows about 
12 feett all and the stems are used for making baskets. 
C. diclwtoma grows on the borders of streams and is a 
much smaller plant. The third mentioned by the Malays 
I have not met with. 

BEMBARU. see BARU. 

BENAK. 

Kurrimia paniculata Wall. (Ce/astrineae). A medium sized 
tree, see Biko-biko. 

BENALU also 

BENDALU, BENDALU-BENDALU, SANALU and BE- 

NELiU. see Dalu-Dalu and Mendalu. 
Henslowia Lobbiana A. De C. (Santalaceae). A common half 

climbing shrub with red berries, occurring usually on the 

seacoast. 

BENALU APL 

Loranthus crassus. Hook. fil. and L. ferrugineus Miq. {Lo- 
rantkaceae). The word appears to be used for several of 
the broad-leaved mistletoes. 



56 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BENGKAL. BENGKAL PAYA. 

Cenolophon parvifolius Oliv. (Olacineae). A large tree. 
BENGKAL BUKIT. 

Mastixia Junghuhniana Miq. (Cornaceae). A tree with 
greenish white flowers. 

BENGKAWANG. 

Gleichenia linearis (Filices). (Clifford's Dictionary). The 
common fern known also as Resam. 

BENGKUANG also SENGKUANG. 

Pachyvrhizus augulatus Rich. {Leguminosae). The yam 
bean, often cultivated. 

BENUT PAYA. 

Pternandra caerulescens, Jack. {Melastomaceae) . 
BERANGAN. 

Chestnut. {Castanopsis). 

BERANGAN ANT AN. 

Quercus oidocarpa Korth. 

BERANGAN BABI. 

Oaks. Quercus spp. Commonly used for Quercus lauiponga, 
Miq., Q. Eassa, Miq., etc. 

BERANGAN BABI HUT AN. 

Quercus encleisocarpa Korth. 

BERANGAN DURl. 

Castanopsis Javanica Dec. {Cupuliferae), 

BERANGAN GAJAH. 

Castanopsis sp. A chestnut with a single very large 
oblong seed which is used in medicine as a purgative. 

BERANGAN PADI. 

Quercus spicata L. An oak with large spikes of acorns. 

BERANGAN PAPAN. 

Castanopsis Hulletti King. 

BBREKSA. Also BIRAKSA and BREKSA. 

Cassia fistula L. {Legu7uinosae). 
BERINGIN. see WARINGIN. 

Ficus Benjamina L. (Urticaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 57 

BERINGIN. (Akar) 
F. pisifera Wall. 
BERTAM. 

Eugeissona tristis Griff. {Falmae). The split leaf -stalks are 
used for making chicks. 

BERTIS. (Selangor) 

Psychotria polycarpa Miq. ( Ruhlaceae) . Climber with small 
white flowers, and conspicuous white berries. 

BERUBONG. 

Adina rubescens Hemsl. ( Enbiaceae). 

BERUMBONG BUKIT. 

Duabanga sonneratioicles Ham. (Lythraceae). A large tree. 
BERUNUS. (Akar) 

JEschynanthus radicaiis Jack. ( Gesneraceae). A climbing 
epiphyte with scarlet tubular flowers. 

BESUMBONG. (Malacca) 

Mallotus macrostachyus Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 
BETARI. BATARI. 

Sorghum saccharatum L. (Gramvieae). A grass cultivated 
sometimes for its grain. 

BETI-BETI. 

Eugenia zeylanica L. {Myrtaceae) see Nasi-Nasi. 

BETI PAYA. 

Eugenia species. 

BETIK. 

The papaya. Carica papaya L. {Papayaceae). 

BETIK BELULANG. 
A hard variety. 

BETIK BUBOR. 
A soft variety. 

BETIK RAMBAL 

The hermaphrodite form. 

BETUTU. (Malacca) 

Eurya acuminata L. (Tevnstroemiaceae). A small tree, com- 
mon in secondary jungle. 



58 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BEU. (Rumput) (Sing-apore) 

Eclipta alba L. (Compositae). A small white-Howered 
weed. 

BHOI. 

Roiicheria G n/fithiana Pl'dnch. (Lineae.) Probably a Sakai 
word ; given me by Professor Vaughan-Stevens. The 
plant is also known as Ipoh akar putih, which see. 

BIAK. (Perak) 

Mitragfjne speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae). Leaves used as a 
substitute for opium in Perak, according to Mr. Wray. 

BIAVVAK RIMBA. 

3ugenia sp. (Myrtaceae). 

BIDATA. 

Sonneratia acida Linn fil. (Lythraceae). Favre and Filet 
both give this. I have not met with it. 

BIDIS. (Rumput) 

Panicum indicum L. {Grammme). 

BIJAN. 

Sesamum indicum De Cand. {Pedalineae). The cultivated 
plant which produces the Til-seed. 

BUI. (Akar) (Johor) 

Eoucheria Griffithii Planch. (Lineae). 

BIKO-BIKO. 

Kurrimia paniculata Wall. (CelastrineaeJ. 

BILA. 

The Bael tree. Aegle Mavmelos Corr. (EutaceaeJ. Some- 
times cultivated. 

BILIS JANTAN. (Rumput) 

Cifperus haspan L. (Cyperaceae). 

BINASA. 

Plumbago rosea L. (Plumbagineae), A cultivated plant with 
red flowers generally called Cheraka. Favre gives 
Binasa. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 59 

BINCHE. (Daun) 

Lasianthus sp. (Ruhiaceae) . A small roug-hlj hairy abrub 
with blue berries. 

BINGKIRING. (Johor) 

Garcinia sp. {Outtiferae). An enormous tree of which I 
was only able to obtain a few fruits and leaves. 

BINJAI. 

Mangifera coesia Jack. (Anacordiaceae). A common fruit- 
tree. 

BINTAN. 

Cerhera odollam L. (Apocynaceae) also BINTARO. See 
BUTA-BUTA. 

BINTANG MERAH. BINTANG KUNING. 

Mtissoenda variabilis Hemsl. {Ruhiaceae), A climber with 
red star-like flowers. 

BINTANGOR. Also ME^^TANGOR. 

Various species of Cahphi/Ilum {Guttiferae). Medium or large 
trees with bunches of white flowers. The timber of some 
kinds is used for building houses and boats. 

The Calophyllums are called : Fetau (Samoa), Yetau (Fiji), 
Betau (Macassar), and Viritanina (Malagasy), (Guppy, 
Polynesians and their plant names). All words evidently 
connected. 

BINTANGOR BATU. BINTANGOR BESAR. 
BINTANGOR BUKIT. 

Calophyll^tin pn/cherrimum Wall. 

BINTANGOR BUNGA. 

Calophylluni inophyUiun L. also C. spectahile Willd. 

BINTANGOR BUNUT. 

Calophyllum spectahile Willd. 

BINTANGOR MERAH. 

CalophyUuin Wallichianum Planch. From the red wool 
on the young leaves. 

BINTANGOR RIMBA. 

Calophylhim macrocarpnm Hook. fil. {Guttiferae.) 



60 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BIRAH. 

A name applied to various aroids chiefly wild. Guppy, etc., 
gives Via (Fiji) Viha (Malagasy) Bia (Sundanese) as 
allied words. 
BIRAH AYER. 

Aglaonema marantifolium Schott. {Aroideae). A large aroid 
growing in swampy jungle. 

BIRAH HUTAN. 

Cyrtosperma lasioides Griff. (Aroideae). A big aroid with 
sagittate leaves with prickly petioles ; growing in swamps. 
BIRAH KECHIL. 

Typhoniiim divaricatum Decne. (Aroideae). ^ common little 
aroid; growing as a weed in waste ground. 

BIRAH KELADI. 

Colocasia antiquorum Schott. (Aroideae). The cultivated 
Keladi, widely used as food. 

BIRAH NEGRI. BIRAH NAGRI. (Favre) 

Aiocasia macrorrhiza Schott. (Aroideae). A large cultiva- 
ted aroid. 

BIRAKSA. 

Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae) (Favre). Evidently not a 
Malay word : the tree is only cultivated here and that not 
often. 

BIRING. (Rumput) 

Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. (Rubiaceae). A road-side weed with 
small white flowers. 

BIRURONG HIT AM. 

Melastoma polyanthum Bl. ^^~ 

BIRURONG MERAH. 

Jfelastoma asperum HI. These two words are given in 
Clifford's Dictionary as Malay. Filet gives them as Rhio 
words, I have never heard them used for the Melastomas, 
which are here usually known as Senduduk. 

BISA (Akar.) 

Sphenodesma friflora Wight. (Verhenaceae). Lit. Poison- 
climber. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 61 

BITTOT. 

Cansjera Rheedii Walk. Avx\. (Olacineae). A shrub. 

BLAN. (Johor) 

Canarium sp. {Burseraceae). 

BLAY BESAR. 

Strychnos pubescens Clarke. (Loganiaceae). A poisonous 
plant used in making- dart-poison by the Sakais. 

BLAY HITAM. 

Strychnos Tieute Bl. {Loganiaceae). One of the poisonous 
plants used in making- Sakai dart-poison. Mr. Vaughan- 
Stevens is the authority for the name Blay. 

BLAYKECHIL; BLAY MERAH. 

Gnetmn edule Bl. (Gnetaceae). A climber with rather large 
brown fruits. It is used in making the dart-poison of 
the Sakais. (Vaughan-Stevens). 

BOBOKOR. (Selangor) 

JJtsea sp. (Laurineae). A tree with large ovate leaves 
and round green fruits. 

BOBOREK. 

Xanthophylhim Kunstleri King. {Po/ygalaceae). A hand- 
some dark green tree with white flowers. 

BODI. BUDI. 

Ftcus religiosa L. (Urticaceae). The Peepul tree. 

BOGAH. (Province Wellesley) 

Cycas Rumphil Miq. (Ci/cadeae). 

BOILA HITAM. (Kemaman) 

Zingiber Griffithii Bak, (Zingiberaceae). Vaughan-Steven 
gives this word. I imagine the first part is Sakai. 

BOKO-BOKO. 

Kurrimia pulcherrima Wall. (Celastrineae). 

BOLL 

Parkia Roxburghiana Don. (Leguminosae), According to 
Clifford. 



62 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

BONDOK. 

Gnilandina honduc L. {Legnminosae). A thorny climber 
with yellow flowers, usually found near the sea. 
BONG-BONG. 

Carallia integerriiiia Dec. {Hhizophoreae) 
BONGKAH AYER. 

Sarcocephalus Junghuhnii Miq. (Eubiaceae). A tree. 

BONGKONG. (Perak) 

The Chempedak, Artocarpus Polyphema Persoon. 
( Urticaceae) 
BONGOH. BONGOR. 

Lagerstroemia Jiorihunda Jack. (^Lythraceae). 

BONGOH BALONG. 
L. hexaptera, Mq. 

BONGOH MALUKUT. 

L. sp. 
BONGOH RAYA. 

L. flos-Reginae Retz. 

BONGOH SUSOR. 
L, sp. 

The Bongohs — Lagerstroemia — are fair sixed trees with 
showy purple or pink flowers. They inhabit banks of 
rivers. The timber is used for boat building. 

BONGSOI. 

Goniothalamus macrophjilhis Hook. fil. (Anonaceae) 

BONTO DARAT. (Rumput) 

Panicum indicum L. {Grannneae), 
BOROMBONG. (Akar.) 

Taeniochloena. Griffithn Hook. fil. {Connaracene). A climb- 
ing plant. 

BOTOR. see KACHANG BOTOR. 

Psophocarjnis tetragonolohus Dec. {Leguminosae). A cultivat- 
ed bean. The word is said to be a perversion of "bottle," 
but Rumph gives it from the Arabic Ba.fr, a lobe. 
BRAG. (Johor) 

Eugenia Sp. (Myrtaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 63 

BRAMBAN. 

Alluiui cepa L. (Favre). '' A white fragrant lily." (Clifford). 

BRAMBAN HUTAN. 

Pancratium zei^laiikuin L. {Amar/jllideae). (Clifford.) This is 
really a Javanese word which corresponds to the Malay 
Bawang'. 

BRANG. see Buliih-brang. 

B RANG AN. .see Berangan. 

BRAS-BRAS. 

Aporosa Maingaiji Hook. til. (^Euphorbiaceae.) 

BRAS-BRAS HITAM. 

Antidesina hiuiias Muell. Arg. (Eaplwrbiaceae.) All these 
plants (Bras-Bras) are small jungle trees. 

BRAS-BRAS HUTAN. 

Aporosa Praineana Hook lil. {Euphorbiaceae.) 

BRAS-BRAS MERAH. 

Aporosa microcalijx Hook. fill. 

BREDIN. (Province Wellesley) 

Carijota mitis Lour. [Palmae.) see Tukus. 

BREKSA. see Bereksa. 

BREMl. 

Herpestes monniera L. (Scrophularineae.) A small scented 
herb used by the natives as an alterative. 

BREMI HUTAN. 

Limnophila conferta Benth. (Scrophularineae.') 

BRUAS. see Buas-buas. 

BRUNGIN. 

Ficus Benjamina L. Variant of Beringin (Clifford's Diction- 
ary.) Filet gives it as a Rhio word. 

BUA (Rumput.) 

Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. (Polijgalaceae.) A little pink- 
flowered weed growing in grass plots. 
BUAH. Fruit. 

Appears as Vua in Malagasy. 



64 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BUAH BRAS. (Province Wellesley) 

Chasalia curviflora Miq. (Rubiaceae.) 

BUAH BUTANG. 

Morinda umhellata L. {Rubiaceae.) A shrub with orange 
button-like heads of fruits. 

BUAH KERAS. 

Aleurites Moluccamis L. (Euphorbiaceae.) The candle-nut 
called here also Kamiri and Singapore nuts. 
BUAH KERAS LAUT. 

Hernandia sonora L. (Laurineae.) A large seashore tree. 
BUAH SUNGEL (Selangor) 

Ficus chartacea Wall. (Urticaceae.) A common little 
shrubby fig. 
BUAS fAkar.) 

Premna parasitica Bl. A climbing species. 

BUAS-BUAS. 

Contracted to Bebuas, and a variant is Bruas. Premna cor- 
difolia Roxb. and other species (Verbenaceae.) Strong 
scented shrubs or trees with corymbs of white flowers. 

BUAS-BUAS BUKIT. BUAS-BUAS PAYA. 

Viburnum sambucinum Reinwdt. (Caprijoliaceae). The plant 
somewhat resembles a Premna. 

BUAS-BUAS LAUT. 

Scaevola Koenigii h. ( Goodenovieae.) A seashore shrub more 
commonly known as Ambong-Ambong. 

BUBONGKAL. 

Bridelia imstulata Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae.) 
BUBULUS. (Malacca.) 

Also Bulu-Ulat. Sonerila sp. (Melastomaceae.) A herb with 
pink flowers. 

BUBURAS PADI. 

Aporosa microcalyx Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae.) A contrac- 
tion for Bras-Bras. 

BUBURUS. 

Alstonia maorophylla Wall. {Apocynaceae.) 



MALAY PLANT NAHES 65 

BUDI, also BODI. 

Ficus religiosa L. ( Urticaceae.) 

BUJANG SAMALAM. 

Jussieua suffruticosa L. (Onagraceae.) A herb with yellow 
flowers growing in swamps. Literally, Bachelor for an 
evening. 

BUJANG SAMALAM BUKIT. 

Ardisia oxijphylla C. B. Clarke. {Myrsineae,) A low shrub 
with pink flowers. 

BUJANG SAMALAM (Rumpnt) 

Vernonia cinerea Less. (Compositae) A common pink flower- 
ed groundsel. 

BUKU BEMBAN. 

Morinda sarmentosa {Rtihiaceae.) The words also mean a 
"peculiar knot plaited with several strands" (Clifford's 
Dictionary.) Perhaps the knot-like head of fruits of the 
plant is referred to by the native name. 

BUKU BULOH (Rumput.) 

Fuirena glomerata L. (Cyperaceae.) Buku is a joint or knot 

BULAI. 

Oroxylon indicum Vent. (Bignonaceae.) A small tree easily 
known by its enormous sword shaped pods. 

BULAN AYER. (Selangor) 

Cratoeva religiosa var, Narvala (Capparideae.) A shrub or 
small tree with cream coloured flowers and large oblong 
hanging brown fruits said to be poisonous. 
Another plant called Bulan betul appears to be a Cratoeva 
but the fruit is said to be red. 

BULAN MUDU (Akar.) 

Euhiis glomerafus Lind. (Rosaceae.) The common wild rasp- 
berry. 

BULANG or BULANGAN. 

BULANG GAJAH. BULANG KECHIL. 

Gmelina villosa (Verbenaceae) also Canthiurn horridum (Rubia- 
ceae.) Both of these are thorny shrubs, with yellow acid 
berries about an inch long. 



66 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BULANG PELANDOK (Akar.) 

Canthium olir/anthwn Miq. (Rubiaceae.) 

BLANG TIKUS. BULANG HITAM. 

V Canthium, horridum Bl. (Rnbiaceoe.) 

BULANGKAN. 

Cynometra polyandra Roxb. (Leguminnsae.) 

BULONGGO. 

Dehaasia sp. (Lauiineae,) 

BULU-BULU, 

Diospyros argentea Griff. (Ebenaceae.) See Bedil Lalat. 
Bulu signifies fur. The leaves of the plant are covered 
beneath with short hairs. 

BULU ULAT. 

Sonerila sp. (Melastomaceae.) A small hairy herb with pink 
flowers. 
BULUH. BULOH. 

A bamboo. The word runs through much of the Archipel- 
ago and appears as Fafulu in Timor. 

BULUH (Akar.) 

A name applied to several of the scandent species such as 
Bamhusa Ridleyi Gamble. SchizoMachyum chUianthum 
Gamble. Gigantoch / oa Kurzii GB,mh\e. (Gramineae.) 

BULUH BALAL 

Bamhusa tuldoides Munro. 

BULUH BATU. 

Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. 
BULUH BERSUMPITAN. 

Bambusa Wrayi Stapf. Used in making blowpipes. 

BULUH BETONG PERIH. 

Dendrocalamus fi age J lifer Munro. 
BULUH BRANG. 

The male bamboo. Dendrocalamus strictus. Ham. {see Clif- 
ford's Dictionary.) 

BULUH CHINA. 

Bamhusa nana Roxb. The hedge bamboo. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 67 

BULUH DURI. 

Bamhusa Bluiaeana Sch. The spiny bamboo. 

BULUL JURON. 

Schizostachyum Bluinei Nees. 

BULUH KASAP. 

Ochlandra RicUeiji Gamble. 

BULUH MATA RUSA. 

Gigantochioa Kurzii Gamble. (Wray) 

BULUH MINYAK. 

Oxi/tenanthera sinuata Gamble. 

BULUH PADL 

SckizostachijWN avicitlare Gamble. 

BULU PAN. 

Baiabusa vulgaris L. (Wray) 

BULUH PERINDU. 

Barnhusa nana Roxb. According to Wray, but this I 
gather from a letter from Mr. Skeat is not the Buluh Pe- 
rindu used in magic by the Malays, which is at present 
unknown. 

BULU PLANG. 

Gigantochioa Wraiji Gamble. (Wray) 

BULUH RAYA. 

Gigantochioa Scortechinii Gamble. (Wray) 

BULUH TEBRAU. see TEBRAU. 

Almost any of the larger grasses, especially Thysanolaena 
acarifera Nees. 
BULUH TEMIANG. 

Bambasa Wragi Hook. til. The bamboo used for blow- 
pipes. 
BULUH TEMPAT. 

Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. The Male bamboo. 
BULUH TILAN. 

Gigantochioa heterostacliya Munro. 

BULUH TILAN MINYAK. 
G. latispiculata Munro. 



68 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

BULUH TULOH. 

Schizostachyum Zollingeri Kurz. 

BULUNTOH BURONG. 

Gljjcosmis sainndoides Lindl. {Kutaceae.) A common shrub, 
with small white flowers. 

BUMBAN. see BEMBAN. 

BUMBOT. (Rumput) 

Mariscus albescens Gaud. (Cyperaceae). 
BtJNAK. 

Kurrimia pamculata Wall. (Celastrineae.) 

BtJNEH. (Favre) BUNI. (Clifford; 

Antidesma hunias. (Euphorbiaceae). This is given by Favre 
and Clifford as Malay. Filet gives it as Makasar. The 
plant, is a tree with small acid red fruits. 

BUNGA. A flower. 

BUNGA BIDADARI. BUNGA PUTRI. 

Grainmatophyllum sjieciosum. (Marsden) (Orchideae.) The 
words signify two kinds of fairies. I never heard either 
expression used. 

BUNGA BIRU. 

Clitorea ternatea L. (Legummosae). Lit. Blue flower. 

BUNGA CHINA. 

Ixora, cultivated varieties. It is also sometimes applied to 
Gardenias. 

BUNGA KASTURI. 

Renanthera moschifera Lindl. (Orchideae), " Musk-flower." 
The scorpion orchid. 

BUNGA KASUT. 

Cypripedium harhatum Lindl. {Orchideae). " Shoe flower." 
I doubt this being a genuine Malay name but it is often 
used by the orchid dealers. 

BUNGA MAS. 

Asclepias curassavica L. (Asclepiadeae). Lit. Gold flower. 
An introduced weed with bright -j^ellow and red flowers. 



MALAY PLNAT NAMES. 69 

BUNGA PAGAR. 

Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). Pagar ia a hedge. 
The common Lantana. 
BUNGA PALA. 

Mace — the aril of the Nutmeg. 
BUNGA RAYA. 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. {Malvaceae.) The cultivated Hi- 
biscus. 

BUNGA SAPONG. 

Pittosporumferrugiiieuni L. (Pittosporeae), A common sea- 
shore tree with white flowers and yellow fruits. 

BUNGA SUSU. 

Gardenia florida L. (Bubiaceae) also Tabernoemontana coro- 
naria Br. (Apoci/naceae.) " Milk flower." Well known 
cultivated plants. 

BUNGA TULIS. (Malacca) 

Anoectochilus Beinwardtii Bl. {Ovchideae.) One of the orna- 
mented foliage orchids, with deep maroon leaves viened 
with gold. 

BUNGKAL. 

Bandia amsopliijUa Jack {Rubiaceat.) A common jungle 
tree. 

BUNGKUP. (Johor) 

Bruguiera species {Rhizophortae.) 
BUNGLEI. 

Zingiber Cassu/nunaar (Zingiberaceae.) A ginger often to 
be seen near villages the rhizomes of which are used in 
medicine and as spice. 

BUNGOH. (Penang) BUNGUR. (Favre) 

Lagerstroemia Reginae and allied species ; see BoNGOK. 

BUNTAT BAHONG. 

Lasiantlius Wightianus Hook. fil. {Rubiaceae.) A very 
foetid shrub, one of the plants called Daun Sekuntut. 

BUNTAT ULAR. (Akar) 

Ficus urophylla Wall. (Urticaceae.) A common fig climb- 
ing on other trees. 



70 MALAY PLANT NAMES- 

BUNUT PAY A. 

Pternandra coerulescens Jack. (Melaatomaveae.) See Benut 
Paya. 

BUNUAl. 

Kayea yrandis King. (Guttijevae.) 

BURUMBONG JANTAN. 

Randia densifiora Benth. {Rubiaceae.) 

BURUBAH RIMBAH. (Malacca) 

Antidesma velutinosum Bl. {Euphorbiaceae.) A common 
jung-le shrub. 

BURUNAL 

Antidesma alatum Hook. i\\. {Euplwrbiaceae.) A small tree. 

BURUTTA (Bung-a.) 

Connarus ferrugiiieus Jack. (Connanweae.J Jack is the 
authority for this. 

BUSOK-BUSOK. 

Cassia nodosa Ham. {Leguminosae.) Also contracted to 
Sibusok. A larg-e tree with pink flowers. 

BUTA-BUTA also BABUTA. 

Cerbera odollam L. and C. lactaria Ham. (Apocynaaeae.J 
The milk produces blindness (Buta = blind. j 

BUTA-BUTA BAR AT. 

Alstoma macrophylla Wall. fApocynaceae.) A tree allied to 
Cerbera, but the flowers are much smaller. 

BUTANG (Rumput.) 

Eriocaulon sexangiUare L. {Eriocauloneae) also Rhynchospora 
Wallichiana Korth. (Cyperaceae.) Butang is a modi- 
fication of the English Button. Both plants have small 
heads of flowers more or less like buttons. 

BUTANG BUNGA (Akar.) 

Lettsoniia Maingayi Clarke. {Convolvulaceae.) A climber with 
large heads of purple flowers. 

BUTULANG. 

CwUhiu/n didiinmiii Roxb. {Rubiaceae). A small tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 71 

CHA PADANG. 

Scoparia dulcis L. ( Scrophularineae). A weed used for 
making- a kind of tea. The name means field tea. It is 
also called Te macao. 

CHABANG BAJU. (Buah) 

Lasianthufi Wallichu Wight, or a closely allied species 
(Rubiacene). A shrub with white flowers and blue berries. 

CHABANG LIMA. (Akar) 

Spheiwde.wui harbata Schauer. {Verbenaceae.) literally 
Five branches. A climber with small violet flowers in a 
head surrounded by bracts, 

CHABANG LIMA. (Akar). 

Heptapleurum heferophjlhuu Seem. (Araliaceae.) An epi- 
phytic plant with five leaflets to each leaf. 

CHABANG TIGA. (Selangor) 

Trichosanfhes celebica Miq. (Cucurbifaceae). A wild pump- 
kin with five lobes to the leaf and red fruits. The leaves 
are used as a bait for the Kelawei fish. 

CHABANG TUJOH. 

AmpehcissuR sp. {Ampelideae). A vine with seven-lobed 
leaves. 
CHABEI. 

Long pepper. Piper louf/um L. (Piperaceae) Also used 
in some places for Capsicums. 

CHABEI HUTAN. 

Piper caninnm L. {Piperaceae). A wild pepper. 

CHABEI PINTAL. (Penang) CH. TALI. (Singapore) 

ITelicteres Tsora L. {Stercvlmceae.) The capsules used in 
native medicine. 

CHA-CHA. 

Stereosperimnn fimhiatvm He C. (Bignonaceae.) A handsome 
small tree with lilac tubular flowers the petals of which 
are beautifully fringed. 

CHACHANG LAYAR. 

Monochoria haMaefolia Pres L. (Pontederiaceae). An aquatic 
herb with blue flowers. 



72 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

CHABE HANTU. (Penang). 

Pittosporum ferruginenm Ait. (Pittosporeae). 

CHADAK. (Selangor) 

Zingiber spectahile Griff. {Zingiheraceae). A very hand- 
some wild ginger with brilliant yellow or red spikes and 
black flowers spotted with yellow. 

CHALANG PAYA. 

Croton ohlongifolius Roxb. (^Euphorhiaceae). A large shrub 
with spikes of green flowers. 

CHAMAU. CHEMAU. 

Dracaena Maingayi Bak. D, angusfifolia Wall., and other tree 
Dracaenas ( Liliaceae). 

OHAMBAI BATU. 

Pdlionia Javanica Wedd. (Urficaceae). A herb common on 
rocks. 
CHAMIN-CHAMIN. 

Cicca acidissima (Euphorbiaceae). A small tree with green 
acid fruits used in curries. 

CHAMPADANG. 

Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. {Tiliaceae). A common weed 
with yellow flowers and fruits like small burrs. 

GHANA. 

Parinarium Orijjithianum Hook fil. (Posaceae). A big tree 

with masses of white flowers. 
Also Cesalpinia pulcherrima Roxb. (Leguminosae) (according 
to Favre) {Leguminoseae.) An ornamental bush often 
cultivated. ^^^ 

CHANGEL see Chengei. 
CHANGI ULAR. 

Bragantia corymhosa (Aristolochiaceae.) A half climbing 
shrub with small flowers and long twisted pods. 
CHANGKOI BAHANG. 

Ophioriza sp. (Ruhiaceae.J 

CHANJAL. 

Tristania Whitiana Griff. {Myrtaceae.) A big tree more 
commonly known as Pelawan. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 73 

CHAPA. CHAPU. 

Blumea halsamifera De. C. (Compositae.) A large half shrubby 
weed common in waste grounds. It is strongly scented, 
and produces the Ngai camphor of the Chinese and is used 
in native medicine. 

CHAPAH. CHAPANENG. 

Clerodendron villosum Bl. (Verbenaceae.) A common large 
shrub with white flowers. 

CHAREK-CHAREK. (Akar) 

Vitis macrostachya Miq. {Ampelideae.) A large vine with 
long hanging spikes of flowers. 

OHATENG. (Buah) 

Microdesmis caseariaefolia Planch. {Euphorhiaceae.') A small 
tree. 

CHATO. 

Ardisia oxyphylla Wall. (Myrsineae.) 

CHAWAT UDL 

Vitis adnata Wall. (Ampelideae.) A slender vine. 

CHEKOP MANIS. 

Saurojms albicans Bl. (^Euphorhiaceae.) Favre gives Chekoh. 
A small shrub cultivated as a spinach. 

CHEKOW. (Pahang) 

Garcinia Praineaiui King. (Guttiferae.) 

CHAMANTONG GAJAH. 

Aporosa Praineana Hook til. (Euphorbiaceae). A small 
tree with round orange coloured fruits. 

CHEMANTON MERAH. 

Eloeocarpus Master si Hook fil. {Tiliaceae). 
OHEMPEDAK. 

Artocarpus 2)olijphema Fers. (Urticaceae). The wellknown 
native fruit. 

CHEMPEDAK AYER, 

Artocarpus Maingayi King. {Urticaceae). 

GHEMPAKA. CHAMPAKA. 

The champak tree. Michelia Champaca L. {Magnoliaceae). 



74 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

CHEMPAKA BIRU. 

Plumiera acutifolia L. {Apocijnaceae). The Fraugipani. 
(Clifford's Dictionary). 

CHEMPAKA BUKIT. (Malacca) 

Cephaelis Grifjithii Hook fil. {Rubiaceae.) A small shrub 
with a sweet scented flower. 

CHEMPAKA HUTAN. 

Gardenia Griffithii Hook fil. (Rubiaceae.) A shrub or tree 
with sweet scented orang-e flowers. 

CHEMPAKA JANGCxI. 

Sterculia laevis Jack. {Sterculiaceae.) A small tree or shrub 
with a scarlet fruit. 

CHEMPAKA PUTIH HUTAN. 

Randia anisophylla Jack. {Rubiaceae.) A small tree with 
small white flowers. 

CHEMPERAI. CHIMPERAI. 

Champereia Griffithii Hook. fil. (Santalaceae.) 
Also Cansjera Rheedii Gmelin. {Olacineae.) Seashore shrubs 
with inconspicuous flowers. 
CHEMPERAI BATU. 

Gomphandra lanceolata King. (Olacineae.) 

CHEMPERAI DAUIS. (Malacca) 

UropliijUum Blwneanwn Wight. {Rubiaceae.) A common 
jungle shrub with white flowers, with yellow or orange 
berries. 
CHENAMA. 

Clausena excavata Burm. (Penang), and Micromelum hirsutum 
Oliv. in Pahang. (Rutaceae.) 
CHENANG HUTAN. (Malacca) 

Vnona dasymaschala Bl. (Anonaceae) A low shrub. 
CHENARA. 

Commersonia echinata Forst. (Tiliaceae). A common tree in 
secondary jungle with white flowers. 

CHENDANA. 

Sandal-wood, Santalum album L. (Santalaceae). Imported 
and sold in the shops. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 75 

CHENDAWAN. 

A fungus. Chiefly applied to Agarici. 

CHENDAWAN BATANG. 

Lentimis exiiis. A dry brown fungus gTowing on old rot- 
ten tree stems. 

CHENDAWAN BORENG. CHENDAWAN MERAH. 

Polystictus sanguinea. A woody scarlet fungus common on 
wood, used in native medicine as an astringent 

CHENDAWAN IPOH. 

A white Agaric with dull violet fur on the top. 

CHENDAWAN JUMPUT-JUMPUT. 

Daldinia verrucosa Cesati. K bun -shaped black polished 
fungus growing on wood. Jumput-jnmput is a kind of 
bun. 

CHENDAWAN KARANG. 

Clavaria various species. The branched fungi known in Eng- 
land as witches butter. Literally coral fungus. Also appli- 
ed to a woody coral-like grey fungus Steven //> nitidulum. 

CHENDAWAN RAMBUT ALL 

Marasmius gorclrpes. A very common plant with hair like 
stems running over dead leaves and small yellow pilei. 

CHENDAWAN SAMANGKOK. 

Cyathula sp. xV small cup shaped fungus growing on 
wood. 

CHENDAWAN TELAKONG. 

Dictyophora campamdata Nees. The common stink-horn, a 
white fungus with a beautiful white lacework veil hang- 
ing from the upper part. 
CHENDAWAN TELINGA KRA. 

Polystictus xerampelinus Kalchbr. " Ape's ear fungus." A 
brown woody fungus which grows on wood. 

CHENDAWAN TELINGA TIONG. 

Agaricus species. A bright orange red fungus suggesting 
the wattles on the ear of the Tiong bird. Mainatas java- 
nieus. 



76 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

CHENDAWAN TUMBONG KLAPA. 

Scleroderma flavo-crocatiim. Tumbong kelapa is the ball- 
shaped mass of kernel of the coconut when germinating. 
The fungus is a yellow puff-ball, with a black inside when 
ripe, common on paths in woods. 

CHENDERAT. CHENDERAI HLFTAN. 

Grewia paniculata Roxb. also G. jihrocarpa Mast. (Tiliaceae). 
Small trees with white flowers. 

CHENDERAI. (Akar) 

Grewia umlellata Roxb. {Tiliaceae.) A climbing species, 

CEENDERAI GAJAH. 

Croton argyratus Bl. (Euphorhiaceae.) 

CHENDERAI PAYA. 

Grewia Miqueliana Kurz. {Tiliaceae.) 

CHENDERAI RIMBA. 

Grewia fibrocarpa Mast, also G. umbellata L. {Tiliaceae.) 

CHENDERU. 

Dijylanthera hancana Scheff. (Bignonaceae.) Tree with gold- 
en yellow flowers. 
CHENDRA. CHENDUI. 

Epiprinus Malayanus Griff. {Euphorhiaceae.) 

CHENGAI PETRI. 

Alstonia ?nacrophi/lla Wall. {Ajwcijnaceae.) 
CHENGAI also CHENGAL. 

Balaiiocarpus maxinius King. {Dipterocarpeae.) One of the 
best native timbers. A gigantic tree, now getting scarce. 

CHENGAL BATU BUKIT. 

MeJanochijla Maingaiji Hook. fil. (Maingay's list) " A tree 
yielding a black varnish, wood pale yellowish white with 
a small brown centre, grain fine, medium hard." 

CHENGKRING. 

Erythrina stricta Roxb. E. indica L. {Leguminosae.) CHENG- 
KRING Abai^G (Clifford and Swettenham) is probably 
this species. A well-known tree with orange coloured 
flowers which is grown as a shade tree or as a pepper 
support. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 77 

CHENGKRING (Rumput). 

Hedyotis glabra Br. {Ruhiaceae.) A common weedy herb 
with small white flowers. 
CHEREK EANTU. 

PlujUanthus frondosus Wall. (EupJiorMaceae.) 
CHEREK HITAM. 

Clausena excavata Burm. (Rataceae). A small tree with 
strongly scented leaves used in curries. 
CHEREK JANTAN. 

Brucea Sumatrana Wall. (Simaruheae). A shrub with an 
aromatic scent. 
CHEREK PUTIH. 

Micromelum puhescens Bl. (Riifaceae.) 

CHERIT BUDAK. 

Croton argyratus Bl. {Eupliorhiaceae.) 

CHERIT HUTAN. 

Clerodendron dejlexuin Wall. (Verbenaceae.) A common 
jungle shrub with heads of white flowers and red bracts. 

CHERIT MORAL 

Glycosmis sapindoides Lindl. (Rutaceae.) 
CHERMEI also CHERMELA and CHAMIN. 

Phyllanthus distichus Muell. Arg. {Euphorbiaceae.) A fruit 
tree. 
CHERMEI ANTAN. 

Glochidion obscurum Bl. (Euphorbiaceae.) 

CHERMELA HUTAN. (Sungei Ujong.) 

Satiropus albicans Bl. (Euphorbiaceae.) Also Chekop 
Manis, which see. 
CHERMIN AYER. 

Sarcocephalus J unghuhnii Korth, (Ruhiaceae.) A tree with 
balls of yellow flowers. 
CHERMIN BATU. (Pahang) 

Pentasacme caudata Wall. (Asclepiadeae.) A slender herb 
with white flowers growing on rocks in streams. 
CHIA KUBET. 

Macaranga megalophyUa Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae.) 



78 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

OHIAREK MERAH. (Akar) 

Vitis diffusa {Ampelideae.) A common wild vine. 
CHIAREK PUTIH. (Akar) 

Mallotus repandus Muell. Arg. {Euphorbiaceae,) 
CHICHA. 

Daphniphjllum laurinum Baill. {Euphorbiaceae.) A common 
shrub. 

Also Millettia atropurpurea Benth. (Leguminosae.) A large 
tree with purple flowers. 
CHIKU. 

The Sapodilla, Achras sapota L. (Sapotaceae). 

CHIMPOH. see SiMPOH. 

CHINA PUTIH. (Akar) 

Neuropeltis racemosa Wall. {Convolvulaceae.) A climber with 
small white flowers. 

CHINA. (Akar) 

Limacia oblonga Miers. i^Menispermaceae.') Also ToeniocMoena 
Oriffithii Hook. fil. (Connaraceae.) 

CHINA (Bunga). 

Ixora, cultivated forms and Gardenias. 

CHINA BUKIT. (Akar) 

lodes vefutma. King. {Olacineae.) 

CHINDARAH. see Pendaba. 

Various wild nutmegs. {Myristica.) 

CHINDARAH HANTU. 

Ostodes macrophyllus Benth. {Euphorbiaceae.) 

CHINDARAH LAUT. 

Myristica glaucescens Hook. fil. 

CHINDARAH PADI. 

Myristica Missionis Wall. (Myristicaceae.) 
CHINDURU. 

Diplospora sp. (Rubiaceae.) A small tree with green flowers. 

CHINGAL. 

Shorea bracteolata Dyer. ( Dipterocarpeae). A large timber 
tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 79 

CHINGKEH. CHINGKAH. CHENGKE. 

Cloves. Eugenia caryophyllus L. (Mi/rtaceae.) 

CHINGKERING (^Rumput). Also CHENKERING. 
Hedyotis glabra Br. (Ruhiaceae.) 

CHINGUM. (Johor) 

Scf/phiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. {Ruhiaceae). A bush 
growing on the sea-shore. 

CHINTA MULA. 

Erythroxylum hurmankum Griff. (Lineae.) A big tree with 
small dark green leaves and white flowers. 

CHINTA MULA. (Akar) 

Psychotria polycarpa Miq. {Ruhiaceae). see Bertis. 

CHINTA MULA HITAM. 

Cinnamomum parthenoxylum Meissn. (Laurineae.) See Kayu 
Gadis. 
CHINTA MULA PUTIH. 

Sideroxylon sp. (Sapotaceae). 

CHUBON. 

Xantliophyllum affine Korth. (Polygalaceae.) A shrub or 
small tree with white flowers. 

CHUKAL. (Malacca) 

Hygrophila salicifolia Nees. (Acanthaceae.) A herb with 
violet flowers, growing by rivers. 

CHUKOR KERBAU (Rumput). 

Cyperus turgidulus (Cyperaceae.) Literally Buffalo-Razor 
grass. 

CHULAK. 

Cutticarpa lanata L. {Verbenaceae.) 

CHULAN. 

Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae.) Favre is the authority 
for this. 

CHUMA PADANG. (Kedah) 

Breynia coronata Hook. fil. (Eupkorbiaceae.) 

CHUMANTONG. (Sungei Ujong) 

Ficus alba Reinwdt. (Urticaceae.) see ABA Perak. 



80 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

CHUMBAI ULAR. (Akar) (Malacca) 

Bragantia corymhosa Griff. (Aristolochiaceae.J 

CHUMPAHONG. 

Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. (Ternstroemiaceae.) A small 
tree with white flowers. 

CHUMPONG. 

Saprosma arboreum (Ruhiaceae.) A very foetid shrub. 

CHUNGAH PUTIH. 

Ostodes macrophyllus. Benth. (Euphorbiaceae.) 

CHUPU. 

Garcinia Praineana King. (Guttiferae.) 

CHUROM. 

Matthoea sancta Bl. (Moniniiaceae.) A shrub with long pen- 
dent or straggling branches, small green flowers and 
deep steel-blue fruits. 

CHUROMA. (Akar) 

Mikania scandens Willd. (Compositae.) A climbing plant 
common in grass. 

DADA KURA. (Selangor) 

Fagroea morindoefolia Bl. (Loganiaceae.) Literally Turtle's 
breast. A large shrub with pinkish flowers. The leaves 
are ground and smoked with Chinese tobacco for cases 
of cold in the head. 

DADA RUAN. 

Ostodes macrophylla Benth. {Euphorbiaceae) in Malacca. 
Boschia Griffithii Nees. {Malvaceae) in Johor. See Daun 
DURIAN.' 

DA DAP. see Dedap. 

Erythrina spp. {Leguminosae.) Large trees with scarlet 
flowers, used as shade trees for cocoa, and as pepper sup- 
ports. E. indica Lam. and E. stricta Roxb. are the usual 
ones cultivated. 

DADAUP. (Akar) (Pahang) 

Also DAU. Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb. (Leguminosae.) A 
large climber with great masses of orange flowers. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 81 

DAGtTN. 

Gnetwn funicaUua Bl. (Gnetaceae.) A big" climber which 
produces a strong- fibre. 

DAGUN PUTIH. (Akar) 
Gn. Brunoniamim Griff. 

DALDARU. (Akar) 

Psi/chotria sarmentosa Bl. (Rabiaceae.) 

DALEK. DELEK. DELAK. 

A name applied to various species of Memecylon and the 
allied genus Pternandra, {Melastomaceae.) Small trees 
with pink or blue flowers ; the timber of which is used in 
house building. 

DALEK AYER. 

yjemecijlon RkUtiji Cogn. and J/, edule Roxb. 

DALEK JAMBU. 

M. coendeu/n Jack. 

DALEK PUTIH. 

31. myrsinoides Bl. 

DALEK TEMBAGA. 
M. loevigatum Bl. 

DALEK LIMAU MANIS. 

AnisophyUea grcmdifolia Henslow. (Rhizophoreae.) A tree 
with very large oblong woody fruits. 

DALU-DALU. Also JENDALU. DAHU. 

Salix tetrasperma Roxb. [SaUcineae.) Filet gives Dalu-Dalu 
as West coast Sumatran for Saiix Sumatrana Miq. The 
only willow in the peninsula. 

DAMAK-DAMAK ASAM. 

Grewia Jibrocarpa Mast. {Tiliaceae). 

Damak-Damak is often contracted to Dudauiak. 

DAMAK-DAMAK BULU. Also DAMAK MERAH. 

Gvewia globidifera Mast. (Tiliaceae). 

DAMAK-DAMAK PAYA. 

Aporosa stellifera Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 



82 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

DAMAR. 

The resin produced by trees of the order Dipterocarpeae and 
a few others. The Dammars are collected in the jungle 
where the tree has dripped and most are named according 
to the colour cf the Dammar and not according- to the 
tree producing them. But some trees are called by the 
name of the resin they produce. 

DAMAR HITAM. 

Balanocarpus Penangianus King. (Dipterocarpeae). Black 
Dammar. 

DAMAR KEPONri. See Kepong. 

DAMAR KIJAI. 

Produced by Triyonoddaniijs Grijfithii Hook fil. {Burseraceae.) 
See Kijai. Also Canariam secundum. Benn. (Burseraceae.) 

DAMAR LAUT NUMBER SATU. 

Shorea utilis King. One of the most valuable timbers. 

DAMAR LAUT DAUN BESAR. 

Shorea glauca King. {Dipterocarpeae). 

DAMAR MATA-KUCHING. 

Hopea globosa Brandis ; in Perak. Pach/jnocarpus Wallichii 
King. (Dipterocarpeae). The Oat's Eye dammar is a clear 
light coloured dammar and I believe comes from different 
trees but the above-mentioned trees are stated to produce 
it and are named from the Dammar. 

DAMAR MERANTI. See Meranti. 

DAMAR MINYAK. 

The resin of Daramara orientahs Lam. (ConiferaeJ. Lit. 
Oil- Dammar. It is a turpentine and does not get hard 
like the resins of the Dipterocarpeae. 

DAMAR SERAYA. See Seraya. 

DANDANGKING. (Johor) 

Poederia foetida L. (Eubiaceae). A climber with lilac 
flowers, very foetid. 

DANDIGUM. 

Sargassunt sp. {Algae). A doating sea- weed. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 83 

DANGSA. (Penang-) 

Phcenix pal udom lloxh. {Palmae). A date palm gro wing- 
in tidal swamps. 

DARAH. (Akar) 

Unona discolor Vahl. {Anonaceae). A climbing" shrub used 
in native medicine for dysentery, whence perhaps the 
native name, Blood-climber. 

DARAH BLUT. (Akar). (Selangor). 

Mezoneurum Suniatranum Wall. {Leginiiinosae). A climber 
g-rowing- on riverbanks ; leaves reddish, flowers yellow 
and red. Lit. Eel's blood. 

DARAI PAYA. (Akar) 

Lj/godium pwiiaHfidnm. (Filices). A common climbing" fern. 

DARU-DARU. 

A high class timber is known by this name but the tree 
producing it has not been identified. It is probably 
belongs to the order Sapofaceae. 

DARUMUN. (Malacca) 

Elaeocarpus polf/sfac/i/ju.s Wall. {Piiiaceae), and other 
species. See also a variant Jurumong. Trees with white 
flowers. 

DARUMUN BABL 

Eleocarpus jiolijstachiius Wall. 

DARUMUN HITAM. 

E. paniculatus Wall. (Tiliaccae). 

DARUMUN PADI. 

Elaeocarpus saHcifolins King, and E. peduncnlatus Wall. 

DARUMUN PELANDOK. 

Elaeocarpus stipularis Bl. 

DARUMUN PIPIT. 

Elaeocarpus Hullettii King. ( Tiliaceae.) 

DATOH RAJA. (Johor) 

Lecananthus erubescens Jack. {Rnbiaceae.) 

DAUN. A leaf. 



84 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

DAUN KURAP. 

Cassia alata L. (Leguminosae.) Kurap is a skin disease 
for which the leaves of this plant are a well-known reme- 
dy. A large shrub with showy spikes of yellow flowers. 
It is also known as Geleng-gang*. 

DAUN LOW. 

Hoemavia discolor Lindl. (Orchideae.) Sir Hug-h Low's leaf. 
A name used in Singapore by the orchid collectors. 

DAUN PAYONG. (Pahang) 

Ttjismaimia altifrons Miq. Literally Umbrella leaf. A superb 
stemless palm with enormous paddle shaped leaves. 

DAUN PUTPJ. 

Mnssoenda glabra Vahl. (Ruhiaceae.) Favre is the authority 
for this. 

DAUN SAPENOH. 

Eurijcles amhoinensis (Aiuaryllideae.) An ornamental plant 
often cultivated, and wild in sandy places in Pahang and 
elsewhere. 

DAUN SEGALOR. (Selangor) DAUN SELEBAR. 

Tm/smannia altifrons M\q. (Pa/maceae). See Daun PayONG. 

D^WAI-DAWAL 

Zizjjphus calophtjllns Wall. (Rhamneae.) A large and strong 
thorny climber. 

DEDALU BUKIT. (Akar) (Malacca) 

JJiptage sericea Hook. fil. (Malpighiaceae.) 

DEDAP. see DADAP. 

Erythrina indica L. and other species. {Legnminokae.) 

DEDAP LAUT. 

Hibiscus tiliacen.'i L. (Malvaceae.) More commonly known 
as Baru. 

DEDAWAL 

Contraction for Dawai-Dawai. Zizyphvs calophylhis Wall. 
(Rhanmeae.) 

DELIMA. 

PomeoTanate. Purnca grannfum L. (Lythraceae.) 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 85 

DELIMA BURONG. 

?t[emecijlon Ridleyi Cogri. (Me/astomaceae.) 

DELIMA HUTAN. 

Gardenia tubifera Wall. {Rtihiaceae.) Because the fruit 
looks something like that of a pomegranate. A large 
shrub with orange-coloured flowers. 

DENDENDONG. (Selangor) 

Pothos Curtisii Hook. fil. (Aroideae.) A climbing Aroid, 
the shoots of which are a favourite food of the Lotong 
(Semnojntheciis). 

DENDURIAN. 

Contraction for Durian-Durian. Bosckia Griffithii Nees. 
{Malvaceae,) 

DERINGtT. 

Acorus calarims L. {Aroideae.) Cultivated as a medicinal 
plant. It has apparently been introduced from China 
and never flowers here. 

DERINGU LAUT. 

Enhalus acoroides Zoll. {Hydrocharideae.) A marine flower- 
ing plant with long narrow leaves suggestive of those of 
Acorus, More commonly known as Setul. 

DILAM. 

Hemi(jraphis conjinis Auders. (Acanthaceae). A creeping 
weed on road sides, common in Malacca. 

DODOL. 

Ficus rhododendrifolia (Urticaceae) Also called Ara Jejawei. 
A big figtree with small leaves and pink figs. 

DOMUN. (Singapore) 

Symplocos. sp. (Styra^eae). 

DONDONG. 

Canarium nitidum A. W. Bean. (Burseraceae). See also 
Kadondong. 

DOSONO. (Pahang) 

Difsoxfilum aiignsttifoUum King. (MeUaceae). 



86 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

DRAS MALAM. 

Ruellia repens. L. {Acanthaceae.) A common little herb 
which creeps in grass. It has tubular violet flowers. 

DRING. (Johor) 

Cryptocarpa Griffithiana Wight. (Laurineae.) 

DRUM. (Penang) 

Cratoxylon polyanthum Korth. (Hypericineae). 

DUAK. Also JUAK. 

Heynea trijuga Roxb. (Meliaceae). 

DUDALI PAYA. 

Xanthophyllum GriffitJm 

PUPALU. 

Perhaps a contraction for Dalu-Dalu. Loranthus ampullaceus 
Roxb. {Loranthaceae.)Oi\\eviovms are Menalu and Sanalu. 
One of the commonest mistletoes, parasitic on many 
kind of trees. 

DUDAMAK. 

Contraction for Damak-Damak, which see. 

DUDANAK HITAM. 

Sterculia ruhiginosa Jack. (Sterculiaceae). 

DUDAWO. (Akar) 

Myxopyrinn nervosu7)i Bl. (Oleaceae.) 

DUDOK KIJANG. (Akar) 

Stropanthus dichotomies De C: (Apocynaceae.) A scandent 
bush with curious white and purple flowers. The name 
means the resting place of the Kijang* {Cervulus muntjac.) 

DUDULANG. (Akar) 

Contraction for Dulang-Dulang. EmheJia Limpani Scheff 
{Myrsintae). 

DUKONG ANAK. 

Phyllanthus urinaria L. and Ph. niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae). 
See Ambin Buah. 

DULANG. 

Cassia javanica L. {Leguminosae). A medium sided tree 
with rose -pink flowers. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 87 

DULANG-DULANG. 

Aralia near Thomsoni Seemann (Araliaceae). A thorny 
shrub not rare in the central range of the Peninsula, 
apparently as yet undescribed. 

DULEH MERAH. (Sungei Ujong) 

Mallotns macrosiachjus Muell- (Euphorbiaceae). Possibly 
this should be Dalek. 

D[JLIS. 

Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophularineae). X weedy plant of 
South American origin, common in waste grounds. 

DUMAH BUKIT. (Akar) 

Anplectrnm glaucimi Triaua (Melastomaceae). 

DUNGUN. 

Heritiera littoralis Dry and {Sterculiaceae). See Atun laut, 
DURL 

A thorn. 
DURL (Akar) 

Ranclia Jasciculata De 0. (Riibiaceae). A climber with thorns 
and white llowers. 

DURIA (Rumput). 

Eriocaulon truncatum Ham. (Eriocauloneae). A little herb 
with white heads of flowers, common in swamps. 
DURIAN. 

Durio zibethinu8 L. {Malvaceae). 
DURIAN BLANDA. 

The sour sop. Anona umricata. (Anonaceae). Literally 
Dutch durian, because it was introduced by the Dutch. 
DURIAN DAUN. 

Durio oxlei/anus Griff. A wild durian. 

DURIAN-DURIAN. 

Contracted to Dendurian, Boschia grijfithii Nees. {Malva- 
ceae), Also DURIAN HAJL A small or medium-sized 
tree with white flowers and small scarlet durians. 

DURIAN TANAH also DURIAN BURONG. 

Durio testitudinarum Bee. Lit. Ground durians, because 
the fruits are borne at the base of the tree. 



88 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

DURIAN TUPAI. 

Commersoma echinata. Forst ( Tiliaceae.) Lit. Squirrel durian. 
The small fruits resembling* somewhat a durian. A com- 
mon tree in secondary jungle with white flowers. 

EKOR ANGIN, 

Plantago asiatica L. (Pkmtagineae.) Literally Wind-tail. 
The common plantain. 

EKOR BALANGKAS. 

Gnetum Brunoniaiium Griff. (Gnetaceae.) " King-crab's tail." 
A small shrub with spikes of flowers. 

EKOR CHARI. (Rumput) 

Ischoemum muticum. (Gramineae). Ohari is a fish. One of 
the commonest grasses here. 

EKOR KUCEING. 

Dysophylla auricularia Bl. (Labiatae.) Also Vraria crinita 
Deso. (Leguminosae) Literally '' Cat's tail." Both are 
small plants with close spikes of flowers suggesting a 
cat's tail, 

EKOR KUCHING. (Rumput) 

Perotis latifolia {Gramineae.) A brush-like grass, common 
in sandy spots. 

EKOR KUDA. 

Vernonia cinerea L. {Comjwsitae.) " Horse-tail." A common 
weed with pink heads of flowers. 

EMBALAU. E. BETINA. E. PADANG. 

Brucea sumatrana Wall. (Simarubeae.) A shrub with spikes 
of small purple flowers and black berries, very coaise 
scented. 
EMPEDAL AY AM. see Ampadal A YAM. 

Salacia grandiflora Kurz. (Ehamneae.) 

EMPENAL (Pahang) 

Atalantia monophylla Corr. (Rutaceae). A small wild lime 
tree. 
EMPENING. Also PENING. see Mempening. 

Quercus spicata, etc. (Cupuliferae.) A name applied to several 
of our oaks. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 89 

EM:P0YAN. EMPOYAN BATU. see Mempoyan. 

Rhodamnia trinervia Bl. (Mi/rtaceae). A common tree with 
flowers. 

EMPOYAN BUKIT. 

Rhodamnia trinervia var. A mountain form on Mt. Ophir. 

EMPOYAN PADAXG. 

Decaspermuni paniculatam Kurz. (Mijrtaceaej. X large 
shrub with white flowers. 

ENAU. 

Arenga saccharifera L. (Pabneae) This name appears to 
be used for the wild form of the Kabong or sugar-pahu. 
a somewhat different looking plant from the common 
cultivated one. 

ENDEBI. 

Allomorphia exigua Bl. (Melastoniaceae.) A shrub with 
small green flowers, common in manj^ woods. 

ENGGANK. see Inggank. 

Myristica geminata {Myristicaceae). 

EPOH. (Johor) 

Samadera indica Gaertn. (Simarubeae) A shrub. 

GADABU. 

Sonneratia Grijfithii Kurz. (Lythraceae). A sea-shore tree. 
Much resemblimg Perupat. 

GADING. (Penang) 

Hunteria corymbosa Roxb. (Apocynaceae.) Gading signifies 
ivory and is applied to several plants with white ivorj- 
like wood. And also to a number of shrubs, usually 
rubiaceous, the leaves of which are made into a kind of tea. 

GADING. 

Canthium species and Petunga venulosa Hook fil. (Rubia- 
ceae). 

GADING BETINA. 

Aporosa aurea Hook fil. {Euphorbiaceae). 



90 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

GADINGGAJAH. (Ang-grek) (Malacca) 

Eria i^el'ipes Lindl. (OrcJndeae). A small epiphytic orchid, 
so named from the leaves being- shaped like tusks. 

GADING GALOK. 

Cliasalia curviflora Thw. {Riihiaceae). A common jungle 
shrub two or three feet tall with tubular white or 
purplish flowers. 

GADING HUTAN. 

Pavetta iiidica L. {Rahiaceci'^). A shrub with white flowers. 

GADING JANTAN, 

Xaiithophijlluni affine Korth. (Poll/ gal aceae). Leaves used 
as tea. 

GADING TULANG. 

Randia densiflora Benth. {Riihiaceae). A larg-e shrub or 
small tree. 

GADIS. Also KAYU GADIS. 

Cinnamontum parthenoxylum Meissn. {Laurineae). The specific 
name is a translation of the Malay. It is medicinally used 
for girls. 

GADONG. Also GADUNG. 

Dioscorea daemonum Roxb. {Dioscoreaceae). A climber with 
large tubers, used in the manufacture of dart poison, and 
also eaten after repaated washing to extract the nar- 
cotic properties they contain. 

GADUNG CHINA. 

Smilax China L. (Liliaceae.) The tubers of which are sold 
in the drug--shops as medicine. China-root. 

GADONG TIKUS. 

Smilax Helferi A De C. {Liliaceae). A thorny climber. 
GADU GAJAH. 

Trigonostemon indicus Muell. Arg-. (Euporbiaceae). 
GAHARU. Also GAGAHRU. 

Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. {Thijmelaceae). Produces the 
well known incense wood lig-n-aloes. 
GAJAH. 

Dehaasia sp. (Laurineae). 



MALAY PLNAT NAMES. 91 

GAJUS. 

Anacardum occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae). The Cashew. 
The word is a medification of Cashew. 

GAJUS HUT AN. 

Dehaasia sp. (Laurineae). The fruit sug-gests in form a 
cashew nut. 

GALAI. 

Goniothalamus Tapis Miq. (Aiionaceae). A shrub with yel- 
lowish flowers. 

GALANG HUTAN. 

Goniothalamus f/iganteus Hook fil. {Anonaceae). A small 
tree with large yellow flowers. 

GAM AT. (Akar) 

Pterisanthes caudiqera Miq. (Ampe/ideae). A vine with 
the rachis developed into a flat red plate on which the 
flowers are borne. 

GAMBADAK. (Kedah) 

Acronijchia lauri folia Bl. {Riitaceae) and Phyllochlamys 
Wallichii King. ( Urticeae). 

GAMBAH PUTIH. (Pahang) 

Cardiopteris lobata Br. (Olacineae). A climbing plant. 

GAMBIR. 

Uncaria r/ambir (Rubiaceae). The product is sometimes 
erroneously spoken of as Getah gambir. The word getah 
is without doubt an error for gatta, a form of kat(^ which 
was originally the native word for cutch (the bark or 
product of Acacia catechu L). The product of Uncaria 
gambir was originally Kate Krambu, lit. scented cutch, 
and it is so known to Tamils to this day. The Malays 
modified this into Gatta Gambir. 

GAMBIR-GAMBIR. see Gegamber. 

GAMI. Also GAMO. 

Antidesma cuspidatum Mueli. (Euphorbiaceae) A shrub or 
small tree. 



92 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

GANCHIL KECaiL. 

Symplocos ferruginea Roxb. (Styraceae). A larg"e shrub 
with white flowers. 
GANDARUSA. 

Insticia gandarusa L. (Accmthaceae). Often cultivated and 
half wild. A shrub used in medicine. 

GANDARUSA. (Akar) 

Psychotna sp. {Ruhiaceae.) 

GANDARUSA JANTAN. 

Chasalia curviflora Thw. {Ruhiaceae). 

GANJA. Also GUN JA. 

Indian hemp. Cannabis mtira L. (Urticaceae). Only known 
here as an imported plant, see GuNJA. 

GAPIS. 

Saraca triandra Bak. (Leguminosae.) A half scandent 
shrub with orange red flowers. 

GAPIS KUNYIT. 

Saraca cauliflora Bak. {Leguminosae). A very fine tree 
with large bunches of yellow flowers and pink pods. 

GARAH. (Akar) 

Lenconotis eugeniifolius De G. (Apocynaceae.) A climber pro- 
ducing a rubber. 

GARUM-GARUM. (Akar) 

Roncheria Griffithii Plauch. (Lineae). 

GARING-GARING. (Akar) 

Cuestis ramifora Griff. (Connardceae.) A climbing shrub 
with pink flowers and showy red pear-shaped capsules. 

GARONTONG TENGAH. (Johor) 

Chisocheton diver gens Bl. (Meliaceae.) 

GASING-GASING. Contracted into Gegasii^g. 

Cissampelos Parura L. also Pericampylus incanus Miers. 
(Menispermaceae.) Slender climbing plants much resembl- 
ing each other though of different genera. They are 
used medicinally. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 93 

GATAL. (Daun.) 

Saportea crenidata Forst. (Urticaceae.) •' Stinging leaf." 
This plant, the giant nettle, is more often called Jela- 
TANG here. Favre gives the above name. 

GAYAM. 

Inocarpns edulis Forst. (Leguminosae.) The Otaheite chest- 
nut ; only known here in cultivation. I am doubtful as 
to the origin of this word. It is probably not Malay. 

GEGAMBER. (Akar) 

Comhretwn sundaicum Miq. (Combretaceae.) A contraction 
for gambir-gambir. A climbing shrub with small green 
flowers in heads. 

GEGAMBER PAYA. GEGAMBER HUTAN. 

Uncarici bmosa Wall. (Hubiaceae.) A reduplication of 
Gambir. One of the wild gambirs. 

GEGAMBER JANTAX. 

Moesa ramentaceae A de C. (Mursineae.J A climbing shrub. 

GEGRIP. 

A contraction for Gerip-gerip, also called Getah-gerip and 
Singgaiip. Rubber-vines belonging to the order Apocij- 
naceae. 

GEGRIP HITAM. Also GEGRIP BESL 

Wilhighheiajinna Bl. (Apoo/naceae.) One of the best of the 
rubber-vines, a big climber with black bark, whence its 
name. 
GEGRIP MERAH. 

Urceola hicida Beuth. Also Chonemorpha macrophiUa {Apo- 
cynaceaej. 
GEGRIP NASI. 

Urceola lucida Beuth. {Apocynaceae.) 

GEGRIP PUTIH. 

Urceola hrachysepala Hook fil. {Apocynaceae.) 

GEGRIP SrXDIK. 

LeuGOiiotis eugeniaefoHus Bl. (Apocynaceae.) 
GEGRIP TEMBAGA. 

Urceola elastica Roxb. {Apocynaceae.) 



94 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

GELAM. 

Melaleuca leucadendron L. (Myrtaceae.) The Cajeput oil 
tree, from the leaves of which an aromatic oil is extracted. 

GELAM BUKIT. 

Leptospermum amhoinense Bl. (Myrtaceae.) An aromatic 
shrub with white flowers growing- on hills at about three 
thousand feet elevation. The leaves are used as tea in 
fever. 

GELAM CHICHA. 

Coelodiscus montanus Muell. (FAiphorhiaceae. ) 

GELANG LAUT. 

Sesiivium portulacastrum L, (Ficoideae.) A succulent herb 
with pink flowers common on mud by the sea. 

GELANG FASIR. 

Portidaca oleracea L. (Portulaceae.) A common weed in 
waste places, with yellow flowers. 

GELANG SUSU. 

Euphorbia piluliferax L. (EupliorUaceae.) A little weed in 
waste places. 

GELAM TIKUS. 

Eugenia pustulata Duthie in Singapore ; and E. grata Wall. 
in Penang- (Afyrtaceae.) 

GELENGGANG. Also GELUNGANG and GELINGGANG. 

Cassia alata L. (Leguminosae.) Also often called Daun Ku- 
rep, which see. 

GELENGGANG KECHIL. GELENGGANG PADANG. 

Cassia Tora L. {Leguminosae.) A common weedy shrub 
used in native medicine. 

GELINOHEK. 

Myrica nagi {Myricaceae.) A small tree or shrub, growing- 
usually on the sea coast. 

GELUGUR. see Asam Gelugur. 

GELUGUR GAJAH. 

Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. (Ternstroemiaceae.) Gelugur 
means the pips of an orange. See AsAM Gelugur. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 95 

GELUGUR SALAH. 

Cyclostemon longifolius Bl. [Euphorbiaceae.) A tree with 
long* pendent branches and large oblong leaves. 

GELUMAK SUSU. 

Curanga amara Juss. (Scrophuiariueae.) A small creeping 
wee I used in native medicine. 

GELUMBIAH LUMBA. 

Spheeranthus microcephalus De C. {Covipositae. ) 

GELUMPONG. (Akar) 

Modecca sinfiaporeana Mast. {Passifloreae.) A climber with 
green flowers and showy scarlet fruits which split and 
disclose the seed enclosed ui a white pulp hanging from 
the placentas. The fruits are said to be poisonous. 

GEMIA. 

A variant of Rumbia. (Haughton. Journ. Soc. As. St. Br. 
20 page 77.) 

GERONGGANG. Also GERONGGONG. 

Cratoxijlon arhorescens Bl. (ffypencneae.) A tall tree with 
small deep red flowers, which gives a good timber. 

GERUSEH. GERESEH. GURUSEH. G. PUTIH. G. JANTAN. 

Randia densiflora Beuth. (Eubiaceae.) 

GERUSEH PUTIH. 

Antidesma Moritzii Muell. {Euphorbiaceae.) 

GETAH. 

Latex or gum, usually containing Caoutchouc, produced by 
trees belonging usually to the order Sapotaceae or by 
climbers of the order Ajwcf/naceae. The latter are gene- 
rally known as Getah Geeip or Gegrip. 

The rubber is collected by making cuts in the bark and 
catching the milk and is sold as rubber or gutta percha, 
or used as bird lime. 

GETAH GAHARU. 

Willughbeia cariacea Wall. {Apocynaceae,) A climber with 
white flowers and large round fruits. Also known as 
Getah ujol. 



96 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

GETAH GERIP. Also GeKiP-GeRlP. 

Commonly contracted to Gegrip. Also SiNGGAEiP. The 
name given to many Apocynaceous rubber producing 
climbers. See Gegrip. 

GETAH HUDANG. (Johor) 

Oarcinia sp. {Outtiferae.) Literally " Prawn getah.'' 
GETAH JELUTONG. 

Dyera costulata Hook fil. {Apocijnaceae.) See JELUTONG. 
GETAH MENJAWA. (Malacca) 

Willughheia cariacea Wall. (Apocynaceae.) Also known as 
Get AH Ujol and Gaharu. 

GETAH PERCHA. 

Dichopsis G'litta Benth. (Sapotaceae.) see Getah Taban 
Meeah. 
GETAH PERCHA BURONG. 

Payena Maingayi C. B. Clarke {Sapotaceae.) A tree. 

GETAH PULAI. 

Alstonia scholaris Br. {Apocijnaceae.) see PuLAl. 
GETAH PUYUH. 

Leptaspis urceolata Br. {Gramineae.) A grass with very 
adhesive spikelets which may adhere to quails (Puyuh.) 

GETAH SUNDIK. 

Payena Leerii Oliv. {Sapotaceae) A large tree which gives 
a good second quality gutta percha. 
GETAH SUSU. 

A trade name for Getah Jelutong. Dyera costulata 
(Apocynaceae.) 
GETAH TABAN CHAIU. (Perak) 

Dicliopis pustlatau C. B. Clarke {Sapotaceae.) Gives a gutta 
percha. A tree. 
GETAH TABAN MERAH also GETAH PERCHA. 

Dichopsis Gutta Benth. {Sapotaceae). The best gutta per- 
cha tree. 
GETAH TABAN PUTIH. 

Dichopsis ohovata C. B. Q\2kikQ {Sapotaceae). A good gutta 
percha tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 97 

GETAH TERAP. 

Artocarpiis Kunstleri King" (Urticaceae). see Terap. 

GETAH UJOL. 

Wiliarjhbeia coriacea Wall, also Melodinus orientalis Bl. 
{Apocijnaceae). The rubber fraiii these sets very slowly 
and it is only used for bird lime and for mixing- with other 
rubbers. They are both climbers. 

GIGELiNG. GIGELING JANTAN. 

Crotalaria verrucosa L. (Lefjiuninosae). A tall herb with 
blue fiowers. 

GIGIT BUNTAI. 

Cauarium Kadondon Berm. {Burseraceae). 

GILAN. rJohor) 

Loranthus forinosus Bl. (Loranthaceae). A fine mistletoe 
with large pink flowers. 

GINGIN. (Malacca) 

Aipinia iiivolucrata Griff. [Scitamineae). 

GIRAH. (Rumput) 

J^ imhristylis paucijiora {Cyperaceae). 

GIRAH PAYA. 

Nuiletia atropurpurea Benth. (Legicminosae). A very fine 
large tree with purple flowers. 

GIRAMONG. (Johor) 

Pittosporum Jerrugineum Ait. (Pittosporeae). 

GIRENG. 

Leea gigantea (yv'iE. (Anipelideae). A shrub with heads of 
green and white flowers and black berries. 

GIRESEH PADI. 

Macaranga Lowii {EupJiorbiaceae). 

GIRING ANTAN. 

Pithecolobium huhalinum Benth [Leguttnnosae). A small tree 
GIRING-GIRING also GURING-GURING. 

Crotalaria striata De C. (Legumiiiosae). A weed in waste 
ground with yellow flowers. When the seed is ripe it 
rattles in the pod whence the name. 



98 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

GIRING-GIRING. (Rumput) 

Mapania hancana {Cijperaceae). Literally " rattles." 

GIRING LANDAK. 

Crotalaria setusa L. (Leguminosae). " Porcupine-rattles." 
A sea-shore herb with fine yellow flowers. 

GI8ING. 

Eugenia filiformis Wall. {Myrtaceae). A small tree. 
GLI-GLI. 

Cyrtosperma I asioides Gri^. and Lasia spinosa Thw. (Aroideae). 
Two aquatic aroids with arrow-shaped prickly leaves. 
The former is much the larger of the two. 

GOLANG PAYA. 

Helicia attenuata Bl. (Proteaceae). 

GOMBANG. 

Dipterocarpus crinitus Dyer. ( Dipterocarpeae) . A lofty 
tree producing- a good timber for bridges. 

GONG. (Johor) 

Helicia petiolaris Benth. (Proteaceae). A tree. 
GRISEK. (Kayu) 

Cryptocarya coesia Bl. (Laurineae). A large tree. 

GROBO. (Malacca) 

Thottea grandiflora Roxb. (Aristolochiaceae). A small shrub 
about a foot or two high with bell-shaped flowers, purple 
inside, as large as a tumbler. Used in native medicine. 

GRONGGANG. see Gekonggang. 

GUAH HITAM. 

Cassia siamea Lam. {Leguminosae). More commonly called 
JUAL. A small tree with yellow flowers and long nar- 
row pods. 

GUATAK. 

Dysoxylum caulijloruni Hiern. {Meliaceae). A small tree with 
spikes of white sweet-scented flowers borne on the trunk, 
and bright red fruit. 

GUCHE GAJAH. (Pahang) 

Antidesma velutinosum Bl. (Euphorbiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 99 

GUDABONG. 

Phragmites Eoxhurghn (Gramineae). The common reed. 

GUDAYANG. Also KEDAWUNG. 

Parkia Roxhurghiana (^Leguminosae). 

GUGATING. 

Bassia sp. {Sapotaceae). 

GUGIRING. 

Quercus hjstrix Korth. (Cupvliferae). An oak with a spiny 
acorn cup. 

GULA. (Kayu) (Penang-) 

Admandra diimosa Jack. {Ternstroemiaceae). A common 
tree usually known as TiAP-TiAP. 

GULAWAI. 

Buchanania acuminata Turcz. (Anacardiaceae). A small 
tree. 

GULUMBON HANTU. 

Croton Griffithii Hook fil. (E^ipJiorbiaceae). 

GULUNO. (Akar) 

Dioscorea pyrifolia Kurth. (Dioscoreaceae). A climber with 
small green flowers in spikes. 

GUMAPONG. 

Aporosa. 

GUMBOT. 

Adenosma caeru/eum Br. {Scrophularineae). An aromatic 
herb with blue flowers. 

GUMPAI. (Johor) 

Panicuni auritam. {Gramineae). A common grass in wet 
spots. 

GUMPO. 

Nepheliuni eriopetalum Miq. (Sapindaceae). A handsome 
wild rambutan. 

GUNCHAK. (^Penang) 

Antidesma G/ioesaubi/la Gaerth. {FAipliorhiaceae). A large 
bush. 



100 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

GUNCHIAN GAJAH. (Kedah) 

Antidesma fallax Muell. (Euphorhiaceae). 

GUl^JA also GANJA. 

Indian hemp. Cannabis sativa Vi. {Urticaceae). Also Clero- 
dendron siphonanthus ( Verbenaceae), the leaves of which 
are used for the same purpose. 
GUNUM. 

Chilocarpus Mainrjaiji Hook fil. {Apoci/naceae). A climber 
producing India-rubber. 

GURAH. 

Sapium indiGum L. [Euphorbiaceae). 

GURAH BUKIT. 

Eranthemuni molvacense Clarke. (Acanthaceae). A handsome 
shrub with violet flowers. 

GURANG. 

Tabernoetnontana ma'accensis. (Apoci/naceae). A shrub with 
white flowers. 

GURANG BUKIT. 

He/icia attenuata 131. (Proteaceae). See GOLANG Paya. 

GURANG JANTAN. 

Go.nphandra lanceolata King. (Olacineae). 

GURCHENG. 

Liciiala pusilla Becc. {Palmeae). A small fan palm. 

GURIAM. (Sungei Ujong) 

Clerodendron disparifo'ium HI. {Verbenaceae). A small tree 
with yellow flowers. 

GURING also GURAH. 

Sapium indicuin Ij. (Euphorbiaceae). 

GURUGA LAUT more commonly JERUJU. 
Acanehtfs e.'racfiafus Wall. (Acanthaceae). 

GURUGUN. 

Celastrus ntonosperma (Celastrineae). A climbing shrub. 

GURUMONG JANTAN and G. BETINA. 

Glochidion superbum. Bail I. (Euphorbiaceae). A common tree 
in secondary jungle. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 101 

GURUSEH. see Geruseh. 

GUTANG. 

Spilanthes accuella L. {Compositae). The tooth-ache plant. 
A shrub with small heads of flowers very pungent, rubbed 
on the jaw for tooth-ache. 

HA-HA. 

Coelostegia Orijjithii Masters. (Malvaceae). More commonly 
known as PUNGAI, which see. This name I am told is 
due to a story to the effect that a man once hung- the 
fruit, which resembles a durian, above his door, and a 
demon passing by mistaking it for that fruit attempted 
to seize it, but on finding out his error left it and fled, 
exclaiming Ha-Ha. 

HALIYA. 

Ginger. Zingiber officinalis L. (Zingiberaceae). 

HALIYA HUTAN. 

Globba spp. (Scitamineae.) These plants are elegant herbs 
with terminal spikes or panicles of yellow or white flowers. 
The rhizomes which are aromatic are used in medicine. 

HALUO. (Akar) 

Ficiis apiscarpa Miq. ( Urticaceae). A climbing fig. 

HAMBACHANG. 

Variant of Bachang. 

HAMBALAU, 

Variant of Balau. 

HAMPELAM. 

Variant of M AMP EL AM. 

HAMPELAS. 

Variant of M AMP EL AS. 

HAMPEDU BRUANG. (Favre) 

Brucea sumatrana Wall. (Simarubeae). Lit " bear's bile." 
Also Embalau. 

HANTU. (Bunga) 

Strophanthus Jackianus Wall. {Apocynaceae). " Ghost 
flower." 



102 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

HATI-HATI. see Ati-Ati. 

HEEYAH. 

Artemisia vulgaris L. {Compositae). The wormwood, culti- 
vated by the Chinese and occurring- here and there as an 
escape. The word is probably not Malay. 

HIJAU. (Rumput) 

Paspalum scrohiculatum L. {Gramineae). Literally " green 
grass." A very common grass. 

HI LAN. 

Pleopeltis angustata {Filices). A common epiphytic fern. 

HINA. HINAL Also INAl, which see. 

The henna. Lawsonia alba Lam. (Lythraceae). The use of 
this plant for dyeing the nails and hair red is well-known. 

HTTAM. (Akar) 

Ventilago leiocarpa Benth (Rhamneae). Lit. "black climber." 

HITAM MATL 

Diospyros lucida Wall. (Ehenaceae). One of the ebony pro- 
ducing trees. 

HCJJAN P^NAS. 

Breynia coronata Hook fil. and B. reclinata Hook fil. {Euphor- 
hiaceae). Literally " warm rain." 

HUJAN PANAS PUTIH. 

Glocliidion sericeum {Euphorhiaceae). 

lANG-IANG. 

A variant of RiANG-RlANG. A.rcliytea Vahlii Chois. (Tern- 
stroemiaceaej. See also Akar Riang-Riang, Cissus 
hastatus. 

IBUL. 

Orania macrocladus Mast. (Palmaceae). A very fine tall 
palm. 

IGA-IGA. 

Favre gives this as a form of AGAR- AGAR. 

INA-KECHIL. 

Alsodeia lanceolata Wall. {Violaceae). A shrub. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 103 

INAI. 

See also HiNAT. Henna. Lawsonia alba Lam. 

INAI BATU. 

Impaticus Grifjithii Hook fil. (Balsamineae). A pink balsam 
growing on Mount Ophir and other hills. It is said to be 
used for dyeing like the henna. 

INAI PAYA. 

The water balsam. Hijdrocera trifiora W. A. {Balsamineae). 

INCHONG. (Penang) 

Macaranga tariarius L. (Euphorbiaceae). 

INGAN. (Province Wellesley) 
Desmodium sp. (Leguminosae). 

INGANK. 

Myristica geminata. (^fiyristicaceae). 

INGGU also ANGGU. 

Asafoetida, the gum of Ferula Narthex. Used in native 
medicine. (Persian) 

INJAH. (Rumput) 

Oldealandia diffusa (Rubiaceae), A small weed w^ith little 
white flowers, common in grass- 

INJAU BELUKAR. 

Wehera mollis (Rubiaceae). A large shurb with softly 
hairy leaves and corymbs of white flowers. 
IPOH. IPOH BATANG. 

Antiaris toxicaria Bl. f UrHcaceaeJ. The well known upas 
tree. 
IPOH AKAR. 

Strychnos Tiente BI. (Loganiaceae). A decotion of the bark 
is mixed with the true Ipoh (Antiaris). It contains much 
Brucine. The plant is a large climber with round grey 
fruits and small white flowers. 
IPOH PUTIH. (Akar) 

Rancheria griffithii Plauch (LineaeJ. This is also used in 
the prepartion of Ipoh but its chemical properties are not 
known. It is a common climber with white stems of 
yellow flowers followed by small red berries. 



104 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

ISTONG PARAH. 

Tahernaemontana corymhosa fApoci/naceae). A variant of 
Restong- (i.e. syphilis) for which this plant is used. 

ITAH TEMBAGA. (Perak) 

Smilax calophylla (Liiiaceae). Authority of VVray. 

ITAH yisi. 

Smilax myosotiflora De C. Mr. Wray is the authority for 
these names. 

JABBET. (Ubi) 

Dioscorea pentapylla h. (Dioscereaceae). A wild yam much 
sought by the Sakais for food. Professor Vaughan 
Stevens is the authority for this, It may be a Sakai 
word, or perhaps a perversion of Chiabet. 

JAGONG. 

Indian corn. Zea Mays L. (Gramineae). 

JALI. 

A rattan according to Favre. 

JALI BATU. 

Vitex cariacea Clarke. (Verhenaceae). 

JAMBAH SURAL (Akar) 

Anp!ectrum polyanthu/ii C. B. Clarke. {M elastomaaeae). A 
climber with violet Mowers. The roots used for fever. 

JAMBELAN. 

Eugenia Jamholana L. More commonly known as JlWYT. 
Favre gives this word. 

JAMBOL MERAK. 

Selaginella atroviridis (Lycopodiaceae). The name signifies 
the tuft on a peacock's head, which the plant is supposed 
to resemble. 

JAMBOL SIOL. 

Ixora opaca Br. {Ruhiaceae). A shrub. 

JAMBOL SIOL. (Akar) 

Erycihe princei Wall. Convolvulaceae. A climber with 
small white flowers. 



MALAY PLANT XAMES. 105 

JAMBU AYER. 

Eugenia aquea \^uvm. {Mjjrtaceat'). One of the rose-apples. 

JAMBU AYER CHILI PUTIH. 

Eugenia cavgophgUea Wight. (Mgrtaceae). A medium sized 
tree with small white eatable fruits. 

JAMBU AYER HUTAN. 

Eugenia macrocarpa Roxb. and E. densijiora \)q C. {Myrta- 
ceae). 

JAMBU AYER LAUT. 

Eugenia grandis Wight {Myrtaceae). A large tree usually 
growing near the coast, often used as a shade tree in 
Singapore. 

JAMBU BANIxNG. 

Meniecyhn heteropltarina Bl. f MelaMoniaceae). A shrub, with 
fruits somewhat resembling a very small rose-apple. 
Literally, the tortoise rose-apple. 

JAMBU BATU HUTAN. 

Gardenia tuhifera Wall. (Bubiaceae). A wild tree-gardenia 
The fruits, which are hard and stony, resemble rose-apples 
in shape, whence the name •' Wild stone -rose-apple." 

JAMBU BLJL 

The guava. Fsidium (/uava L. (Myrtaceae). Also JAMBU 
MELUKAT, (Johor; and JAMBU BELAWAS. 

JAMBU BOL. 

Eugenia malaccensis Linn. (Myrtaceae). 

JAMBU BUKIT. 

Eugenia macrocarpa Roxb. (Myrtaceae). 

JAMBU DULEK. 

Mesua lepidota (Guttiferae). 

JAMBU KELAT LA WAR PUTIH. 

Eloeocarpus parvifolius AYall. {Ti/iaceae). Perhaps a per- 
version of Jambu Kelawar. 

JAMBU KELAWAR. 

Eloeocarpus parvifolius Wall ( Tiliarcae). Bat's rose-apple. 
Fruit bats are very fond of this fruit. 



106 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

JAMBU KELAWAR. (AkarJ 

Zizijphus caloj)}iyllus Wall. {Rhannieae). A climber with 
eweet eatable fruits. 

JAMBU MA WAR. 

Eugenia Jambos L. (Mi/rfaceae). The rose-apple, a well 
known fruit. 

JAMBU MUNYET. 

The cashew. Anacardiiua occidentcde L. Literally, monkey's 
Jambu. Also JAMBU TRONG and JAMBU GULA. 
(Sugar rose-apple). 

JAMBU SUSU also JAMBU BOL. 

Eugenia malaccensis Linn. (iMyitaceae). A large rose apple, 
white or pink, the flowers deep crimson 

JANGAT (Akar) also SEJANGAT. 

SpatJwlobus gi/7'ocarpus Benth. (Legutninome). A very large 
climber with small purple flowers. It is one of the water 
vines. The stem when cut produces excellent water. 
JANGEL. 

Hopea Mengaraican Bl. {Dipterocarpeae). Possibly a variant 
of Chengal. a very large tree producing a good timber. 

JANGGUS. 

The cashew. Anacardiuni occidentale L. (AnacardiaceaeJ. 

JANGGUT ALL (Rumput) 

Panicuia sarmentosum Roxb. (Gramineae). A large grass 
with elegant panicles of flowers, common on the hedges of 
jungles. Literally Ali's beard. 

JANGGUT BAONG (Rumput) 

Alariscus umbellatus C. B. Clarke. {Cijperaceae). A. common 
sedge in waste ground. 

JANGGUT KELL 

Ggnoiroches axillaris Miq. (Rhizophoreae). A very common 

tree in secondary jungle. 
Also Carallia integerrima De C. {Bhizophoreae), and in 

Penang applied to Gomphia Suniatrana Jack. (Ochnaceae). 

JANGGUT KULONAK. 

IHoscorea glabra Roxb. (Dioscoreaceae). X wild yam. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 107 

JANGGUT RIMAU (Rumput). 

Polygonum peduncu/are Wall. {Polygonaceae). Lit. tig-er's 
beard. A little plant growing in ditches with heads of 
pink flowers. 

JANGKA. (Johor) 

Lasianthus species {RuhiaceaeJ. A shrub. 

JANGKANG, JANGKANG PAYA. JANGKANG BETINA 
or MERAH. 

Xylopia ferruginea Hook. fil. {Anonaceae). A tall slender 
tree used in house building-. In Penang the name is 
applied to Tlopea inter media (Dipterocarpeae). One of the 
Meranti trees. 

JANGKANG. (Akar) 

Meiodorum manuhriatuin Hook. fil. (Anonaceae). 

JANGKANG BUKIT. 

Miiristica polysphaerula Hook. fil. (Myristicaceae) . A wild 
nutmeg with small fruits. 

JANGKANG HUTAN. 

Polyalthia Scortechinii King. {Anonaceae). A small tree with 
large green flowers like those of the Cananga. 

JANGKANG PAYA. 

Vernonia arbor ea L. (Conipositae). A large tree with laven- 
der coloured flowers. Also Myristica paludicola King'. 
(Myristicaceae) and XyJopia ferruginea Hook. fil. {Ano- 
naceae). 
JANGKAT. 

Norrisia vialaccensis Hook fil. (Loganiaceae). A small or 
medium sized tree with numerous small white flowers. 
JANTAN TIOH. rKedah) 

Antidesma species {Euphorbiaceae). Apparently undescribed. 

JANTONG BADAK. 

Tabernwmontana corymbosa Roxb. {Apocynaceae). A small tree 
with white flowers. 

JAPUN. (Bunga) 

Nerum oleander L. {Apocynaceae). Favre gives this name 
for the oleander. 



108 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

JARAK. 

Castor oil. Rin'nus commuuis L. {Euphorhiaceae). 
JARAK BLAXDA. 

The purging- nut. Jatropha ciircas L. {Euphorhiaceae). 
Literally, the Dutch castor oil. It is also called Jarak 
Kafri — African castor oil. Often cultivated in villages. 
The seed is sometimes used in medicine. 

JARAK GAJAH. 

AI allot us suhpeltatus. Muell. (Ehphorbiaceae). 

JARAK HUTAN. 

Mallotus subpeltatiis Muell. {EupJwrbiaceae). A small tree. 
JARAK LAUT. 

Leea samhuciiia Willd. (Ampeltdeae). A bush. 

JARAK PIPIT. 

Cleistanthus Icevis Hook. ill. {Euphorlnaceae). 

JARANG. (Rumput) 

Lophatherum r/raci/e Beau v. (Grawineae). Jarang means 
separated, or spread apart, perhaps referring to the 
branches of the panicle. 

JARANG- JARANG. (Rumput) 

Cyathula prostrata Bl. (Aniaranfaceae). 

JARI AA^\M. 

Unona longifora Roxb. {Anoiiacene). 

JARI BIAWAK. (Akarj 

Vitis cinnamomea Wall. (Arnpelideae). A slender vine, with the 
leaves red beneath. Literally; toes of the monitor lizard. 

JARKA. 

Lasianthus species {Rubiaceae). 

JARUM HIT AM. 

Cliasa'ia curvifiora Thw. {Rubiaceae). 

JARUM-JARUM. Also JEJARFM and MENJARUM. 

Pavefta indica L. {Rubiaceae). A shrub with white 
flowers. Favre gives also Jarung-jarung. Jarum is a 
needle, the conspicuously prolonged styles looking like 
needles is doubtless alluded to in the name. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 109 

JARUM-JARUM BATU. 

ravetta humilis Hook. fil. [Rabiaceae). 

JARUM-JARUM BETINA. 

Psychotria anguJata Korth. {Rnbiaceae), 

JARUM-JARUM JANTAN. 

Ecmdia anisophi/l/a Jack. {Ruhiaceae). 

JARUM-JARUM MERAH. 

Ixora concinna Br. {Ruhiaceae). A handsome red flowered 
Ixora. 

JARUM-JARUM PAYA. 

Pavetta indica Yar. {Ruhiaceae). Jarum-jarum padang", is 
also a variety of the same very variable plant. 

JATEK-JATEK. Also JENTEK-JENTEK. 

Eloeocarpus Jackianuii \Yall. {Tiliaceae') . A tree. 

JATI. 

Teak. Tectoiia grandis Lmn. (Verbenaceae) . Commonly used 
here for the timber. It is however really a Javanese word. 

JAWA. (Bmiga) 

Ipomea qnamocHt L. (Convolvulaceae). A little scarlet 
convolvulus with finely cut leaves, often cultivated. 
Favre g-ives this w^ord. 

JAWl-JAWl. Contracted to JEJAWI also ARA JEJAWI. 
Ficus rhododendrifoUa Miq. {Urticaceae). A large fig" tree 
with small leaves. 

JEJAWI. See Jawi-jawi. 

JEJUANG. (Singapore) 

Cordyline termivalis Korth. {Liiiaceae). 

JEJUH. 

Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. (Sfyraceae). A common tree in 
secondary jungle. 

JEJUWAI. 

Greivia laurifolia Hook fil. {Tiliaceae). A tall tree. 
JELATANG. 

Laportiea crenulata Forst. ( Urticaceae.) The tree nettle. 



no . MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

JELATANG AYAM. 

Fleurya interrupta Gaud. ( Urticaceae). A common little 
nettle in waste ground. 

JELATANG BADAK. 

Cnesmone javanica Bl. (Euphorbiaceae). Literally rhinoceros 

nettle. 
Also JELATANG RUSA. Deer nettle. A stin-ing climber. 

JELUTONG. 

Dyera Maingaiji Hook fil. and D. costulata Hook fil. A big 
tree- which gives a very inferior india rubber, and a tim- 
ber used for clogs, boxes and such things. 

JELUTONG BADAK. 

Tahernaemontaaa corymhosa Roxb. (Apocynaceae.) 

JELUTONG LAUT. (Singapore) 

Euphorbia atoto Forst. (Euphorbiaceae). A small milky plant 
growing on the seashore. 

JELUTONG PIPIT. 

Dyera costulata Hook fil. (Aiiocyiiaceae). 

JENDALU. see Dalu-Dalu. 

Salix tetrasperma Miq. (Salicaceae). 

JENTA-JENTA. 

A Isodeia echinocar pa Korth. {Violaceae). 

JENTEK-JENTEK. See Jatek-Jatek. 

Eloeocarpus Jachanvs Wall. [Tiliaceae). 

JERENANG. 

Daemonorops draco L. (Palmae). The Dragon's blood. See 
ROTANG JERENANG. 

JERING. 

Pithecolobium lobatwn Benth. (Legiiviinosae). A medium- 
sized tree with brown curled pods, which are eaten by 
the Malays, and which exhale and cause their eaters to 
exhale a very nauseous odour. 

JERING BALAL 

Pithecolobium fasciculatwn Benth. {Leguminosae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. Ill 

JERING TUPAI. 

Pitliecolohium nncrocarpaiii Benth. {Leijuiinnosae). 

JERING MUN YET. 

Pitliecolohium clijpeana Jack. {Leyuniinodae). 

JERINGU. Al«o DERINGU. 

Acorus Calamus L. (Aroideae). 

JERINGU LAUT. 

Enhalas acoroidta {Hydrocharideae) . 

JERINGU PADANG. 

Xijris indica L. {Xyrideae). 

JERKASING. 

Pericaiiiptjius incanus Miers. [Menispei-i/iaceae). 

JERMAL. (Kavu) 

Myristica Collettiana King. (Myrisficaceae). A big tree. 

JEROK PUTIU. (Selangor) 

Ardisia colorata Roxb. {Myrsineae). A shrub with small 
pink flowers. 

JERUJUH. 

Acanthus ebracteatiis Vahl (Acanfhaceae). A shrub with white 
or blue flowers and holly-like leaves, gowing- couimonly 
in tidal mud. The seeds pounded up are used as a blood 
purifier in cases of boils. 

JILAWEI. 

Terminalia n. sp. near 7\ hialata. A large tree. 

JILEI BATU. 

Coix' lachryma Jobi L. (Gra/nineae). "' Job's tears." 
JILEI PULUT, 

A dark coloured variety. Favre gives Jeley. 
JINJAGONG. 

Ixonanthes reticulata Jack. (Lineae). (Maingay's list). 
JINJARONG JANTAN. 

Daphniphijllum laurinuui Baill. (^Euphorhiaceae). (Maingay's 
list). 
JINJINTA. 

Aporosa nervosa Hook. til. (Euphorbiaceae). (Maingay's list). 



112 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

JINTAN. 

Caraway seed. Carum Caruih. {Vvih el lifer ae). Imported. 
JINTAN HIT AM. 

The seeds of Nigella sativa L. {Uanunculaceae) often known 

as black cumin. They are imported and sold, being used 

in medecine. 

JINTAN MANIS. 

Anise seed. Piuipinella anisum L. ( Uvibelliferae). Imported 
into Singapore and sold. See also Adas manis. 

JINTAN PUTIH. 

Cumin-seed. Cuminum Cyminum L. ( Umhelliferae). Impor- 
ted. Both of these spices are used in curry. 

JINTEH (Akar). 

Melodorum pisocarpum Hook. fil. (Anonaceae). 

JINTEH MERAH. 

Baccaurea Wallichii Hook fil. and B. Oriffitku Hook. fil. 
Trees with spikes of green or white flowers and eatable 
fruits. 

JINTEH PUTIH. 

TJrophyllum sp. ( Ruhiaceae). 

JIRAK. 

Eurya acuminata De C. {Teriistroemiaceae). A common little 
tree in secondary jungle. 

JIWAT. 

Eugenia jamholana Lam. (Myrfaceae). 

JIWAT PADI. 

Eugenia car yophy Ilea Wight. (Myrtaceae). 

JOHOR (Kayu) 

Pellacalyx saccardianns Scortech. {Rhizophoreae). A small 
straight tree with greenish white flowers. 

JOLOK HANTU. 

Arthropliylluiii diversifoHiun. Bl. also A. pinnatum C. B. Clarke 
{Araliaceae.) The first is a very common small tree in 
secondary jungle. The second only grows in the hills 
at an elevation of 2000 feet. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 113 

JOLOK-JOLOK. 

Leea samhudna Willd and Ltea aequata De 0. {Ampe'ideae.) 

JUA. JUAL. Also GUAH, which see. 
Cassia Siamea Lam. (Lerjiiminosae). 

JUAKalso DUAK. 

Heynea trijuga Roxb. {Me/iaceae). Eurijcoma lon/jifolia Jack 
(Sviiarubeae) in Province Wellesley. 

JUALA (Rumput) 

Bidens pilosa L. {Compositac). A weed with white and jei- 
low flower:^. 

JUANG-JUANG HUKIT. 

Dracaena congesta Ridl. (Li/iaceae). A dwarf Dracaena. 

JUJAMO. 

Aporosa microcali/.r Hassk. {Eupliorbiaceae). 

JULLAH. (Akar) 

Giietuni neglecturii Bl. {Gnetaceae.) 

JULONG BUKIT. (Akar) 

Bragantia conjmbosa. Griff. {Aristolochiaceae). 

JULONG. (Rumput) 

Paspulum scrohiculatuiii L. {Grainineae). One of the com- 
monest grasses. 

JULONG HITAM. (Akai) 

Ancistrocladus Penaagianus Wall. A climber with woody 
black stems. 

JULONG JANTAN and JULONG PUTIH. 

Ostodes macrophyllus Benth. {Euphorbiaceae). 

JULONG-JULONG. 

Agrostostachys !ongifolia Benth. {Euphorbiaceae). A shrub 
about a foot tall the leaves of which were used formerly 
for wrapping opium. 

JULONG-JULONG. (Rumput) 

Setaria glaiica Beauv. ( Gramineae). 

JULONG-JULONG BUKIT. 

PsycJiotria stipulacea Wall. {Rubiaceae). A shrub with 
white flowers. 



Il4 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

JULONG-JULONG JANTAN. 

Webera grandifolia Hook. 111. {Ruhiactae). A small shrub 
with large leaves and white flowers. 

JUNKAL. (Bunga) 

Neuropeltis racemosa Wall. (Convolvu/aceae). A climber 
with small white tiowers, 

JURUMONG. See Darumong. 
Elaeocarpi species. 

JURUNANG. 

Aljdnia conchigera Griff. (Scitainiiieae). 

JUWAT. See Jiwat. 

KAATI. (Johor) 

Chamaecladon angustifoJium Schott, {Aroideae). 

KABAL AYAM. 

Pentace triptera Masters. {Tiliaceae). A gigantic tree with 
white flowers. 

KABOK. 

The cotton tree. Eriodemlron anfractuosum {^falvaceae). 

KABOK BASSU. 

GoniothaJamus sp. {Anonaceae). 

KABU-KABU also KAKABU. 

Trevesia sundaica Miq. (Araliaceae). A shrub with a thorny 
stem and lobed leaves, the lobes connected by a wing. 

KABU-KABU HUTAN. 

Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Wall. {Rutaceae). A shrub with 
a thorny straight stem. 

KABUNG. 

The sugar palm. Arenga saccharifera L. {Palmae). 

KACHANG. 
A bean. 
KACHANG BENDl also KACHANG LUNDIR. 

Hibiscus esGulentus L. (Afalvaceae). The okra or beni fruit. 

KACHANG BOTOL. KACHANG BOTOR. 

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus De C. (Legu/iii)iosae). A culti- 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 115 

vated bean with winged pods. The word Botor and Botol 
is said to be a modification of " bottle," which the bean is 
said to resemble, but Rumph gives the derivation from 
Batr, an Arabic word signifying a lobe. 

KACHANG BULUH. 

Tephrosia Hookeriana W. and A. {Legu/innosae). 

KAOHANG BUNCHE. 

Kidne}" beans. Phcu^eolus vulgaris L. A black variety. 
Evidently derived from the Dutch word Boontje. 

KACHANG CHINA. 

Phaseoliis lunatus L. (Ler/uminosae). The cultivated hari- 
cot bean according to Favre, but in Singapore the peanut. 
(Arachis) is known by this name. 

KACHANG CHINA. K AC RANG GORENG. KACHANG 
TANAH. 

The pea-nut. Arachis hypogaea L. ( Leguniinosaej. 

KACHANG CHIN DAI. 

Phaseoliis Miiiiqo L. ( Leguminosae). A commonly cultivated 

bean with yellow fiowers and narrow usually hairy pods. 

There are a number of cultivated kinds with green, black 

or yellow seeds. 
Favre gives also Kachang Hijau, and Kachang Kechil 

for the variety rachatus, and KeDDI for the variety nia.v. 

KACHANG HANTU. 

Canavalia ensiformis Var. cirosa {Legiiniinosae). A large 
pink flowered bean g-rowing on trees by the sea. The 
beans are said to be poisonous. 

KACHANG HANTU DARAT. 

Crotalaria alata Hamilt. {Leguminosae). A herb with yellow 
flowers and winged stems. 

K ACHING J APUN. 

Soga hispida {Leguminosae). The soy bean. Favre gives 
this. I do not know of the plant as cultivated here. 
KACHANG JARIJI. 

Dolichos lab-lab. According to Favre. 



116 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KACHANG-KACHANOx. 

Ageloea vestita Wall. {Connaraceae). A large climbing- shrub 
with small pink flowers and red capsules. 

KACHANG KARKARAS. KARKARA. 

JJo/kho.<i lab-lab L. {Leguminosae). A common cultivated 
bean. Favre g-ives also Kachang Munyit. 

KACHANG KARKARA GATAL. 

Mucuna pruriens De C. (Ler/uiuinosae). The Cowhag-e. Ac- 
cording to Favre. 

KACHANG KAYU. 

Cajanus imlicus L. {Legiinmiome). The dall of India ; only 
cultivated here. 

KACHANG KAYU BETINA. 

Desmodium polycarpum De C. {Leguminosae). A small 
shrubby vetch with pink and purple flowers. 

KACHANG KAYU LAUT. 

Pongamia glabra Vent. {Leguimnosae). A shrub or small 
tree with pink flowers growing- near the sea. 

KACHANG KELOR. 

Moringa pterygospemiia Gaertn {Moringeae). The horse 
radish tree. 

KACHANG KOTA. 

Cassia occidentalis L. {Legiiminosae). A conniion weed with 
yellow flowers. 

KACHANG LAUT. (Pahang) 

Dioclea reflexa Hook fil. (Lrgw/nnosae). 

KACHANG MANILA. 

Voandzeia subterranea Thou. ( Legiiminosae). A yellow flower- 
ed bean which ripens its fruit under ground like the 
pea-nut. 

KACHANG MERAH. 

Vigna catiang Endl. ( Leguminosae). A red seeded variety. 

KACHANG PARANG. 

Canavalia ensifovDiis De C, (Leguminosae). A cultivated form 
with very large pods. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 117 

KACHANG PENDEK. 

The French bean. Phaseo/us vulgaris L. (Leguminosae), ac- 
cording- to Favre under the name Ph. conipressus. 

KACHANG PERUT AYAM ; KAGBANG PURU HA YAM, 

according- to Favre. Vigaa catiang L. {Legunnnosae). Lit. 
" hen's intestine bean," also known as 

KACHANG PANJaNG. 

Lit " long- bean," and 

KACHANG PUTIE. 

" VVhite bean." This latter name is also given to Peas 
Pisum sativum L. 

KACHANG PURAI, 

Toeuiochlaena GriffitJiii. Hook fil. fConitaraceae). 

KACHANG SERINDING. 

Lima beans. Phaseolus luna.tus L. 

KACHANG TOWCHEW. 

A black seeded variety of Vigna catiang. 
KACHANG SENKUANG. Also BENGKUAXG. 

Pachyvrhizus augulatus Rich, (Legunrinosae). The yam- 
bean, cultivated for its tuberous root. 
KACHANG TELANG. 

Clitoria Ternatea L. (Legumiuosae). 
KACHANG TDPAI. 

Pithecolobiuin fasciculatum Benth, {Legu/ninosae). See under 
JERING. 

KACHU. 

Areca catechu L. The betel nut {Paimae). The word is 
rarely used, Pinang being the common name. 

KACHUBONG. 

Datura mete/ L. and D. fafuosa L. (Solanaceae). Well 
known poisonous plants with white or purple flowers, 
the leaves of which are used as an anodyne for bruises 
and sprains. 
KACHUBONG. (Akar) 

Bgttneria Maingayi Mast. ( Sterculiaceae) . The prickly fruit 
resembles slightly that of Datura. 



118 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KACHUBONG PAYA. 

Gardenia tentaculata Hook fil. (Rubiaceae). 
KACHUBONG RIMBAH. 

Randia macvoplujlla Br. (Rubiaceae). So called on account 
of the resemblance of the flowers to those of Datura. 
K AD AM PANG. 

Sterculia parvijiora Roxb. (Sterculiaceae). A big" tree. 
KADANGA HUTAN HITAM. 

Myristica globularia Hook. fil. {Myristicaceae). 
KADAT. 

Cratoeva niacrocarpa King. (Capparideae). 

KADOK. Also KADAWAK and SIRIH KADOK. 

Long- pepper. Piper ioiu/um L. (Piperaceae). Favre gives 
Keduk. 

KADOK HUTAN. 

Piper stylosum Miq. {Piperaceae). A wild jungle pepper. 

KADENDONG. Also KONDONDONG and DONDONG. 

Various species of the genera Canarium santiria and Trigo- 
iwchlamys (Biirseraceae). All are fairly large trees. In 
Penang the name is applied to the cultivated hog-plum, 
Spondias inangifera Willd. 

KADONDONG BULAN. 

Canarium rufuni Benn. Also santiria laxa King. 

KADONDONG BULAN PUTIH. 

Santiria fasciculata Benn. 

KADONDONG KRUT. 

Canarium piJosum A. W. Benn. Also C. Kadondon A. W. 
Benn. 
KADONDONG KRUT MERAH. 

Canarium sp. 

KADONDONG MATA-HARL 

Canarium kadondon A. \V. Benn. Also Trigonochlaniys 
Oriffithii Hook fil. 

KODONDON HUTAN. 

Canarium nitidum A. W. Benn. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 119 

KADUDOK. KEDUDUK. 

Variant of Sendudok, which see. 

KADUDOK GAJAH. (Penang-). 

AUomorphia exifjua Bl. (Melastoi/iaceaeJ. 

KAHWAH. 

Coffee, Coffea liben'ca Hiern. {Rubiaceae.) This word is not 
used in Siug-apore and only rarely in the Peninsula. 

KAIT-KAIT. (Akar) 

The name of many chmbers with hook« (kait signifying- a 
hook); especially applied to the wild gamblers Uncaria spp. 
and Roucheria Griffithiaim Planch. 
KAIT-KAIT BUKIT. 

Uncaria f err ea De C. (Rabiaceae). 

KAIT-KAIT DARAT. (Malacca) 
Uncaria pteropoda Miq. 

KAIT-KAIT MERAH. 

Uncaria ferrea De C. 

KAIT PUTIH. (Akar) 

See Ipoh Akar Putih. Roiwheria Grijfithii Planch. {Linea). 

KAJU. 

The cashew-nut. A nacardinm occidental e L. (Anacardiaceae). 
Given by Favre, not often used. 
KAKABU. 

Trevesia Sundaica Miq. {Ara/iaceae) Shortened form of 
Kabu-Kabu. 

KAKARAS. 

No rrisia ma/ accensis. H.ook ^\. {Lo;/aniaceaeJ. Also Aquilaria 
inalaccensis Lam. see under Karas. 

KAKOP. (Akar) 

Dioscorea glabra Roxb. (Dioscoreaceae). 

KALAMBAK. 

The best kind of Gaharu Wood. 

KALAYO HITAM. 

Arytera littoralis Miq. {Sapindaceae). A tree with white 
flowers. 



120 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

KALUMBER. (Pahang-). 

Desmodiuiu polijcarpuin De C. {Lef/uniinosae). A small 
shrubby plant with purple Howers. 

KALAPA. 

Coconut, Cocos nucijera L. {Palmae). 

DaUN KALAPA. 

Barclay a motleyaiia. Hook. fil. {NympJieaceae). The jungle 
waterlily a plant with small round leaves and dull 
brownish pink and yellow flowers. 

KALAPA PUYUK. 

Curculigo sumatrana Roxb. (Hypoxideae). Jack is the 
authority for this name, which means quail's coconut, 
probably from the shape of the leaves resembling of a 
young" coconut, and from the quail's hiding beneath them. 

KALENTIL PADANG. 

Decasperma imniculatum Kurtz. (Myrtaceae). 

KALI A a TOAH. 

Ptychopyxis costata Miq. {Fyphorhiaceae). A medium-sized 
tree. 

KALINIA PAYA. 

Polygonum flacciduni Meissn. {Polygonaceae). A common 
weed in ditches. 

KALING LILIN. (Johor) 

Euhphia graminea Lindl. {Orchideae). A ground orchid 
with a panicle of small pink and green flowers. 

KALINTEK JAM UK. 

Arytera littoralis (Sapindaceae). 

KALONG. (Akar) 

Piper caninum L. (Piperaceae). A common wild pepper, 
probably from Kalung, a necklace, referring to the 
strings of fruit. 

KALONG ULAR. KALONG GAJAH. (Akar) 

Piper ribesioides Miq. (Piperaceae). A large climbing wild 
pepper used medecinally. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 121 

KAMAGAN ANTAN. (Pahang). 

Ventilar/o Moinfjw/i Laws. {Rhainnme). A climber with 
small green flowers. 

KAMAHANG (Akar). 

Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. (Dioscoi'eaceae). 

KAMANI BABI. 

DesmocUuni latifolinni Wall. ( Le[juinino:<ae). A shrubby 
weed with yellow flowers. 

KAMANJONG (Pahang-). 

Di/soxijlum ancjustifoliuiii King. (Afe/idceue). 

KAMARAHAN. 

Mljyisticd iaiirina Bl. {Mijri^licaceae). Compare ClIKIS'DEK- 
AHAN. 

KAMBAI HUTAN. 

Wormia ohloinja Wall. (Di/lemaceae). A tree with large 
golden-yellow flowers. 

KAMBlxVNG. Also KIAMBAN. 

Fisfia stratiofes L. The water lettuce (Aroidcae). A float- 
ing herb, often cultivated l>y the Chinese to feed pigs. 

K AM BONG LOBO. 

AbntUon indicnin L. xV shrubby weed with yellow flowers 
common in waste ground. 

KAMIPJ. 

Aleurites moluccaims L. The candle -nut. (Eiiphorbicweae). 
A name only used in trade. BUAH Keiias is more com- 
monly used here. Kaunri is probably a Moluccan word and 
is connected with Ampiri, a Buginese word for the plant. 

KAMPOR. 

Moesa rainentacea A De C. i^Mijrsineae). 

KAMPUNING. 

Variant of Mempuning see also Empening. Quercus h//stric 
Korth. (Cupoliferae). 

KAMOYAN. 

Erantheiituiii malavcense (Marke. (Accoiihaceae). A hand- 
some jungle shrub with violet flowers. 



122 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KAMUNING. 

Murrwja exotica L. (Rutaceae). A small tree, the wood of 
which is used for the sheaths and handles of krises. 

KAMUNING JANTAN HUTAN. 

Cavthium confertum Korth. {Ruhiaceae). A small tree. 

KAMUNING BATU. 

Decaspermum paniculatam Kurz. (Myrtaceae). 

KAMUNTING. 

The Rose-Myrtle. Rhodoniyrtus fomentosa Bl. (Myrtaceae). 
A common shrub on the sea-shore with pink or white 
flowers and purpHsh eatable fruits. 

KAMUNTING (Akarj. KAMUNTING BUKIT. 

Anplectrum divaricatuni Triana. [M eJastomaceae). 

KANANGA. see Kenanga. 

KANCHIL (Kayu) 

Anisophyllea disticha Hook. fil. (Rhizophoreae). The Kanchil 
is a small mouse deer, {Tragulus kanchil). The plant is 
a common shrub with elegant foliage. 

KANCHING BAJU. (RumputJ 

Tridax procumhens L. {Compositae). Literally coat buttons. 
A small daisy-like weed growing in sandy spots. 

KANCHING BAJU JANTAN. (Rumput) 

Kyllinr/a brevifolia Rottb. (Cyperaceae). A small sedge with 
thefiowers clustered in a little green head, common in 
grassy spots. 
KANCHONG KERAH. (Selangor) 

Nepenthes gracilis Korth. (Nepenthaceae). The small pitcher 
plant, often called Pbiok Kerah. 

KANDIS. 

Garcinia nigrolineata Planch. {Guttiferae). A tree with an 
eatable fruit. 

KANDIS GAJAH. 

Garcinia Andersoni Hook. fil. An allied plant with much 
larger leaves and acid fruit resembling an apple in size 
and form. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 123 

KANDURI BATANG. 

Adenanthera paroniua \j. {Leguminosae). A common tree with 

scarlet flattened seeds. 
KANG KACHANG. 

Contraction for Kachang-Kachang. Ageloea vestita Wall 

(Connaraceae). 

KANKANG KATOK. (Selangor) 

Bauhinia inteyrifolia Koxb. (Leguminosae). A larg-e climber 
with great masses of red dowers. 

KANGKONG. 

Tpomea aqnatica Foist. (Convolvulaceae). A white or pink 
lloweied convolvulus cultivated and commonly used as a 
spinach. 

KANGKONG AYEK. ^ 

FiOscopa sccuidetis' Lour. (Commelinaceae). A marsh plant 
with close panicles of pinkish flowers. 

KANGKONG BUKIT. 

Ipomea pe/tata Miq. (Convolvalaceae). A very larg^e climber 
with beautiful yellow^owers. 

KANGKONG GAJAH. (Akar) 

Vitis lanceolaiia Roxb. {Ampe/ideae). 

KANGKONG LAUT. 

Ipomea digitata L. (Convolvalaceae). A large pink flowered 
convolvulus with digitate leaves. 

KANGKONG PASIR. 

Ipomea angvfififo/ia Jacq. (Conro/vu.'aceae). A small yellow 
convolvulus with a purple eye. 

KANKA BONA. 

PhgUitnthus putcJier Wall. {Eiiphorbiaceae). A low shrub. 
KANRIAN. 

Premna corn inborn Roth. {Verhenareae). A large climbing 
shrub with small white Howers. 
KANTAN. 

Nicolaia iinperiah's Horan. (Scitainineae). A large wild ginger 
with cone-shaped heads of pink and white flowers and 
bracts. The buds are used in curries. 



l24 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KANT AN HUT AN. 

Alpiiiia inrolucrata Griff. {Scifamineae). 

KAPALA BERUK. 

Hydnophytuiii formicarium Jack. {Rubiaceae). The Ant- 
plant; literally Ape's head. A curious epiphyte, the stem 
of which swollen into a tuber is channelled and forms a 
nest for ants. 

K A PANG. (Akar) 

Linostoina sccuidens Griff. (Thymeleaceae). A long slender 
shrubby climber with greenish white tubular flowers. 
KAPAS. 

Cotton. The various cultivated forms chiefly, Gossi/pium herha- 
reuin L. ( Mai raven e). The word is derived from the 
Sanskrit Karpasa. Favre gives Kapas TaIjN, Kapas 
HUMA, Kapas Muri, as names for various forms of G. 
herhaceum L.; KapaS BengGALA, G. herhaceuni, var riti- 
folium Kapas Besah for G. arboren/n L. 

KAPAS-KAPAS. (Malacca) 

Hibiscus floccosus Mast. {Malvaceae). A big tree Hibiscus, 
the fibre of which is used as bast. 

KAPAS HANTU also KAPAS HUTAN. 

Hibiscus abelmoschus L. {Malvaceae) The seeds are ground 
and used as a powder for the face. A common weedin vil- 
lages, the flowers are large and yellow with a marooneye. 

KAPAS (Buah). 

Xanthophij/luiii obscurum Benn. [Po'i/r/a/nceae). A tree with 
large globular brown fruits. 

KAPAS BULAN. 

Xanthophyllum rufum King. fPo'ygalaceae). . 

KAPAYUNG Also PAYUNG. 

Paiujiain edtile Miq. {Bixineae). A tree from the seeds of 
which oil is made. 

KAPAYUNG. (Akar) (Pahang) 

Hodfjsonia heleroclita Hook. fil. (Cucurbilaceae). A large 
woody gTOuud with big seeds like those of the PoKO 
KapaYUKG. ( Pauyiuiii ediile, Bl.J from which oil is made. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 125 

KAPAYUNG AYER. 

Gardenia tentaculata Hook. fil. ( Ihilnaceae). A shrub witli 
green flowers spotted with red. 

KAPAYUNG IPAS. 

Gardenia tuhifera Wall. (Ruhiaceae.J 

KAPIALU. (Akar) 

Grewia uiubellata lloxh. {Tiliaceae). 

KAPIALU PAJAN. (Malacca) 

Fittosporu7n ferrugineiim Ait. fPiftosporeaeJ. 

K A PONG, see Kepong. 

KAPOK. 

Eriodendroii aiifractuosiim Dec. ( AfalraceaeJ. The cotton 
tree. Thi-s iji I believe Javanese, but is sometimes used 
here, though Kabok is more common in use. Filet gives 
Kaboh as Javanese and Malay. 

KAPOK. (Akar) 

Acacia intsia Willd. (Ler/unnnome). A climbing- shrubby 
plant. 

KAPO-KAPO. (Malacca) 

Allomorphia Grijithii Hook. fil. (Mektslomaceae). 

KAPUR. 

Camphor. 

KAPUR BARUS. 

Sumatran camphor. Drijohalanopa aromatica Gaertn. (Dip- 
terocarpeaej from Barus a place in Sumatra. 

KAPUR TOHORL 

Japan camphor. The product of Cinnamomnm campliora L. 
(Lauraceae). 

KARANCHONG. (Pahang) 

Bryophylluni calycinum Salisb. (Crassulaceae). A large fleshy 
leaved herb common on the coast. 

KARANG. (Bunga) 

Pentella repens ¥ov?>t. {Rvbiaceoe). Lit. coral flower. An in- 
conspicuous little weed with white flowers. 



126 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KARAS. KARAS GAHARU. KAKARAS. 

See also Tui Karas. The lign aloes, or Gabaru Wood. 
Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. {Thyuieleaceae). 

KAREH HITAM. 

Linostoma scandens Griff. (Th(j?neleaceae). 

KASAI. 

Aporosa Benthamiaim Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). A small 

tree. 
Also more commonly Pometia pinnata {Sapindaceaej. A 

large tree common on river banks. The timber is good 

but rarely straight. 
KASAP. 

Clerodendron viUosum 131. (Verhenaceae). A rough (kasap) 

hairy shrub with white flowers common in waste ground. 
See also Buluh Kasap. 

KASASUS. 

The cashew nut. Anacardiwn occidental e L. (Aimcardiaceae). 

KASI. (Johore) 

Gomphia Hookeri Planch. (Ochnaceae). A small tree with 
deep claret-coloured flowers. 

KASIDANG. (Malacca) 

Cancmgium Scortechinii King. (Anonacecte). A tree. 

KASIHHUTAN. 

Moesa Indica L. (Myrsineae). 

KASIP BUKIT. 

Aglaia cordaia Hiern. (Mehciceae). 

KASIP HUTAN. 

Dysoxylon macrothyrsnni King. (Meliaceae). 

KASIR. 

Trigonorhlanuis Griffithii Hook fil. (Biirseraceae). 

KASTURl. 

Mu^k. See BuNGA Kas'I'URT. 

KASTURl HUTAN. 

Gonq)handra lanceolata King. (Okicineae). Lit. wood-musk. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 127 

KASUM. 

Polygonum flacviduni Meissn. {Pohjgonaceae). See KalIMA 
Paya. 

KASUMBA. 

The Arnotto. Biia ore/ /ana L. (Bixineae). Also Epipvmus 
Malayanus Griff. (Euphorbiaceae). 

KASUMBA or KASAMBEE. 

Canarium secundum Benn. (Burseraceae), Also Antidesnia 
Ghaesembi/la L. (Euphorbiaceae). (Maing-ay's list). 

KASUMBA BUKIT. 

Trichospermum Kurzii King. (Ti/iaceae). So called from 
the resemblance of the pods to those of Arnotto. 

KASUMBA JANTAN. 

Ostodes macrophy//us Benth. ( Euphorbiaceae). 

KATAH HUDANG. KATAWA HUDANG. (in Maing-ay's list) 
Buchanania acuminata Turcz. (Anacardiaceae). See Otak 
HUDANG. 
KATA BILEH. 

Castanopsis hystrix A. De C. {Cupu/iferae). A large wild 
chestnut. 

KATAH. 

Desmodium latifo/ium U'^all. [Legunrinosae). 

KATGHAM. (Johore) 

Eugenia lineata Bl. {Myrtaceae). A common tree more 
often known as Kelat. 

KATIAK. 

Acronychia Porteri Wall. {Rutaceae). 

KATIMBONG. (Kedah) 

Sa/acia J/auescens Kurz. {Rhmnneae). A large shrub with 
small yellowish flowers and globose orange fruits. 
KATOMINON. (Penang) 

Trichosanthes cordata Roxb. {Cucurbitaceae). Probably a 
variant of TiMUN, which see 

KATONG. 

Cynomelra polyandra Roxb. (Leguininoaae). 



128 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

KATU (Kayu). 

Ostodes macrophyllus Benth. (Euphorbiaceae). 
KATUMBAR. 

Desmodium pohjcarpum De C. (Leguminosae). Also Corian- 
drum sativunf. The coriander seed. ( U mhellifevae). 
KATUMBAR HUTAN. (Malacca) 

Sida carpinifolia L, {Malvaceae). A common little shrub 
with buff flowers, growing in waste ground. 

KATUMBET. 

Leucas zeylanica Br. (Lahiatae). X common white flowered 
herb used in skin diseases by the Malays. 

KATUMBET JANTAN. 

Emilia sonchifolia De C. (Compositae). A kind of groundsel 
with pink flowers. 

KATUMBET PADANG. 

Blainvillea latifolia De C. {Compositae). A common little 
weed. 

KATUP-KATUP. 

Bauhinia bidentata Jack. {Legiiniitiosae). A handsome climb- 
ing shrub with orange flowers. 

KAYAP (Akar). (Selangor) 

Acacia intsia AVilld. {Leguminosae). A climbing thorny 
shrub. 

KAYTENG. 

Myrica Nagi L. {Myricaceae). A sea-shore tree. 

KAYU. 

Wood. 

KAYU MANIS. 

Cinnamon. Cinnamonium zeylanicum h. {Laurineae). The 
name is also used for the wild cinnamon, C. iners Bl. 

KAYU MANIS (Akar), 

Acacia pinnata Willd. {Leguminosae). 

KAYU PUTIH. 

The Cajeput oil tree. Mela'euca leucadendron L. {Myrtaceae). 
This word has been perverted through the Dutch spelling 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 129 

Katjoe POETIH, into Cajeput. It merely means white 
wood. It is given by Favre as Malay, but the plant is 
always called Gelam here. 

KECHAPL 

SandoriciLin radiatuni King-. {Meliaceae). A fruit tree occur- 
ring" wild and in cultivation. The fruit much resembles 
the allied Sentol, S. iadicuni. 

KECHAPI HUT AN. 

Sandoricuni dasynearoii Bail I. {Meliaceae). 

KEDANGSA. 

The pumelo {Citrus decumanus) according to Favre. 

LIMAU KEDANGSA. 

A cultivated form of the lime, Citrus acida Roxb. (Rutaceae). 

KEDAVVANG. Also KERAYAN(^ and GUDAVVANG. 

Far/da Roxburf/hii {Lef/iuninosae). A big" tree with feathery 
foliage and large woody pods the seeds of which are used 
as peppermint by the Natives in cases of stomach ache. 

KEDELI. 

Fhaseoliis uiuiigo L. See under Kachang. 

KEDUDUK. 

More commonly SenduduIv, which see. Melastoma poUj an 
thum Bl. and other species. {Me/astomaceae). 

KELABU. 

Webera mollis Wall. {Rahiactae). " The grey plant.'' A 
shrub with white flowers the leaves of which are softly 
hairy and give it a g^ieyish appearance from which per 
haps it takes its name. 

KELADEK INGAN. 

Vitis cinnamoniea Wall. {Ainpelideae). A common wild vine. 

KELADEK TANA. 

Vitis gracilis Wall. (Ampelideae). 

KELADI RIMAU. KELADI ULAR. 

Alocnsia longi.'oba Miq. {Aroideae). " Tiger or snake cala- 
dium," so called from the mottled leaf stalk. A common 
wild aroid. 



130 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KELADI PARI. 

Ciirtosperma lasioides Griff. (Aroideae). A thorny stem- 
med aroid gTOwiiig- in swamps. Also called Gli-Gli. 
KELADI MOYIANG. 

Homalomeiui coerulescens Jungb. This is often contracted to 
Kelamoyiang and this to Kemoyang. 

KELADI SEBARING. 

Alocasia macrorrhiza Schott. (Aroideae) A very large 
aroid very commonly cultivated for its eatable stem. 
KELADI TELOR. 

Colocasia antiqnorum L. {Aroideaa). The common small 
keladi cultivated everywhere. 

Keladi China, Keladi Hudang are other cultivated 
forms. 

KELAMA HIJAU. 

A I ten) anther a sem/is Br. {Anmrantaceae). 

KELAMOYIANG. Also KEMOYANG. 

Iloinaloineiia coerulescens Jungh. //. rostrata Griff, and other 
species {Aroideae). Common plants in wet jungle. This 
word appears to be a contraction for Keladi MOYIANG 
signifying ancestral keladi. 

KELAMOYIANG. (Rumput) 

Alphiia conchigera Griff. {Scitaimneae). A grassy leaved 
ginger more commonly known as Lx\NKUA« RANTING. 

KELAMOYIANG. (Akar) 

RaphidopJiora minor Hook. hi. {Aroideae).K climbing aroid 
growing upon trees. 

KELAMOYIANG PADI. 

Chamaec/adon GriJfitJdi Schott. (Aroideae). A small aroid 
growing on banks in jungle. 

KELANTINC;. (Bunga) 

Eurija acuminata De C. {Ternstroendaceae). A common little 
tree in secondary jungle. 

KELAT. 

X name applied to many species of Eugenia of the sec- 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 131 

tion Sijzygmm and other trees somewhat reseinbling" 
them. {M ijrtaceae) 

KELAT AMPEDU JAWA. 

Goinphia Sumatrana Jack. {Oc/iuaceae). A medium-sized 
tree with yellow flowers. 

KELAT API. 

Eugenia filiformis AVall L. E. acuminalisshna Kurz. 

KELAT ASAM. 

Eugenia decussata and E. acuminatissima Kurz. Also Gor- 
(lonia excelsa Bl. {Ternsfroemiaceae). (Malacca) 

KELAT BESAR. 

Eugenia ])€n(lens Duthie. A straggling- tree with large 
white flowers growing in densely wooded ravines. 
KELAT BELIAN. 

Eugenia jUij or miR Wall. Ej. acnminatisfiima Kurz. and E. ftvh- 
decussafa Wall. 
KELAT BIRU. 

Ptervandra coeru/escens Jack. (Melasfomaceae). A medium- 
sized tree with small blue flowers. 
KELAT BISING. 

Eugenia Grijitlui Duthie. 

KELAT BURONG. 

Eugenia macrocarpa Roxb. 

KELAT HITAM. 

Ctenolophon parvifoHvs 0\\\. (0/acineae). A large tree. 
KELAT JAMBU. 

Eugenia macrocarpa Roxb. 

KELAT JAMBU AYER. 

Eugenia venulosa Wall. 

KELAT JANTAN. 

Eugenia cymosa Lam. 

KELAT JULONG PUTIH. 

Aphania paucijnga King {Sapindaceae). 

KELAT KOBU. 

Eugenia subdecvssafa Wall. 



132 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KELAT LAPIS. 

Eugenia filiformis Wall, also E. acnmwatissima Kurz. E. 
Hneata Bl. and E. jv/rifoh'a Wall. 

KELAT LAYU HUTAN. 

Parwarium. nitidum Hook. fil. {Hosaceae). A medium sized 
tree the small fruits of which are eaten. 

KELAT LAYU LAUT. (Singapore) 

Erioglosswn ednle Bl. {Sapindaceae). Also called Kelat 
Jantan. a medium sized tree with very small eatable 
fruits. It is called Mertajam in many places. 

KELAT MENAUN. Also SIAL MENAUN. 

Kihessia simplex Korth. {Melastomaceae^. A small useless 
tree with blue flowers. 

KELAT MERAH. 

Eugenia lineafa Bl. and E, pyrifolia Wall. 

KELAT PASIR. 

Parastemon urophijllum A. De C. (Rosaceae). A g"ood sized 
tree growing- in sandy spots. 

KELAT PAY A. 

Decaspermuni panicu/afwn Kurz. {Myrtaceae). 

KELAT PENAGA. 

Eugenia cymosa Lam. 

KELAT PUTIH. 

Eugenia Jineata Bl. and E. pyrifolia Wall. 

KELAT PUTIH BUKIT. ' 

Eugenia densiflora De C. 

KELAT PUTRA. 

Eugenia venulosa Wall. 

KELAT TANDOK. 

Ixora jmrviflora Vahl. (Pnbiaceae). 

KELAT TULANG. 

Aphania paucijuga King. [Sapindaceae). 

KELAPIT NYAMOK. (Singapore). 

Decaspernmm paniculatum. Kurz., also Eugenia lineafa Bl. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 133 

KELAWAT. 

Torenia peduncularis Benth. (Scrophulanneae). A small herb 
with conspicuous blue flowers growing in swampy fields. 
KELEBOK. (Selangor). 

Ficus RoxburgJm Wall. (Urftcaceae). A large fig tree, with 
clusters of big figs on the stem. 
KELEDANG. 

Artocarpus lanceaefolia Roxb. ( Urtieaceae) . A large tree, 
which supplies one of the first class timbers. 
KELEDANCx BERUK. 

Artocarpus Lakoocha Uoxh. {Urtieaceae). 
KELEMBAI. (Malacca) 

Craetaeva macrocarpa King. {Capparideae). 

KELEMBANANG. (Selangor) 

Alocasiasp. (Aroideae). A wild species with rounded leaves 
probably undescribed. 

KELEMOYIANG AYER. (Selangor) 

Tacca cristata Jack. (Taccaceae). The leaves somewhat re- 
semble those of some of the Homalomenas. 

KELEMPADANG. 

Vaccinium malaccense Wight. ( Vacciniaceae). A shrub with 
sweet scented pink flowers and black eatable berries, 
KELEMPENING. (Lankawi) 

Quercus Kunstleri King. (Cupuliferae). An oak-tree. The 
word is an variant of Erapening and Mempening. 
KELEMPETI. (Malacca) 

Aporosa Benthannana Hook fil. (Eii.plwrbiaceae). 
KELUMPAYANG. (Akar) 

Scindapsus sp. (Aroideae) 
KELIMPAYAN. 

Anthocephalufi cadamba Miq. (Rubiaceae). 
KELIPOH. 

The water lily. Nymphoea stellata Wild. {Njimpheaceae). 
KELIPOH PADANG. 

Lophiocarpys gnijanensis Rich. (Alismaceae). An aquatic plant 
growing in rice fields, with round leaves and white flowers. 



134 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KELOMPANG KRAS. (Kedah) 

Buchanania hicida Turcz. {Anacardiaceae). 

KELUMPUNG MATA PUNAI. 

Ficus charfacea Wall. ( Urticaceae). 

KELUMPUNG. K. GAJAH. K. BUKIT. 

Ficus Mi(juehi King. {Urticaceae). The word Kelumpuiig' 
signifies a mass and probably refers to the mass of figs 
borne on the branches of the tree. 
KELUMPUNG BUPvONG. K. JANTAN. K. AYER. 
Ficus alba Reinw. ( Urtiacceae). 

KELUMPUNG AGAS. 

Ficus suhulata Bl. 
KELUPOS (Akar). 

hettsomia Maingayi Clarke. {Convolvulaceae) . 

KELURAT. (Rumput) 

Lophatherum gracile (Gramineae). 

KELESU PINANG. 

P eric amp (I his incanns Miers. {Menispcrmaceae). 

KELILAYAN PUTIH. 

Ciipania pallidula Hiern. (Sapindaceae). 

KELINGKING. 

NepheHwn Litchi Carab. {Sapindaceae). Favre is the autho- 
rity for this name. The tree never fruits here, but the 
fruit is imported from China. 

KELINTAT NYAMOK. Also KELINTAT KRING. 

Decasperrimm pajiiculafuui Kiiiz. {Myrtaceae). 

KELINTAT KRA. (Akar) 

Kourea rugosa Benth. {Coiiuaraceae). 

KELOR. Also KELU. 

Morincja pterygosperma Gaertn. {Moringeae). The horse- 
radish tree. See also KrLUh. 

KELULUT MERAH. 

Cyathda prostrata V>\. {A marantaceae). 

KELULUT PUTIH. (Malacca) 

Sida cordifolia L. {Malvaceae). The Kelulut is a small bee 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 135 

( Triyona) which may often be seen at the flowers. 
The plant is a common Httle shrub with buff flowers. 

KELULUT. (Poko) 

Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae^. A common little shrub with 
pink flowers. Commonly known as PekI'ULUT. 
KELULUT GAJAH. 

Artanema sesamoides Wall. (Scrophitlarineae.) 

KELULUT. (Rumput) 

Fuirena glomerata {Ci/peraceae). 

KELUNTING. 

Sterculia rubiqinosa Vent. (Sterculiaceae). 
KEMANGA. 

Maiuiifera kemaiuja Bl. {Anacardiaceae). A very large tree 

KEMBANG BAXGKEL 

Ainorphophalliis ranabilis Bl. (Aroideae). This is given by 
Clifford and Swettenham as Malay, by Filet as Malay and 
Sundanese, but the plant has not yet been found in the 
Malay Peninsula. It is a native of Java. 

KEMBAN(r SAMANGKO. 

Sterculia ■^■caphifera Wall. {Sttvculiactac). The name means 
that which Alls x cup, alluding to the peculiar property 
of the seeds which if placed in a cup of water appear to 
swell so as to lill a small cup. The outer coat of these 
seed contains much uuicilage. which swells in water so as 
to form a large soft gummy mass, which is supposed to be 
very wholesome to eat. The plant is an enormous tree. 

KEMBAJA. 

Pbimiera acutijolia [Apu'/naceae). The Fraugipanni, Favre 
gives this as Malay. 

KEMINGU. 

Ccdolropi^ gujaiitca, {Asclcpiadtae). 
KEMINIYAN. Also KUMIAX. KAMIXAN and KUMEYAX. 

Gum benjamin. Stijra.r benzoin L. {Stijraccae}. A medium 
sized tall tree with sweet scented white flowers. The 
gum is obtained by cutting the bark, whence after 
some days it exudes. 



136 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KEMINIYAN PAYA. (Akai) 

Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth. (Dioscoreaceae) 

KEMINIYAN HANTU. 

Hedyotis capitellafa Wall. [Rubiaceae). A climbing plant. 
Also Dioscorea oppositifolia L. (^Dioscoreaceae), 

KEMPAS. 

Cumpassia inalaccensis Maingay (Lef/uminosae). A vast tree, 
with very hard wood which is only used for charcoal. 

KEMPAS ROMAN. 

Santiria Griffithii (Burseraceae). 
KEMUNTING. ' 

Jihodomyrtiis tomentosa. {Myrtaceae), 

KENANGA. Also KANANGA. 

Cananr/a odorata L. {Anonaceae). A tree with scented green 
flowers used for making perfume. 

kenanga hutan. 

Poiyalthia Scortechinii King {Anonaceae). A tree the 
flowers of which resemble those of the Cananga very 
closely. 

KENANGA HUTAN (Akar). 

Unona discolor Vahl. {Anonaceae). 

KENANGA PAYA. 

Vnona longiflora Roxb, {Anonaceae). A shrub. 

KENARI. 

Canariuni comnmne L. (Burseraceae). Filet gives Kanarie 
as Malay and Sundanese. The plant is hardly known 
here not being indigenous. 

KENARI WOLANDA. 

The Almond {Amygdalus persica) {Flosaceae). This is given 
by Filet and others as a Malay word. I have never met 
with it. 

KENCHING KAMBING. 

Jasminum smilacifoliiun {Oleaceae). A rather rare wild 
Jasmine. The name means goat's urine. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 137 

KENCHING KERBAU. (Akar) 

Fihraurea chloroleuca Miers. {Menisperniaceae). Lit. Buffalo- 
urine. Probably from its yellow juice. It is often called 
Akak Kuning. The plant is a common woody climber 
formerly used to supply a yellow dye. 

KENCHING PELANDOK. 

Apostasia nuda Wall. (Apostasiaceae). A small plant with 
white Howers. 

KENCHONG. 

Ellipeia nervosa Hook. til. (Anojiaceae). A tree. 

KENCHONG. (Akar) 

Melodoriun Manubriatu//t Hook. fil. {A)ionaceae), A large 
woody climber. 

KENCHONG JOHU. (Akar) 

Unona duniosa Koxb. (Aiwnaceae). 

KENIDEI. KENIDEI JANTAN. 

Bridelia tomentosa Bl. (Eaphorbiavcae). Also more rarely 
NlDEL A shrub or small tree. 

KENIDEI BADAK. 

MicrodesNiis caseanae folia Planch. {Eaphovhiaceae). 
KENIDEI BABI. 

Bridelia stipularis Hook til. {Eu.p/iorbiaceaej. 

KENIDEI BUKIT. 

Glochidion sericeam Hook. til. (Euphorbiaceae). 

KENIDEI HUTAN. K. GAJAII. 

Bridelia pustulata Hook. til. {Euphorbiaceae). 

KENIDEI PAYA. 

Glochidion brunneiun Hook. til. (Euphorbiaceae). 

KENIDEI PUNAI. 

Antidesma cuspidatuiii Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 
KENIKAH BATU. 

Hedijotis Auricidaria L. {Rubiaceae), 

KENTaNG. 

The potato. Solaauin tuberuauni L. (Solanaceae). 



138 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KEP. 

Melodorum fulgens Hook. fil. {Anonaceae). A climber. 

KEPAS. Also KIPAS. 

Philijdrum lanuginosuin Br. (Pldbjdraceae). An aquatic plant 
with tall spikes of yellow flowers. 

KEPAU. (Selang:or) 

Livistona Kingii Hook. fil. (Pahnae). A very fine large 
fan palm. 

KEPINO. (Akar) (Johor) 

Luvunr/a scandens BiSim, (Rufaceae). A strong climber with 
white orange blossoms. 

KEPONG, KEPONG HUTAN. KEPONG HANTU. 

Shorea macroptera Dyer. (Dipterocarpeae). Bark used for 
making houses. 

KERAKAP AYER. 

Sonerila heterostemon Naud. { M elastomaceae). A herb with 
pink flowers and green leaves spotted with white. 

KERAK RIMBAH. 

Ehermaiera aiu/usti folia T. Anders. (Acanthaceae). A little 
herb with white flowers growing in rocky ravines. 

KERAK-KERAK PAYA. 

Alternanthera sessilis Br. ( Amaraiithaceae.) 

KERAK NASI. 

Vandellia Crustacea Benth. {Scrophularineae), Literally 
the rice which remains at the bottom of the pot. 

KERAK-NASI PUTIH. 

Limnophila villosa Benth. {Scrophularineae). 

KERAK-KERAK JANTAN MERAH. 

Boniiaya veronicaefolia Spr. {Scrophularineae.) 

KERAK MERAH. 

Torenia polygonoides Benth. {Scrophularineae.) 

KERANDANG. 

Carissa Kerandas L. {Apoctjnaceae). A shrub with white 
flowers and dark red berries cultivated for its fruit. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 139 

KERANJI rAkar). 

Hydnocarpus Sp- (Birineae.) 
KERANJI SEKALAT. rMalacca;. Also 

KERANJI TEMBAGA. (Selang-or; 

Dialium plat ij sepal urn Baker. {Leguniinosae,) 

KERANJI UMBUT. 

Dialium patens Baker (Legmninosae.) 

KERANJI BURONG. 

Dialium Maingayi Baker. {Leguminosae.) 

KERANJI PAPAN. 

Dialium laurinum Baker and D. platysepalum Baker. (Legu- 
minosae.) 
KERANTEI. Also KERATEI. KERANTEI MERAH. 

Santiria loevigata Bl. (Burseraceae.) Also S. multiflora 
A. W. Benn. 

KERANTEI BATU. 

Santiria apiculata A. W. Benn. (Burseraceae.) 

KERANTU. 

Mifristica laurina Bl. (Myristicaceae.) 

KERTAK HUDANG. 

Tetractomia laurifolia Bl. (Rutaceae.) Lit. prawn's spines. 

KERAS. (Buah) 

Aleurites viohiccanus Willd. (Euphorbiaceae.) The candle 
nut. See also Kamiei. 

KERAT TELAMPOK also KERAT TULUNJOK. 
Canarium rujum. A. W. Benn. {Burseraceae). 

KERAYONG. (Selangor) 

Parkia Roxburghii Don. (Leguminosae). 

KERBAU JALANG. (Selangor) 

Gluta sp. (Anacardiaceae). One of the Rengas trees. A 
large tree with fruit like a betel nut but green. I have 
seen neither fruit nor flowers. The name, meaning Buf- 
falo on the loose, seems to be a humorous one given on 
account of the poisonous properties of the tree. 



140 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KERBAU DRAPAH. rRumput) 

Desmodium polycarpum De C. (Ler/wninosae.) 

KERCHUT. (Ruraput) 

Scirpus mucronatus L. {Cyperaceae). A common sedge in wet 
places. The stems are used for making mats. 
KERUBUT. 

Rafflesia Arnoldi Br. ( Raffle siaeeae). Compare KURUBUT 
Thottea grandiflora. 

KERUBUT PAYA. 

Piper muricatum Miq. ( Piper aceaej. 

KERUKAP RIMAU. (Malacca) 

Allomorphia exigua Blume. (MeJaf^iomaceae). 

KERUING also KORING. 

Wood oil. Applied to the product and the tree. 

MINYAK KERUING. 

Dipterocarpus cornutna Dyer and D. Ha^.^elfii (Diplerocarpeae) 

KERUING CIIAIA. 

Dipterocarpus Kerrii King. (Dipterocarpeae). 

KERUING BULUH. (Minyak) 

Dipterocarpus crinitiis Dyer. (Dipterocarpeae). 

KERUING DADEK. Also KERUING BUKU. 

Dipterocarpus pteri/goca/yx Scheff. (Dipterocarpeae). 
KERUKOH BATU. 

Hedyotis auricnlaria L. ( Ruhiaceae). 
KETAPANG. 

Terminalia Catappa L. (Comhretaceae). The Indian almond. 

KETOLA or PETOLA. 

Various pumpkins. 
KETOLA HUTAN. ^Akar). 

AristolocJua Roxhurghiaiia Bl. (Aristo/ochiaceae). 

KETOLA MANIS. 

Lufa cyliiidnca Roem ( Cucurhitaceae). A cultivated gourd. 
KETOLA ULAR. 

Trichosantlies anguina L. {Cucurhitaceae). The Serpent 
gourd. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 141 

KIAMBAN. KIYAMBANG (Favre). Also KAMBIANG. 
The water lettuce. Pi^tia stratiotes L. (Aroideae). An aquatic 
plant often cultivated by the Chinese to feed the pig's. 

KIANDONG. 

Evodia Roxhurcjhiana Benth. (Rutaceae). A common shrub 
in open country. 

KICHER-KICHER. 

Myrsine capitellata Wall. {Mi/rsineae). A shrub with very 
small flowers and white drupes. 
KICHIE. 

Cryptocarya inqyressa Miq. { Laurineae) . X tree. 

KILICHI. (Akar) 

Guilandina honduc L. {Lequminosae). A very thorny creep- 
er with yellow flowers forming bushes on the sea coavSt. 

KILICHI RIMBAH. (Akar) 

Mezoneurum su/uatranu/n W. and A. (Legiminosae). A 
thorny climber with spikes of flame coloured flowers. 

KIPAS. 

Philydrum lanvginosum (Phi/.ydraceaeJ. This word means 
a fan or fanned, probably alluding to the waving- about 
of the plant in the wind. It is an aquatic plant with 
yellow flowers. 

See Also Rot an Kip as. 

KIRAI. rAkar) 

Hiptage sericea Hook. fil. {Malpighiaceae). 

KiSAR. (Bunga) (Malacca) 

Ahutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae). " Wheel flower." Per- 
haps in allusion to the circular flowers or the shape of 
the fruit. 

KISI-KISI. rSelangor; 

Justicia Gendarussa L. {AcanfhaceaeJ. More commonly 
known as Gendarvsa. 

KIJAI. 

Mangifera Sp. (Anacardiaceae) Trigonochlamys Griffithii 
Hook fil. ( Burseraceae) Produces an expensive Dam- 
mar (Maing"ay's list.) 



142 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KIJIL. (Sakai of Selaug-or). 

Smilax Helferi A. D. C. {Liliaceae). See Ban A. 

KLANA. (Akar) 

DiosGorea oppositifolia Linn. (Dioscoreaceae) 

KLASAK. 

Iguanura poli/morpha Hecc. (PaJmae). A small palm. 

KLUET. 

Sterculia campanulata AYall. (Sterculiaceae). 
KLUNA. 

Smilax megacarpa. (Liliaceae). A climber with larg"e ^reen 
berries. 

KOGUEL. 

Diospyros hicida Hiern. (Ebenaceae). Also Kayu AraNG. 

KOMBEL. (Malacca). 

Dijsoxfjlon macrothyrsum Miq. {Meliaceae). 

KONDONDONG. Also Kadondong, which see, and DONDONG 
Canarium Spp. 

KOPIE. 

Coffee. Cofea liber ica Hiern. and C. arahica L. The com- 
monly used word in towns where Kahwah, the Arabic 
one, is not known. 

KOPING AYER. (Johore) 

Gardenia tiibifera Hook. fil. (RtibiaceaeJ. 

KORMA. 

Phoenix jtaludosa. (Pahnae). The wild date palm growing- 
in muddy tidal swamps. 

KORNUM. 

Glochidion hirsutum Muell. {Euphorbiaceae.) 

KOWOH. (Rumput) 

Polygonum pedunculare (Polygonaceae). A small plant with 
heads of pink flowers, growing in ditches. 

KOYAH. (Akar) Also KUAYA. 

Millettia eriantha Benth. (Leguminosae). A lofty climber with 
purple flowers covered in part with a golden pubescence. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 143 

KOYAH ASAM. (Akar) 

Vitis sp. (Ampelideae) . Also called Akae Chabang Tujok. 

KRABU. 

Xanthop]vjlluni rufum Benn. (Polf/ga/aceae). Maing-ay's list. 
Lophopetalum fimbriatiuu Wight. (Celastrineae) in Singa- 
pore. A gigantic tree. 

KRAMAT HUJAN. 

Ixora fulgens ( Rubiaceae). The large orange Ixora com- 
mon in jungles. 

KREAN BATU. (Penang) 

Eugenia grandis Wight. {Mgrtaceae). A large tree. See 
JAMBU AYER LAUT. 

KREAN LAD A. 

Eugenia hrachiata Roxb. 
KROIE. 

Lophopetalu/n pallidu/n La,ws. {Celastrineae) This was given 
to me by Professor Vaughan-Stevens who says the plant 
is poisonous. 

KUAYAH. (Akar) 

Millettia eriantha Benth. (Leguminosae). Also KOYAH. 

KUBANGAN. 

Ficus annulata BI. ( Urticaceae). 

KUBIN. (Malacca) Also KUBANG. 

Macaranga megalophylla Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). A soft 
wooded tree used for making whirligigs to frighten birds. 
KUBIS. 

A cabbage. Brassica oleracea L. (Cruciferae). 

KUCHING-KUCHING. 

Adenosnia capitatum Benth. {Sarophularineae). Lit. cats. 

KUDADA. 

Duabanga sonneratioides Ham. (Lgthraceae). 

KUDAGA HUTAN. 

Xylopia magna Maingay. {Anonaceae). 

KUDAK. (Penang) 

Piper longum L. (Piperaceae). Perhaps a form of Kadok. 



144 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KUDUMAK. 

Ophiorrhiza sp. {Ruhiaceae). A small herb growing on 
rocks in jungle. 

KUGIT-KUGIT BABL 

Cosciniuin fenestratiun Colebr. {Menispermaceae). K large 
climber. 

KUKU. (Johor) 

M/jrsine capitellata Wall. {Myrsineae). 

KUKU BALAM. (Akar) 

Zizyphvs Oenoplia Mill (Hhanmeae). Also KUKU TUPAI, L. 
KuKULANG. A common thorny scandent bush. 

KUKU BANING. 

Memecylon heteropleurinii BI. and M. unjrsinoides Bl. (Melasto- 
niaceae). 

KUKU BANING. (Akar) 

Canthium sp. {Riibiaceae). Apparently an undescribed 
species. It is a climbing thorny shrub with soft leaves 
and small green tlowers. 

KUKULANG. (Akar) 

Eandia fasciculata De C. (Rubiaoeae). '' Eagle's claws" from 
its hooked thorns, a shrub sometimes climbing, with white 
flowers common near the sea. 

KUKULANG PAYA. 

The wild Jasmin, Jasminani bifarwii Wall. {Oieaceae). 
This is probably so named from its resemblance to the 
Randia fasGiculata Dec, as it is quite unarmed. 

KUKULANG RIMBAH. K. BETINA. 

Zizyphus calophyllus Wall. (Rhamneae). A very thorny 
climber. 

KUKUPO. 

Cominelina nudiftora L. (Commelinaveae). A little herb with 
bright blue flowers, common in waste ground. 

KUL. (Akar) 

Dischidia Rajjiesiana Wall. {Asclepiadeae). A climbing epi- 
phyte. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 145 

KULALAWAT. 

Torenia asiatica L. {Scrophulanneae). A blue flowered herb 
often cultivated. 

KULALAYO HITAM. 

Ari/tera Httoralis Bl. (Sapindaceae). A tree. 

KULAPI. See Kechapi. 

Sandoricuin radiatinn King". (Mehaceae). 

KULAT. 

A fungus, usually an agaricus. 

KULAWAI. (Akar) 

Myxopijrum nervosunt Bl. (Oleaceae). 

KULEUN. 

Dif.soxijhuii cauliforum Hiern. (Meliaceae), 

KULIM. 

Sorodocarpus horneensis {Olacimae). A large tree every 
part of which smells strongly of onions. The timber 
which is dark red is of high class quality. 

KULIPUNANG. (Sungei Ujong) 

Modecca singaporeana Mast. {Passifiortae). 

KULIT LAYU. 

Erioglassuiii edult Bl. according to Jack. See Kelat Layu. 

KULIT LAWA. 

Cinnamamoiuuni partheaoxiilum Meissn. (Launneae). But 
the name properly belongs to C. culit laican Nees. and 
C. camphorahim Bl. of Java and Sumatra. The word is 
generally used for the aromatic bark imported from Su- 
matra. 
KULIT NIPIS. (Penang) 

Fternandra capitellata Jack. (^Mtlastoinaceae). A tree. 

KULO. 

Dolichandrone RJieedii Seem. (Bignomaceae). A shrub or 
small tree growing in tidal spots, with large white tubular 
flowers very fugacious. 
KULU BABI. 

Webera longifolia Hook. fll. {Rubiaceae). 



146 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

KULUMBAR. 

Eryngium foetidum L. (U/ubel/iferae). A thistle-like weed 
with a nauseous odour common in villages. It is used in 
native medicine. 

KULUMBAI. 

Crataeva macrocarpa King. (Capparideae). 

KULUBONG. (Rumput) 

Panicum sarmentosum Roxb. 

KULUNOT. 

Stercu/ia campanulata Wall. (Sterculiaceae). 

KULUPUS. CAkar) 

Hiptage sericea Hook. fil. (Maljnghiaceae). 

KULUR. Also KELUR. 

Artocarpus incisa Yar. A cultivated variety of the bread 
fruit. 

KULUSOM. 

Euphorbia jnlulifera L. (Euphorbiaceae). 

KUMANI. 

Panicum mijosuroides Br. (Gramineae). 

KUMAN JOLOH. 

Phjllaiithus urinaria L. (Euphorbiaceae). 

KUMATAN. 

Randia macrophylla Br. (Eubiaceae). 

KUMAYANG. See KELAMOYANG. 

Chamaecladon Griffithii Schott. and other aroids. 
KUMBAH. 

Scirpus mucronatus L. (Cyperaceae) 
KUMBAK. 

Zalacca Wal lichiana Msirt. (Pahnae). A large almost stem- 
less pa'm with large thorny leaves. 
KUMBAR (Rumput). 

Selena sumatrensis Retz. (^Cyperaceae). A common sedge. 
KUMILI HUTAN (Ubi). 

Steniona tuberosa Lour. {Roxburghiaceae). A climbing plant 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 147 

resembling- a yam but with curious brown purple flowers. 
KUMINIYAN. See Keminiyan. 

KUMIS KUCHING. 

Orthosiplion stamineus Benth. (Labiatae). Lit. Cat's whiskers. 
A herb cultivated for its flowers, which are white or pale 
violet with long projecting- stamens like a cat's whiskers. 

KUMKUMAH. 

Saffron (Pollen of Crocus Sativus L.) Imported an 1 much 
used by natives. 
KUMKUMA HUTAN. 

Jasminum Griffithii C. B. C. (Oleaceae). 
KUMOI. (Penang) 

Diospyros ohlowja Wall. {Ebenaceae). 
KUMOJA BATU. 

Eberniaiera anr/ustifoUa Nees. (Acanthaceae). A small herb 
with white flowers. 
KUMOJA HUTAN. 

Eranthemum album Nees. {Acanthaceae). A tall half shrubby 
plant with a raceme of white flowers, common in jungles. 
KUMPAS DADEH. 

Anisophijlleia Gnffithii Oliv. {Rhizophoreae). 
KUMPA MANANG.^ 

Aporosa Prainiana King. {Euphorbiaceae). 
KUMPAI. (Rumput) 

Panicum myuras H. B. K. also P. auriium Presl. (Gramineae). 
Swamp-grasses the pith of which is used for making 
candles. 
KUMPAI BUNANG. 

Eriocaiilon sexangulare L. {Eriocauloneae). 
KUMPAI TIKUS. 

Floscopa scandens Lour. {Commelinaceae). 
KUMUKUS (Singapore). 

Cubebs, Piper cubeba L. {Piperaceae). 
KUMUS (Selangor). 

Irvingia malayana Hook. fil. {Simarubeae). This tree was 
pointed out to me as KUMUS, a timber of great reputation. 



148 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

The tree is commonly called Pauh Kijang elsewhere. 
KUMUTING (Akar) (Johore). 

Mariiinia verrucosa Miq. {^Melastomaceae). A rather rare 
climber with rosy flowers. The word may be allied with 
Kamunting, the rose myrtle (RhodomijrtusJ, the flowers 
of which resemble those of the Marumia. 
KUNDANGAN. 

Bouea macrophylla Griff. {Anacardiaceae). A fruit tree. 
KUNDO. 

Macaranga tanarius Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 
KUNDOR. 

The wax gourd. Benincasa cerifera Savi. (Cucurhitaceae.) 
Two varieties of this are recognised; KuNDOR China, 
with large fruit glabrous and covered with a waxy bloom 
when ripe; and KUNDOR Jawa, in which the fruit is 
covered with hair when ripe. 
KUNING (Akar). 

Fibraurea chloro^euca Miers {Menispermaceae). 
KUNKUNAN JANTAN. 

Elaeocarpus robustus Roxh. (Tiliaceae). 
KUNUS. Also KuNUS Bruang. 

Ctenolophon parvifolius Oliv. (Olacineae). 
KUNYIT JAWA. 

Arnotto. Bixa orellana L. {Bixineae). 
KUNYET-KUNYET. (Akar) 

Lirnacia triandra Miers. {Menispermaceae). 
KUNYET-KUNYET. 

Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric). {Scitamineae). 
KUNYIT. (Kayu) 

Cryptocarya impressa Miq. {Laurineae). " Yellow-wood.'' 

KUNTUT (Daun), See Sekuntut. 
KUPAYIANG AYER. 

Ixora parvifiora Vahl. {Ruhiaceae). Compare Kapayung 
Ayer. 

KUPOI. See Pupot. 
Connaropsis sp. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 149 

KUPOH. 

Acacia innnat a Willd. {Leguminosaey Also KAPOHi 

KUPOR. (Akai) 

Rnhus mohiccamis L. (Rosaceae). The common wild rasp- 
berry. 

KURANTING JANTAN. 

Smilax leucophylla Bl. (Liliaceae). 

KURUP. (Daun) 

Cassia alata L. (Leguminosae). See GelENGGANG. 

KURAYONG. See Kedawung. 

Parlia Roxburghii Benth. (Leguminosae). 

KURIPAL. (Johor) 

Durio Oxle/faims Mast. (Malvaceae). 

KURNAN. 

Micromehm puhescens Bl. (Rutaceae). 

KURUBUT, KERUBUT. 

Thottea grandiflora liotth. (Aristolochiaceae). 

KURUBONG PADI. (Rumput) 

Panicum trigonum Retz (Grainineae). 

KURUDAS. KERUDAS. K. AYAM. K. API. 

Pithecolohium microcarpum Benth. {Legiiminosae). 
KURUDAS BUKIT. 

Cliestanthus hirsntuhts Hook. fil. (Eupliorhiaceae). 

KURUKAP RIMAU. 

A llomorphia Griffithii Hook. fil. (Melastomaceae). 
KURUMAK HUTAN. 

Cleistanthus laevis Hook. fil. (Euphorhiaceae). 
KURUMAK BUKIT PAYA. 

Alternanthera sessilis Br. (Amarantaceae). 
KURUMAK (Akar). 

Ruellia repens L. (Acanthaceae). A little violet and white 
flowered weed common in grass. Also Ipomea augustifolia 
Jacq. (Convolvidaceae). A small yellow convolvulus. 



150 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

KURUMAK RUSA. 

Hygrophila salicifoUa Nees. (Accmthaceae). 

KURUMAK SUSU. 

Euphorbia pilulifera L. {Euphorbiaceae). 

KURUMAK JANTAN. 

EcHpta alba Hsissk. {Compositae). 
KURUNIT. 

Aneilema nudiflorum Br. {Connelinaceae). 
KURUPOH BUKIT. 

Chailletia Griffithii Hook. fil. {Chailletiaceae). 

KURUSEH PUTIH. 

Webera stellata Hook. fil. {Rubiaceae). Compare Geeuseh. 

KERURUT. (Rumput) 

Lophafherum gracile Brngn {Gramineae). 
KURUTOT. 

Chailletia Grifflthii Hook. fil. {Chailletiaceae), 

KUSA-KUSA. (Rumput) 

Panicum cohnum L. {Gramineae). Favre is the authority 
for this. 

KUSAMI. 

Myrica Nagi L. ( Myricaceae). 

KUSEP KULUDU. 

Erismanthus obliquus Wall. {Euphorbiaceae). 

KUSIN (Akar). 

Limacia triandra Miers {M enispermaceae). 

KUSINGA. 

Carallia integerrima De C. (Rhizophoreae). 

KUS-KUS. 

Andropogon muricatus Retz {Gramineae). The Vetiver, or 
Cuscus grass. 

KUSIMBO. 

Saprosma arboreum Retz. {Rubiaceae), 

KUTAK HUDANG. (Johor) Usually OTAK HUDANG. 
Buchanania acuminata Turcz {Anacardiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 151 

KUTANG TANDOK. 

Kibara coriacea Endl. (Momnnaceae). 
KUTAPET. 

Ventilago Maingcvji Laws. {Rhamneae). 

KUTEPENG (Malacca). 

Cleome viscosa L. (Capparideae). A weed with yellow 
flowers common in waste ground. 
KUTONA BETINA. 

Smilax Helferi A. De C. {Liliaceae). 

KUTUM (Pahang). 

Stephegyne speciosa Miq. {Ruhiaceae). 

KUTUNT RIMBAH. 

Lepidagathis hjalina Nees (Acanthaceae.) A herb with 
with white flowers. The leaves are chewed for coughs. 

KUTONG PULUT. (Rumput) 

Alternanthera sessilis Br. {Amarantaceae). 

KUWINI. 

Mangifera odorata Griff. (Anacardiaceae). A wild mango. 
According to Maingay the KuwiNi is M. ohlongifolia 
Hook. fil. 

LABANG. 

Curanga amara Juss. (Scrophularineae) . A little creeping 
herb used in native medicine. 

LABU AYER. 

A pumpkin. Cncurhita pepo \j. (Cucurbifaceae). 

LABU AYER HUTAN. 

Trichosanthes cor data Roxb. A small wild pumpkin with 
bright red fruits. 

LABU JANTONG, 

The bottle gourd. Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. {Cucnrbitaceae). 
LABU AYER PUTIH. 

Is another form in the shape of a club and Labu Kendi 
one in the shape of a bottle. 

LABU MANIS. LABU PRINGGL 

Are varieties of the gourd Cucurbita pepo L. 



152 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

LABU MERAH. 

The g-ourd, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne. (Cucurbitaceae). 
LADA ANTAN. 

Piper lonchites R. and Sch. (Piperaceae). A wild climbing 
pepper. 

LADA BURONG BESAR. 

Greenia Jackii W. and A. {Hubiaceae). A shrub with small 
white flowers and fruits like pepper-corns. 
LADA CHINA. 

Piper chaba Hunter. {Piperaceae). 
LADA EKOR. LADA BEREKOR. 

Cubebs. Piper cubeba Miq. {Piperaceae). Lit. tailed pepper, 
on account of the pedicels of the fruit. 

LADA HANTU. 

Piper canium BI. (Piperaceae). Marsden gives also Lada 
anjing. A wild jungle pepper. 

LADA HITAM. 

Black pepper. Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae). 

LADA MERAH. 

Capsicum annuim L. (Solanaceae). The red pepper or 
chilies. The word Chabai is more often used. 

LADA RIMBA. 

Piper ribesioides Wall. {Piperaceae). A large wild climbing 
pepper. 

LALADA or LELADA. A contraction for Lada-LADA. 

Alsodeia echinocarpa Korth. {Violaceae). Also Tabernaemon- 
tana malaccensis Hook. fil. (Ap)ocynaceae). 

LADA-LADA JANTAN. PADI. HUTAN. 

Tabernaemontana malaccensis Hook. fil. {Apocgnaceae). Con- 
traction Lelada. 

LADA-LADA. (Akar) 

Strychous Sp. (Loganiaceae). A climbing shrub. 

LAGA EGAN. (Johor) 

Sgmplocos rigida C. B. C. {Styraceae) 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 153 

LAGAN. 

Pinielandra Wallichii A Dec. (Mjjrsineae). A small tree 
with small pinkish white flowers and white fruits spotted 
with gray. 

LAGIS HUTAN PUKUA. (Johore) 

Kibessa galeata Cogn. (Melastomaceae). 

LAGUNDI. Also LEGUNDI. LENGGUNDl. LANGGUN- 
DI. LANGGUDI. 

Vitex trifolia Linn til. (Veibenaceae). A small tree with 
violet flowers and aromatic leaves used in native 
medicine. 

LAGUNDI LAQT. (Kedah) 
Homalium sp. (Sainijdaceae). 

LAIANG. 

Criiptocarija Grijfithiana Wight. (Laurineae). 

LAKA-LAKA. MALAKA. 

Phyllanthus emb/ica L. and P. pectinat us. Hook. fil. {Eujyhor- 
biaceae). From this plant Malacca is said to be named. 
The two species mentioned are hardly distinct, but the 
latter is the commoner form. The timber is of good qual- 
ity and the fruits are eaten. 

LAKA-LAKA JANTAN. 

Walsura multijuga King (Meliaveae). 

LAKOM. 

Vitis sp. A name applied to several wild vines, the leaves 
of which are used to make a kind of tea. 

LAKOM BULAN. 

Also LAKOM LAUT, L. lANGJAXG GAJAH and L- 
UMBON. 
A common wild vine. 
Vitis diffusa Miq. (A?npelideae). 

LAKOM AYER. 

Jussieua sufruticosa. L. 

LAKOM GAJAH. 

Vitis mollissiina Wall. {Ampelideae). 



154 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

LAKOM TEBRAU. 

Vitis novemfolia Wall. {Ainpelideae). 

LALANG. 

Imperata cijlindnca Beauv (Gramineae), 

LALANG JAWA. 

Imperata exaltata Brngn. 

LALANTAR. (Malacca) 

Ostodes macrophyllus Benth. (Etiphorbiaveae). 

LAMBAL 

Petunga venulosa Hook. fil. (Riihiaceae). 

LAMBAS. 

Goiiiplumdra lanceolata King". (Olacineae). 

LAMBEGA. 

Calotropis procera Br. (Asclepiadeae). 

LAMBUSU. 

Fagroea Maingaiji Clarke. (LoganiaceaeJ. 

LAMBUSU PAYA. 

F. morindaefolia Bl. A deriv^ative from TembuSU. 
LAMIDING. Also MIDING. 

Steiiochloena palustris (Filice^). A common climbing fern 
the shoots of which are eaten. 
LAMPAI. 

Aporosa Mainga/ji Hook. fil. {Eaphorhiaceae). 

LAMPAN BUKIT. (Akar) 

Smilax megacarpa De C. (Liliaceae). 

LAMPAI HIT AM. (Akar). (Malacca) 

Gynochthodes siihlanceolata Miq. (Rubiaceae). A climber 
with small white flowers and lead colored berries. 
LAMPANG BADAK. LELAMPING BADAK. 

Clerodendron disparijolium Bl. ( Verhenaceae). A small tree 
with yellow flowers. 

LAMPAYANG. Also LEMPOYANG. 

Zingiber Cassiuminaar L. {Scitamineae). A ginger often 
cultivated and used as a spice. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 155 

LAMPUN HITAM. 

Gelonium hifariam Roxb. (Euphorhiaceae). 

LANA. (Akar) (Penang) 

Iponiea digitata L. (Convolvulaceae). A large convolvulus 
with lobed leaves and pink flowers. 

LANDAK. (Bunga) 

Barleria prwnitis L. (Acanthaceae). Lit. Porcupine flower. 
A bush with spiny bracts and leaves and orange-yellow 
flowers. 
LANDAP. Also SILANDAP. 

Crinuni asiaticum L. {Anmrijllideae). 
LAND AS BUKIT 

Macaranga triloba Muell. {Euphorhiaceae). 

LANDAS PAYA. 

Greenia JacJciana Wall. (Rubiaceae). Also Macaranga tri- 
loba Muell. (Eiipltorbiaceae). 

LANDONG PADL 

Conocephalus subtrinervius Mici. (Urticaceae). A shrub with 
violet balls of flowers. 
LANGGADI. 

Diospijros lucida Wall. (Ebenaceae). 

LANGGUNDI, See Lagundl 
LANGGUNDI BULAN. 

Tabernaemontana Jfalaccensis Hook. fll. (Apocynaceae). 
LANGGUNDI BUNGA. 

Ixonanthes icosandra Jack. (Lineae). 
LANGUNDI PASIR. 

Hemigraphis affinis Nees (Acanthaceae). A creeping herb 
on sandy banks. 

LANGIRTAN KWAS. 

Cryptocarija ferrea Bl. (Laurineae), 

LANGKAP. 

Arenga obtusifolia Mart. (Palmae). 
LANGKAP. (Akar) 

Tinomiscium petiolare Miers. {Meni^perma ceae). 



156 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

LANKAM. 

Lasianthus sp. (Rubiaceae). 

LANKETING. 

Myrica nagi Thunb. (Myricaceae). 

LANGKUANG. 

Ostodes macrophyllus Benth. (Euphorbiaceae). 

LANKWAS. 

Alpinia Galanga L. {Sciiamineae). An aromatic plant used 
in making curries. 

LANKWAS RANTING. 

Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Scitamineae). A small wild ginger.^ 

LANGSAT. LANGSAD. LANSAT. LANSAH. 

Lansiwn domesticum Jack. {Meliaceae). A well known fruit. 

LANGSIT. (Penang) 

Prismatomeris albidiflora Thw. {Bubiaceae). A shrub with 
sweet white flowers. 

LARA BATANG. (Pahang) 

Polyosma sp. (Saxifragaceae) . 

LARAH. (Akar) 

Melodorum fulgens Hook. fil. (Anonaceae). 

LARAK. LARAT. Also LEREK and LERIT. 

Phrynium parviflorum Roxb. (Scitamineae) and Phr. Griffithii 
Bak. 

LARAK BETINA. 

Phrynium near parviflorum, but apparently undescribed. 

LARAK MERAH. 

Polyalthia Teysmanni King. {Anonaceae), A small tree with 
orange flowers. 

LARAK MERAH. (Akar) 

Melodorum liypoglaucum {Anonaceae). 

LARAT. (Selangor) 

Acrosfichum aureum L. (Filices). A very common large 
tidal-river fern. The shoots are eaten as a vegetable. 
The name POKO Laeat means the spreading plant. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 157 

LARI-LARI. (Rumput) 

Spinifex squarrosus Lab. (Gramineae). Literally, the running" 
grass, because of the way the beads of flowers run along 
the sands blown by the wind. 
LASANA. 

Acacia Farnesiana Willd. (Leguminosae). A shrub with yellow 
sweet scented balls of flowers. Common on seacoasts. 
LAWANG. 

Cloves, according to Favre. See KuLiT Lawang. Ciiwa- 
momum cuhtlaican Nees. 

LEBAN. LEBAN HITAM. LEBAN TANDOK. 

Vitex pubescens Vahl. (Verbenaceae). A tree with light 
blue flowers common in secondary jungle. 

LEBAN BUNGA. LEBAN NASI-NASL 

Vitex ve&tita Wall. (Verbenaceae). A tree with yellow flow- 
ers common in the jungle. 

LEBAN KUNYIT. 

Vitex sp. Allied to the last but apparently undescribed. 

LEBAN PELANDOK Also LEBAN NASI and LEBAN JAN- 
TAN. 
Evodia latifoHa De C. (Tiufaceae). A tree with white 
flowers. 
LEGUNDL See Lagundi. 
LELADA. See Lalada. 
LEMPtJYANG. See Lampoyang. 
LEREK. See Larak. 

LELANG. 

Cinnamomum nitidum Bl. (Laurineae). A wild cinnamon. 

LELEONG MERAH. 

Myristica Farqnhariana Wall. (Mi/risficaceae) . 
LEMPAYAN. 

Stereospermum glandulosum Miq. (Bignoniaceae). A small 
tree, with fair-sized lilac flowers. 
LEMPEDA BUAYA. 

Aralidium pinnatijidum M.k{. (Araliaceae.) 



158 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

LEMPEDU BURONO. 

Eloeocarpus Mastersi King". {Tiliaceae). 
LEMPEDU BURONG. (Akar) 

Canthium sp. (Ruhiaceae). It is also called KULURAI and 
SURUMAT. 

LEMPEDU GAJAH. (Akar) 

Modecca Singaporeana Mast. (Passifioreae). 
LEMPEDU JAVA. 

Sarcocephalus Junghuhnii Miq. {Ruhiaceae). Also Gom- 
phandra Penangiana Wall. ( Olacineae). 

LEMPEDU PAHIT. Also BIDARA PAHIT. 

Eurycoma longifoUa Jack. {Siinaruheae). 

LEMPEDU TANAH. (Akar) 

Gynochtliodes coriacea Miq. (Ruhiaceae). A climber. 

LEMPOYAN PAYA. 

Myristica Irya Gaertn. (Myristicaceae). A tall wild nutmeg" 
g-enerally found in wet places. 

LEMPOYANG. (Akar) (Sung-ei Ujong) 

Tinoimscium. petiolare Miers. (MenispermaceaeJ. 

LENGA. 

Sesamum indicum De C. (Pedalineae). More commonly- 
known as BiJAN. 

LENGGADI. 

Bruguiera jmrviflora W. and A. (RMzophoreae). 

LENJUANG MERAH. 

The common red Dracaena. CordyUne ferminalis var. ferrea. 
(Liliaceae). 

LERIT PADL (Selangar) 

Phrynium new species {Scifamineae). Compare Larak. 

LETOP-LETOP. (Malacca) 

Passifiora foetida L. {Passifioreae). A common creeper 
near cultivated places. 

LIBA. 

Gomphia sumatraua {OchnaceaeJ. 



MALyY PLANT NAMES 159 

LICHL 

Nepheliuia Litchi Camb. (Sapindaceae). Imported fruits. 

LIDAI API. 

Croton Grijithii Hook, fil. {Euphorbiaceae). 

LIDAH BADAK. 

Pothus latifolius Hook. fil. (AroideaeJ. Lit. Rhinoceros' 
tongue. A climbing- aroid. 

LIDAH BUAYA. 

Aloe ferox Haw. {Liliaceae). '-Crocodile's tongue," from the 
spines on the edge of the leaf. Cultivated, the leaves are 
used as a hair wash. 

LIDAH GAJAH. (Daun) 

Aglaoneina oblongtfoHwu iSchott. {Ayoideat). " Elephant's 
tongue leaf.'' A large broad leaved aroid growing in 
wet jungles. 

LIDAH JIN. 

Hedyotis comjesta Br. {Rabiaccae). A common herb in jungles. 

LIDAH JIN. (Akar) 
H. capitellata Wall. 

LIDAH JIN. (Rumput) 

Peristrophe acuminata Nees. (Acanthaveae). A common herb 
with pink flowers. 
LIDAH KERBAU. LIDAH KERBaU BETINA. 

Clerodendron deflexus Wall. (Verbcnaceae). 

LIDAH KERBAU PUTIH. Also LIDAH-LIDAH KAYU. 

Marlea ehenacea C. B. C. {Coniaceac). A large tree with 
white flowers. 

LIDAH LUMBU. 

Aneilema nudijioriuu Br. {Commelinaceae). " Ox tongue." 
A little weed with pink flowers. 

LIDAH KUCHING. 

Turnera ulviifolia (Turneraceae). Lit. cat's tongue. An in- 
troduced weed with yellow flowers. 
LIDAH MENKERANG. (Rumput) 

Fuirena glomerata Vahl. (Ci/peraceaeJ. 



160 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

LIDAH PATONG. 

Ipomea unifiora R. & S. (Convolvulaceae). 

LIDAH RUSA. 

Fagroea racemosa Jack. (Loganiaceae). " Deer's tongue." 
A small tree with pinkish flowers. 

LIKIR. Also LOKIE. 

Amorphophallus Prainiana Hook. fil. and allied species 
{Aroideae). The tubers are used in making" arrow poison. 

LIKU. (Rumput) 

Paspalum scrobicu latum L. (Gramineae). 

LIKU DAUN, (Rumput) 

Scleria ovjjzoides Presl. {C//peraceae). 

LILAN. 

Xylopia elliptica Maingaj. {Anonaceae). 

LILAN HITAM. 

Gomphandra penangianum Wall. (Oiacineae). 
LILIMBO. 

Sphenodesiua harhata Schau. ( Verbenaceae). 

LIMAH BERUK. 

A name applied to many species of Xanthophyllum. There 
are also the variants LA.MAH and LUMAH. Some of the 
larger species give good timber. 

LIMAH BERUK JANTAN. 

Xanthophi/llu/ii affine Korth. {Pobjgalaceae). 

LIMAH BERUK BETINA. 
X. Maingayi Hook fil. 

LIMAH BERUK PUTIH. 
X. Kunsteeri King. 

LIMAH KETAM. 

Melochia corchorifolia L. (Sterculiaceae). A common weed. 

LIMAU ABONG. 

The Fumelo. Citrus decumana L. Also LiMAU Batawi. 
'' Batavia Lime," according to Favre, and LiMAU BESAR. 

LIMAU ABONG HANTU. (Selangor) and 



MALxVY PLANT NAMEIS. 161 

LIMAU HANTU. (Pahaiig. Malacca) 

The wild pumelo. Citrus dccumana L. var {Rufaeeae). A 
tree with a large green fruit with the rind an inch thick 
or more and very little extremely acid flesh inside. 

LIMAU BALI. 

The citron. Citrus lutdica L, From the island BaH. Favre 
gi^es this. The plant is very rarely cultivated. 

LIMAU GEDE. 

The bitter orange. Citrus aurantiuui var Bigaradia, accord- 
ing to Favre. 

LIMAU HUTAN. 

Avvoniichia Porttri Hook. til. {Iiutaceae). A snjall tree with 
green aromatic fruits as big' as peas. 

LIMAU KAPAS. LIMAU KASTURI. LIMAU KEDANG- 
SA. LIMAU KERBAU. LIMAU NIPIS. LIMAU 
PERUT. LIMAU SUSU. 
And a number of other names are given to varieties of the 
sour lime. Citrus acida L. 

LLMAU KEAH. 

Triphasia trifoliolata De C. The lime berry. 

LIMAU LELANG. 

Farandynija loiigisirina Hook. hi. (Rutaceac). A shrub ; the 
fruits of which are used in native medicine. 

LIMAU LELANUANTAN. 

Bakinostreblus Hicifolius Kurz. {Urticaceae). A shrub with 
holly-like leaves. 

LIMAU-LIMAU. 

Ge/oniwit bifariuiu Koxb. {Euphorbiaceae). The foliage of 
this shrub has somewhat the appearance of a lime. 

LIMAU MANIS. 

Orange. Citrus aurantium L. 

LIMAU NIPIS. 

The common lime. Citrus acida Roxb. "Thin-skinned lime." 
LIMAU PAGAR. 

Atakmtia Roxhurghiaua Hook. til. (Rutaceae). 



162 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

LIMAU WANGKANG. 

Chinese orange. Citraf< aurandum var. 
LIMGUGAT. 

TTedyotis vestita Br. (Eubiaceae). A common weed. 

LIMPONG JANTAN. 

Eugenia Sp. (Mtjrtaceae). A tree. 

LIMPUTIH PAYAH. 

Urophyllum Grijfithianuiii Wt. (Rubiacecic). 
LINGGUNI. 

Ardisia crenata Roxb. (Myrdaeae). A shrub with pink 
flowers and red berries. More commonly known as 
Mata pelandok. 
LINGKEAN. 

Oxymitra sp. (Anonaceae). 

LINSUBAH. (Pahang-) See Lumbah. 

Carcidigo snmatrana Roxb. (Ilypoxideae). 

LINTANG RUAS. (Akai) 

Sph.aeiiodesma pentandra Jack. ( Verbenaceae). 

LIS-LIS. (Rumput) 

Acalypha indica L. (^Eupliorbiaveac). A little weed common 
in villages. 
LOBAK. 

The Chinese radish, Raphanus caudcUus (Crucijerae). 

LOBAK-LOBAK. Also Lobak Jantan. 
Susum anthelminticum Bl. (Flagellarieae). 

LOBAK HUTAN. 

Loivia longiflora Scort, {Scitavtineae). 

LOKAN. (Akar) 

Trichosanthes nercifolia Linn. ( Cticurhitaceae). 

LOKAN PUTIH. LOKAN ASAM. 

Medinilla hasseltii Bl. [Melastomaceae). An epiphytic plant 
conspicuous from its red berries. 

LOKIE ULAR. 

Amoiyhophallu^ Frainii Hook. fil. (Aroideae). See Lekik. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 163 

LONTAR. 

Borassufi fabeUifer L. {Pcdmae). The palmyra palm. 

LOW. (Daun) 

Various species of Aiioectochilus orchideae. (See under Daun 
Low). 

LOW. (Kayu) (Lanka wi) 

Vaiula gigantea Lindl. {Orchideae). 

LUBAN JAWL 

Gum benjamin, the product of Sff/ra.v benzoin. 

LUBANG ALAH. (Akar) 

Scindapsus hederacens Schott. (Aroideae). 

LIIDAL LUDAl PELANDOK. 

Sapimn baccatum Roxb. {Eiiphorbiaceae). The leaves are 
are used to entice the mouse deer (Pelandok) into a trap. 

LUDAI JANTAN. 

Daphniphijlluin laurinum Baill- and Mcdlotufi fancifoHus Hook, 
fil. {Euphorbiacecie) . 

LUDAI PADL 

Homalanthns popuHfo1iu!< Gray. (EupJiovbiaceae). 

LUDAI BULAX. 

Ciipania Lespertiana Camb. [Sapivdacene). A small tree. 

LUIS. 

Gomphia swncdrana Hook. fil. (Och/iareae). 

LUKEH. 

Tacca pimudifida L. f Taccaceae). 

LUKAT. 

Aporom Maingaifi Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae). 

LUKOT. 

Si I inp locos fa-'^cicu lata Zol 1 . ( Sfy raceae ) . 
LULANGRING BUDAN. 

Clerodendron disparifolium Vahl. ( Verbenaceae). 

LULOR API JANTAN. 

Loranthiis pentandvvs L. (Loranfhaceae). 



164 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

LULUMBAH PAYA. 

Corymhorchifi veratrifolia Thouars. (OrcMdeae). A tall larg-e- 
leaved grcund orchid with deliciously scented white 
flowers. 

LU^IAI HITAM. 

Blumea laccra De C. {Compositae). A herb with yellowish 
flowers, 

LUMBAH. 

Strictly applied to Curculigo but other plants with similar 
looking leaves such as Cakmthe and Spafhofjloffi'^ are also 
called by the same name. 
LUMBAH MERAH. 

Curcnligo recurvafa Dryand. (TTi/porn'deae). 

LUMBAH UIMBAH. 

C. sumatrana Roxb. 

LUMBAH BUKIT. 

Peliosanthes spp. {Liliaceae). Small jungle plants with 
broad leaves and green or purple flowers. 

LUMBAH PAYA. 

Homalomena rostratnvi Griff. {Aroideae). 

LUMBOH. (Akar) (Malacca) 

Vernonia ficmidevf< De ('. {Compoaifaf). 

LUMSU. 

Matthen aancta Bl. {Moninnaceae). 

LUMOS. 

Ryparki fcn^cicvlata King. (Bi.vmeaf). 

LUMPANG. 

Cissaurpelos Pareira L. {M eitisper maceat). 

LUMPOYAN. 

Stereospermnm fimhriafuiii De C. (Bignoiiiaceae). 

LUMPOYAN PAYA. See Lempoyan. 
Myristica Irya Gaertn. {MyriMicaceae). 

LUMUT. 

Moss, also applied to any mossy looking plant. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 165 

LUMUT RUMPUT, 

Bhjxa malaccenm Ridl. (H}/drocharideae). A common 
aquatic plant with a tuft of narrow grassy leaves. 

LUMUT. (Akar) 

Jasminium RmiladjoUum Griff. {OJeaceae). 

LUMUT EKOR KUNINCx. 

Utricularia Jlexuosa Vahl. {Lentibu/aneae). Lit Yellow tail 
moss. A waterweed with yellow flowers. 

LUNCHUL (Penang-) 

Cratoxylon poltjanflnnn Korth. {ITiipencineae). 

LUNDAS PAYA. 

Greenia JacHi \V?i\\. {Ri(hiaceae). 

LUNDO. 

Antidesma B^cniaa Spr. {Kuphorhiaceae). 

LUNURANOP. 

Glochidion leiostjilnm Kurz. {Euphorbiaceae). A small tree. 

LUPANG. (Akar) 

Mikania scandeii..^ Willd. {Compofiitae). 
LUPOK. (Akar) 

Modecca Singaporeajta Mast. {Pafi<iifloreae). 

LUPONG MERAH. 

Ficus .mbnlafa Bl. {Urticficpap). Perhaps a variant of 
Kelampong-. 

LUPONG JANTAN. 

Antidesma ve/ufhiosum Bl. l^Euphorhiaceae). 

LUSAL 

Pitfosporinn ferrufiinfinn Ait. (Piffosporeae). 

LIJTU^S. 

ArdiMa Immilw Vahl. (Afi/rsineae). 

MADANG. See Medang. 

MAGAL. Also Markel. 

Sarcocephahis subditus Miq. (Ruhiacedf). A tree with a 
g-ood yellow timber suitable for house i)uildino\ 



166 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

M4GUN J ANT AN. 

Adenosma coerulevm Br. (Scrophulaniieae). 

MAHANG. 

Macaranga spp. A genus of trees, usually small, of little 

use except as fire wood. 
Pahang, the name of state is said to be a variant of 

Mahang. 

MAHANG BAYAN. (Malacca) MAHANG API. 

Macaranga javanica Muell. {Euphorhiaceae). The common- 
est Mahang, abundant in secondary jungle. It is used 
for fire wood whence its second name. 

MAHANG BULAN. 

Macaranga Hullettii King. [Eivphorhiaceaej. 

MAHANG KUKUR. 

Macaranga triloba Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). A common 
tree. The KlJKUE (Turtur tigrimis) is often to be seen 
about this tree feeding on the seed. 

MAHANG MAKAN PELANDOK. 

HovmUmthns popu/neus Grah. {Euphorhiacme). Lit. The 
Macaranga that the mouse deer eats. 

MAHANG PUTIH. 

Macaranga liypohinca Muell. {Euphorhiaceae). A tree with 
greyish white stems and white underside to the leaves. 

MAHANG SERINDIT. 

Macaranga Hullettii King. {Euphorhiaceae). The SERIN- 
DIT is the common little lovebird. 

MAHIJBI. 

Kihessa wnple.r Korth. {Melastomaceae). 

MAIANG. 

Bassia motleyana Clarke. (Sapotaceae). A big tree. 

MAKACHANG HIT AM. (Akar) 

Variant of Kachang-Kachang. Ageloea vesfita Hook. fil. 
{Connaraceae). 

MALABU. (Johore) 

Grewia migueliana Kurz. {Tiliaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMKS 167 

MALAKA. 

Phfllanthm pectinatus Ilook. til. {Enphorbiaceae) Also 
Laka-Laka. 

MALANKAN. 

Variant of BULANKAN. Ci/iwnietra po/tjandra Roxb. (Leg- 
mninosae). 

MALATI. Also MELATI. 

Jasminum Samhac Ait. {O/eacme). A cultivated jessamine. 

MALATI TONKING. 

The Tongkin creeper. Penjularia odoratistiima. (Ai<clepiadcae). 

MALAUT. (Penang) 

Balanocarpus anomalus King. [Dipto-ocarpeae). 

MALBAR. 

A hntilon indivuin L. (Malcaceae). 

MALBAR HUT AN. 

Hyptis suaveolens Poir. (LahiaUie). 

MALEBERA. (Selangor) MALBEIRA. (Malacca) 

Fagroea fastigiata Bl. (Loganiaceae). A small tree with a 
few spreading branches, and very large cabbage-like 
leaves. It occurs in tidal swamps, and the timber is 
valuable for piles as it resists the action of the Teredo. 

MALI. (Akar) 

Gynoctliodes coriacea Miq. {Hubiactat). 

MALI-MALI. 

Contracted to Memalli. Leta Sanibacina Wild. {Ainpe/i- 
deae). A shrub common in open country. 

MALI BEDURI. 

Leea horrida Miq. A thorny species. 

MALI-MALI BUKIT. 

Clerodendron nutana L. ( Verbcnaceae). A shrub with white 
flowers. 

MALONG. 

Coptosapelta Grijit/di Hook. til. (Eubiaceae). A climber 
with white flowers. 



168 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MALUKUT. (Akar) 

Embelia amentacea C. B. C. fMijrsineaeJ. 

MALUKUT. (Kayu) 

Chrijsophyllum Roxburghii Don. (Sapolaveae). From Main- 
gay's list. 

MALUKUT JANTAN. MEDANG MALUKUT JANTAN. 

Eurya acuminata De C. {Ternstroemaceae). A small tree com- 
mon in secondary jungles. 

MALUKUT PAYA. 

Asclepias curassavica L. {Asclepiadeae). A showy red and 
yellow flowered weed introduced from America. 

MALUR. 

Jashiinuin sarnbac Ait. and other cultivated jasmines. iSee 
Melor. 

maman;babi. 

ITygrophila salicifolia Nees. (Aaanthaceae). A common herb 
with violet flowers occurring in ditches and by streams. 

MAMBU JANTAN. (Akar) 

Millettia sericea W, and A. {Leguininoseae). A lofty climber. 

MAMPELAM. Also AMPELAM and HAMPELAM. 

The mango. Mangifera indica L. {Anacardiaceae) , 

MAMPELAM BABI. 

Terminalia affentens {Cumbretaceae). xl big tree with fruits 
like mangoes. 

MANAMAK. ^ 

Cryi^tocai'iia sp. {Laurineae). 

MANCHONG. 

Myristica tomentosa Hook. til. (3fyristicaceae), Also Glo- 
chidion leiostylum Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae). 

MANGABONG. 

Vernonia arbor ea Ham. (Compositae). -A large tree with 
lavender coloured flowers. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 169 

MANGAS. 

Memecyloa acu/innatum Sm. and similar species. {MelaMoma- 
ceae). Small trees with small blue or pink flowers. The 
The timber thouo:h small is g'ooJ for posts and other 
house w^ork, 

MANGGIS. 

Garciania mmigostand L. {GuHi ferae). 

MANGGIS HUTAN. 

Garcinia Homhroniana Pierre. {Giiffiferne). A wild man- 
g-osteen. 

MANINGO. 

Guefiiiii f/itf'i/ioii L. (Guetaceae). A tree sometimes cultivat- 
ed fur its fruit. Not native. 

MANTADU. (Akar) 

Gne.tum fvinailare Bl. {Gnrfacerif). 

MANTEGA. (Huah) 

The butter fruit. Dw^pijrof^ dificolor Willd. {Ebenareae). A 
native of the Philippine islands, sometimes cultivated 
Fromthe Portug-uese word Manteiffa butter. 

MANTUA PELANDOK. 

Ardma colorafa Roxb. (Mi/rsineae). 

MANTUA PELANDOK JANTAN. 

Tri<ionofifeiuon sp. {Enphnrhiaceae). A shrub. 

MANTULONG. 

Ardisia colorafa Roxb. f}ffjrs!hiPae). 

MAPAT. (Malacca) 

Lafierstroeriiia hexapfrra Miq. {Ij]ithracpaf). 

MARARATU. 

See Met^batu. 

MARABULOH. 

Aporosa Benthamiana Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae), 

MARABULOH PAYA. 

Sapro.^ma arhorevm {Eiihiaceoe). 



170 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MARA I. 

Croton Oriffithii Hook. fil. (Euphorhinceae). A rommon 
jung'le shrub. 

MAHARAJALI. (Johoie) 

Tngoniastrum h/poleuciirn Mi<i. {Pol if galeae). 

MARAJAN MINKO. (Pahang). 

Alsodeia Kunsthriana King*. (Violaceae). 

MARALAK. 

Mi/ristica Farqiihariaiui Ilook. fil. {Mjjrifiticncae). 
MARANBI. (Johore) 

Ilopea intermedia {Dipferocarpeae). 
MA RANTING. 

Anlisia cohrata Roxb. {Mymineae), 
MARBULOR Also MARABULOH. MUMBULOH, and MU- 
BOLOH. 

Gfj notrocli es axiUari'i Miq. (Rhizophoreae). see Mata Keli 

MARIBUT. (Kedab) 

Olax imhricaia Roxb. (OlacineaeJ. A sea shore shrub. 
MARIBUT DAITN BESAR. (Penang) 

Mitrephora. Maingaiii Hook. fil. (Avonaeeae). A tree. 

MARILILIN. 

SympJocos racemosa Roxb. (Sf)/raceae). 

MARKEL. (Pahang) 

Sarcocephahis sjihditua Miq. (liuhiaceae). See Magal. 

MARPOH. Also Merpoh. 

Mallotus Griffitliianuf! Hook. fil. and M. Penan gen fii.<^ Muell. 
(Euphorhiaceae). 

MAS. (Bunga) 

Asclepias cnra-^mvica L. (Af^cJepiadeae). See BUNGA MAS. 
MASALAK. 

Mf/ristica Farfjuhariana Wall. (Mi/risticaceae) 

MATA AYAM. 

Baceaurea brevipes Hook. fil. (Euphorhiaceae). Also Ardi- 
sia crenata Roxb. in Province Wellesley. The latter plant 
is more ooramonly known as Mata Pelandoe. 



MALAY PLA^'T NAMES. 171 

MATA BISOL, 

Aglaonenia coiniuutata Schott. {Aroidtae). 

MATA BURONU PUI)IN(i. (Rimiput). 

Phragiinfes Karka Triii. fGrainineat). '' Varieg-ated bird's 
eyes." A tall reed comiiion near streaiiii*. 
MATA HUDANG. (Buab) 

Aglaonenia nanus Uook. fil. (Aronhae). A little herbaceous 
aroid growing- in water, with red fruits. Lit. Prawn's 
eyes. 
MATA KAOK. 

Helicia e.i:ctl'<a Bl. ( Pruttarea>.')- A small tree. 
MATA KELAT. 

Ctcnolophoii iiarcifvlias Oliv. fOlacintat'). 

MATA KELI. 

Gf/notrochey axii/aris Mi(j[. (Ithizop/iorcae). The KeLI is a 
fish. The tree is common in woody places ; it has small 
white tiowers and black or red berries collected in the 
axils of the leaves. 

MATA KELI JANTAN. 

Canfhiam confertam Korth. (Rabiaccac). A small tree. 

MATA KELI PARA. 

UrophijUani sp. {Habiaceae) . 

MATA KETAM BATU. 

Gomphia sumatrana Jack. fOvhiiaceae). A small to medium 
tree with yellow tiowers. Literally. Rock crab's eyes. 

MATA KUCHING. 

NepJieliain malaitn.^t Griff. (Sapiivlacea':). A well known 
fruit tree. The small round seeds enclosed in semi-tians- 
parent white pulp are thoug-ht to resemble " cats eyes." 
MATA PASSEH. 

'rnqoniaatruin hgpu/tncu/ii Mi(|. (Fo/gga/aceaeJ. (Maiugay's 
list). 

MATA PELANDOK. 

ArdistacrenataRoxh. (Mgrdncat). Lit, mouse deer'* eyes. 
A shrub with pink flowers and round red berries. 



172 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MATA PELANDOK GAJAH. 

A rdisia villosa Roxb. (Mi/rdineae). 

MATA PELANDOK llIMBA. 

Labisia pofhoum Lindl. { Mjiidneae). A small shrubby 
plant with red berries resuiiibliiig- those of A idisia crenata. 
MATA PUNAl. 

A}itides}im BtuiiuK Muell. (EKp]torhiace<(c). " Pigeon's eyes," 
from the small red fruits. 

MATA ULAR. 

llandia densiflora Beuth. (Rahiaceae). " Snake's eyes." k 
tree with orange red berries and white Howers. 

MATOPUS. (Penang) 

Mesuu ferreah. (Gutliferac). The Iron wood of Ceylon. 

MAURA. (Kayu) 

Ma><iiria JuiKjlmhinana 0. B. C. (Coniactac). 

MA WAR. 

The Rose, (liom ctulifoiki L). 

MAVV^ES. (Akar) 

J)iosco\ea (flabra Roxb. {iJio^cormceae). 

MAYIAM. 

Co/n/i/e.'ina benf/Jta^ciiHs L. {Coiiiiuelinaceae). A weed in cul- 
ti\ated grounds. 

MEDaNG. 

Usually applied to trees of the order Laurineae^iind to others 
which have a timber similar in appearance. Filet gives 
Madang, but Medang appears to be the commoner 
form. The name is often confused with MeduNG (Mf.N- 
DONG) E/aeocarpus {THiaceae), 

MEDANG AMPAS TEBU and AMAS TEBU. 

Gironniera nerrosa Planch and G. parritblia Planch. ( Urlka- 
ceaej. Trees of fairly large size with small hard yellow 
nuts. 

MEDANG API. 

ELaeomrpan pavvifulius Wall. ( Tiiiaceae). 



MiSXAY PLANT NAMES 173 

xMEDANG API-API. 

Adinandra dumosa Jack. (Ternstroeiniaceat). A couniion 
tree in secondary jungle used as firewood. 
MEDANG ASAM. 

E/aeocarpus Mastern King. (TiUaceac). Also Lophopelalum 
tbnbriatnm Wight. {CeUu^trineae). A very large tree. And 
Plioahe mulii flora. Bl. {Laurineae). 
MEDANG BEKWOI. (Penang) 

Schiina Xoronhae Keinwdt. {Teriistroeiniaveat). 

MEDANG BERHL^LU. 

Meliosiiia sp. 
MEDANG BUAYA, 

Cruptocariia Grijfit/tiana Wight. (Lanrineae). '•Crocodile- 
laurel." Also Kurriinia Maini/ai/i Laws. (Celastrintae), 

MEDANG HUBULA. 

Agkda cvrdata Uiern. (Meliacf^iK^). 
MEDANG BULANAK. 

Givonnieva stibaequali^ Planch. (VrlicaceucJ. Also Meuang 
BULAPO. 

MEDANG BCLUKO. 

Lifsea cDiiara Bl. {Laurintat). A small tree. 

MEDANG BUNGA. 

Litsea inyvisticaejulia Wall. {Luunntat). 

MEDANG BUNUT. 

Anisopki/llcia sp. {lihicop/ivrcae), 

MEDANG BURONG. (Johore) 
Phoebe sp. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG BUSUK. 

Litsea po'ijcmtlia Juss. {Laurineae). The vvuod has a foetid 
smell whence the name Busuk — stinking. 

MEDANG CHANG KAUNO and MEDANG CIIUPONA. 

Pif(jeuin sp. (Rosaceae). A small tree common in Singapore 
but probably undescribed. 

MEDANG GAJAH. 

Eandia anisophijlla Jack. (Rubiaceae). 



174 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

MEDANG GELUGUR. 

Pijrenaria acuminata Planch. {Ttnistroeniiaceae). 
MEDANG GIDAP. 

Kurrimia pukhernma AVall. {Celastrineae). 
MEDANG GOMBANG. 

Vernonia arborea Ham. {Compositae). 
MEDANG HITAM. 

Gironnera nervosa Planch. ( Urticaceae), Also Litsea niyris- 
ticae folia Wall. (Laurineae). 
MEDANG HUDANG. 

Tetractomia /auri/olia. (Rutaceae). 
MEDANG JARAK. 

Mallotus lancifolius Hook. fil. (Eup/iorbiaceae). 
MEDANG JUMUS. 

Mallotus Caput Medusae Hook. til. (Eupftorbiaveae). 

MEDANG KAKl LIONG, 

Micropora Curtisii Hook. til. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG KAMANGI. 

Cinnamonmm partkeno.tylon {Laurineae). A strongly scented 
tree used in native medicine. 

MEDANG KASAP. 

Gironniera neroosa Planch, and G. parvifolia Planch. {Vrti- 
caceae). 

MEDANG KASIRI. Also KUSIRAI. 
Phoebe Sp. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG KASUNGKO. 

Chisochefon pendulijlorus Planch. (Meliaceaej. 

MEDANG KATANAHAN. 

Xanthophyllwn rufuni A. W. Benn. {Poly galeae). 

MEDANG KATUKO. 

Litsea w^d^v panainonj a ]3idA)i. {Laurineae). Also Ixora parvi- 
flora Vahl. {Rubiaceae). 

MEDANG KAWAN. 

Elaeacarpus obtusus Bl. {Tiliaceae). Who Parinarium nitiduni 
Hook. fil. {Rosaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAME^ 175 

MEDANG KECHAWI. 

LUsea lancifolia Roxb. {Lannneae). 

MEDANG KELADL 

Helicia robusta Wall. {Protenceae). Also Lit.^ea uii/rl'^ficae' 
folia Wall. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG KELAWAR. Also MEDANG CHaNG KAUNO. 

Pygeuiii Sp. (Bosaceae). 

MEDANG KELAYAR. 

Litsea ^flJr^sf^caefoHa Wall. [Laurineae). 

MEDANG KELELAWAK. (Malacca) 

Piitosporum ferrufjinenin Ait. {Piftof^poreae). 

MEDANG KELOR. 

Litsea niti'Ia Roxb. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG KETANAH. 

Pijuelandra WnUichii A De 0. (Mi/rsineae). Also Phoebe 
riiultiffora Bl. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG KETANAHAN. 

Alseodaphne umbeUifora Hook. lil. ij^aurineae). 

MEDANG KIRISA. 

Casearia Lobbiana Turcz. (Sami/daceae). 

MEDANG KLABU. 

Endospernuini malaccense Mueli. Aro\ (Euphorbiareae) 
Maing-ay's list. 

MEDANG KUNING. M. KUNYIT. 

Actinodaphne sp. Also Cniptocan/a coesia Bl. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG LAGUNDI. 

Ertjthroxijlon birmanicum Griff. (Lineae). 
MEDANG LANSOR. 

Elaecarpus Mastersii King-. (TiJiaceae). 

MEDANG LAIANG. ^ 

HeJicw robusta Wall. (Proteaceae). 

MEDANG LASA. 

Cri/ptocanja coesia Bl. (Laurineae). 



176 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

MEDANG LEBAR DAUN, 

Aiseodaphne .^emecarpifoHa Hook. fil. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG LOK. 

Macaranga jaranica Muell. (EupJwrbiaceae). 

MEDANG LOSO. 

Alseodaphiie umheUifora Hook. fil. (Laurineae), 

MEDANG LUSA. 

Pentace eximia King. ( Tiliaceae). 

MEDANG MALUKUT JaNTAN. 

Eurya acuminata (Ternstroemaceae). 

MEDANG MANTU. 

Cryptocarjja Gviffithiana \Yig'ht. {Lavrineae). 

MEDANG MERAH. (Malacca). 

Phoebe multifora Bl. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG MI YANG. 

LJtsea amara Bl. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG NAU. 

Cryptocarya irnpre.^m M'u[. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG OBU. 

HeHcia exceha Bl. {Proteaceae). 

MEDANG PANJANG. 

Pimelandra. Wallichii A De C. {Myr.nneae). 

MEDANG PASIK. 

Phoebe vmltiffora Bl. {Laurineae). Also applied to Vatica 
Pidleyana Brandis. {Dipterocarpeae) and Pittosporvm 
ferrngineurn Ait. {Pitioaporeae). 

MEDANG PAYA. 

Lindera malaccensis Hook. fil. {Laurineae). Also ]\fyristiGa 
intermedia Bl. {Myristicaceae). Also. Elaeocarpus obtnms 
Bl. ( TiJiaceae) but this probably is an error for Mendong, 

MEDANG PEPILAKAN. 

Eloeocarpns integra Wall. {Tih'aceae). 

MEDANG PERAWAS. 

Linde^^a sp. {Laurineae). A tree the bark of which is used 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 177 

in native medicine. Filet g-ives Madang Prawas as Po- 
lyadenia hicida Nees. 

MEDANG PETUTU. 

Adinandra dumosa Jack. (Ternstroemiaceae). 

MEDANG PIPIT. 

E/eocarpus parvifolhis Wall. {Tiliaceae). 

MEDANG PUPOI. (Malacca) 

Vitex coriacea Clarke. {Verhenaceae). 

MEDANG RASAP. See Medang Kasap. 
Gironniera nervosa Planch. ( Urticaceae). 

MEDANG SALUANG. 

Litsea Zeylanica Nees. (LmirineaeJ. 

MEDANG SALAN. (Pahang-) 
MEDANG SELAYUN. (Malacca) 

Micropora Curtisii Hook. fil. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG SALUSUL. 

Grewia laurifolia Hook. fil. {^Tiliaceae). 

MEDANG SERAI. (Johore) 

Pentace triptera Hook. fil. {TiHaceae). A vast tree with 
white flowers. 

MEDANG SERIL. 

Cupania lessertiana Camb. (Sapindaceae). 

MEDANG SIRI. 

Meliosma nitida Bl {Sahiaceae). 

MEDANG SUGGUEH. 

Elaeocarpus }fcistersi King*. {Tiliaceae). 

MEDANG SURUPO. 

Xanthophjlium Wrayii King". {Poli/galeae). 

MEDANG TAHI AY AM. 

Litsea myristicaefolia Wall. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG TAHI KERBAU. 

Alstonia ?7iacrophi/lla Wall. (Apocynaceae). 

MEDANG TAMPO. 

. Litsea lancijolia Roxb. {Laurineae). 



178 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MEDANGTANAH. 

Eleocarpus obtusus Bl. (Ti/iaceae). 

MEDANG TANDOK. (Pahang) 

Micropora Curtisii Hook. fil. (Laurineae). 

MEDANG TANJONG. 

Elaeocarpiis integra Wall. (Tiliaceae). Also Kingsfonia ner- 
vosa King. (Anojiacae). 

MEDANG TARAH. 

Gironiiiera nervom Planch. {Uriicaceae). 

MEDANG TELOR. 

Enr/enia Griffithii Duth. (Mi/rtaceae). Also applied to 
Actinodapfine sp. Medang Kuning. 

MEDANG TERUTAU. 

Alsodeia echinocarpa Korth. {Violaceae). 

MEDANG TIJO. 

Elaeocarpus stipularis Bl. {Tiliaceae). 

MEDANG TULOH. 

Micropora Curtisi Hook. fil. {Laurineae). 

MEDANG TULOK. (Penang) 

lle.r macrophijlla Wall. {Ilicineae). A common tree. 

MEDANG WANGI. 

Erythroxylon hurnumicum Griff. (Lineae). 

MEDANGKOK. 

An unidentified tree with a yellow timber often used ; a 
very similar wood was given me as Mbacftang Hutan 
in Selangor. 

MEDARAH. 

Pti/cJwpyxis costafa Miq. (EupJwrbiaceae). 

MELADA. (Penang) 

Sarcocephalus Junghnhnii Miq. {Ruhiaceae). 

MELAMAN. 

Acromjchia Porteri Wall. (Rutaceae). 

MELATI. AlsoMELOR. 
Jasmines, {Jaf^minum). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 179 

MELOR ANGIN. 

A /sodeia memb)aiiacea King. {Violaceae). A shrub. 

MELOR HUTAN. (Akar) 

Jasmin um hifarium Wall. {Oleaceae). The common wild 
jessamine. 

MELOR EUTAN. (Poko) 

Eranthemum malaccense C. B. Clarke (Acanthaceae). A shrub 
with conspicuous violet flowers. 

BUNGA MELOR HUTAN. (Akar) 

Coptosapelta Griffithii Hook. fil. {Rubiaceae). A climber 
with white flowers like jessamine. 

MEM ALL See Mali-Mali. 

MEMALL (Akar) 

Sphenodesma triffora Wight. (Verbenaceae). 

MEMANIRAN PUTIH. 

Portnlaca quadrifida L. {Porta lacacae). A little weed with 
yellow flowers. Favre is the authority for this. 
MEMBACHANG. See BACHANG. 

MEMBALIK PADANG. 

Leea. 
MEMBATU LAIANG. 

Ficus rhododendrifoiia Mi({. ( Urticaceae.) 
MEMBULAH. 

Zanthoxyluin inijriacanthum Wall. {Rntaceae). 
MEMBULUH. (Akar) 

Gijnotroches axillaris Miq. {Rubiaceae). 

MEMPAS JANTAN. 

Petanga venulosa Hook. HI. {Rubiaceae). 

MEMPAT-MEMPAT HUTAN. 

Cratoxijlon foriiiosuvi Benth. also C. poltjanthuni Korth. {Hij- 
pericineae). See also Mempitis. (Jommon and beautiful 
trees with good timber, and pink flowers. 
MEMPAT PADANG. 

DaphnipkiiUuni laurinuni Baill. (Eujwrbiaceae). 



ISO MALAY PLANT NAMES 

MEMPATU. 

Symplocos racemosa Wall. (Sfijraceae). A small tree with 
racemes of white flowers. 

MEMPEDAL AYAM. See Ampedal Ayam. 

MEMPOYAN. See Empoyan. 

MEMPEDU TANAH. 

Harmandia Kunstleri King. (Olacineae). 

MEMPELU TANAH. 

Sarcocephaius Junghuhnii Miq. (Riibiaceae). Compare Lem- 
PEDU TANAH. 

MEMPENING. MEMPUNING. 

Quercus Hystrix Korth. (Cupuliferae). Also Kampuning. 

MEMPENING BAGAN. 

Quercus sundaica Bl. {Cupuliferae). 

MEMPENING BUNGKUS. 

Quercus spicata Sm. {Cupuliferae). 

MEMPENING JANTAN. MEMPENING PUTIH. 

Quercus Eichleri Wenz. MEMPENING PUTIH is also the name 
of Quercus encleisocarpa Korth. and Q. omalkos Korth. 

MEMPITIS. (Johore) 

Cratoxylon formosum Benth. (Hypericineae). 

MEMPUNAI BUKIT. 

Antidesma velutinosum Muell (EupJiorbiaceae). A large shrub. 
Also Arthrophyllum diversifolium Bl. (Araliaceae), 

MEMPUNING. See Mempening.^^ 

MENARONG GAJAH. 

I'richospermum Kurzii King. (IViaceae). 

MENDALU. Also DEDALU. SANALU. JINALU. 
Various species of Loranthus { Loranthaceae). 

MENDALU API. 

Loranthus pentapetalus Roxb. L. pentandrus L, 

MENDALU BESAR. 

L. grandifrons King. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 181 

MENDALU API BATANG. 

Henslowia lobhiana A. De C. {SantaUiceae). The name means 
the mistletoe which forms a stem. The Henslowia is 
usually a climber but sometimes forms a bush. 
MENDARONG. Also Menerong. 

Scirpus f/7'ossus Vahl. (Cyperaceae). A sedge used for mat 
making-. 

MENDARONG EKOR TUPAI. 

Mariscus wnbeUatiis C B. 0. (Cyperaceae). Lit. Squirrel-tail 
sedge. The flower spikelets are ai ranged in brush-shaped 
spikes suggesting a squirrel's tail. 

MENDONG-MENDONG. 

Eiaeocarpus. A genus of trees of no very great size, with 
white flowers and oblong or globose green or blue drupes. 
See under Medang. 

MENDONG KELAWAR. 

Eiaeocarpus parvifolius Wall. (TiUaceae). " Bat's Eiaeo- 
carpus." A very popular fruit with fruit bats. 

MENDONG MUSANG. 

Eiaeocarpus paniculatus Wall. (Tiliaceae). "Civet cat's 
Ealeocarpus." 

MENDONG PEPILAKAN. 

Eiaeocarpus Integra Wall. C Tiliaceae), 
MENGADING. 

Meliosina sp. 
MENGKUANG. 

Pandanus atrocarpas Griff. ( Pandanaceae). The common 
screw-pine. The leaves much used for making roofs and 
covering for carts, etc. 
MENGKUANG HUT AN. 
P. Houlletianus Carr. 

MENGKUANG AYER. (Selangor) 

Pandanus sp. apparently undescribed. It has a prostrate 
stem with large leaves like those of P. atrocarpus Griff, 
but with a long point. The head of fruits is solitary 
one foot long and three inches through. 



182 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MENGKUANG LAUT. 

Pandamis fascicular is Lam. The common sea-coast species 
often cultivated for the leaves which are used to make mats. 
It is more commonly known as Pandan Durl 

MENGKUANG LOBO. MENGKUANG TEDONG. 

Mapania palustris (Ci/peraceae). A broad leaved sedge, 
resembling a screw pine. 

MENGKUDANG. 

Mezzettia Herveijana Oiiv. {Anonaveae). A large tree. 

MENGKUDU. Also MANGKUDU. BANGKUDU. CHANG- 
KUDU. 
3forinda tinctoria Roxb. {Ruhiaceae). A common tree of 
which the bark is used for dyeing. 

xMENGKUDU BADAK. 

Fagroea vwrindaefolia Bl. {Loganiaceae). 

MENGKUDU KEOHIL. 

Morinda umbeUata L. The climbing Morinda. 

MENGKUDU JANTAN. MENGKUDU RIMBAH. 

Morinda citrifolia L. The wild form of M. tinctoria Roxb. 

MENGKUNYIT. (Akar) 

Coscinum Blumeanum Miers. ( M enisperniaceae). 

MENSARAH PUTIH. (Johore) 

Honmlium foetidum Benth. (Saniijdaceae), 

MENTADA. 

Leucopogon nmlaijanus Jack. CEpacrideae). A heath-like 
shrub with small white flowers. 

MENTANGOR. See Bintangok. 
MENTIMUN. See TiMUN. 
Pumpkins. ( CucurbitaceaeJ. 

MENTUBA. (Malacca) 

Diospyros sp. near Enibryopteris (Ebenaceae), A tree with 
round fruit which are said to be poisonous. 

MENUMPANG. (Daun) 
Any epe phytic plant. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 183 

MERAH KELUANG. 

Melanorrhea Curtisii Oliv. (Anacardiaceae). A large tree, 
with red winged fruits. It is one of the plants included 
under the name Rengas. 

MERAMBONG BUKIT BESAR. 

Vatica pallida Djer. (DipferocarpeaeJ. 

MERANTI. 

A name given to many of the Shoreas. ( Dipterocarpeae) 
the timber of which is in great request for building, and 
planking. 

MERANTI DAUN KECHIL. 
Shorea parvifolia Dyer. 

MERANTI PAYA. 

Shorea acuminata Dyer. 

MERANTI PUTIH, 

Hopea Orijjithiana Dyer. 

MERANTI TAHI. 

Shorea Curtisii Dyer. 

MERAPIT. (Malacca) 

Pygeum lanceolatuni Hook. fil. {Rosaceae). 

MERAPOH. (Akar) 

Modeoca Singaporiana Mast. (Passijloraceae). 

MERAVVAN. MERAWAN KUNYIT. 

Hopea mengaraivan BI. {Dipterocarpeae). The name Mera- 
wan is also aplied to //. pierrei Hance and H. intermedia 
King. These trees supply a very good timber resembling 
MERANTI. 

MERBATU KECHIL. M. MERAH. M. PUTIH. 

Parinariiim nitidum Hook. fil. (liosaceae). There are also 
the variants Morabatu, Marabatp, Mumbatu, Tem- 

BAl^U. 

MERBATU LOYANG. 

Parinarium Griffifhianum Benth. (Rosaceae). 
MERBATU PAiSIR. 

Pachynocarpus Wallichii King. {Dipterocarpeae). 



184 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

MERBAYLT. 

Tarrietia simpHci folio. Mast. (Stercufiaceae). A gigantic 
tree. 

MERBONG JANTAN. 

Turpinia pomijera De C. {Sapindaceae). 

MERBULOH. MERBULOH JANTAN. 

Gynotroches axillaris Miq. {Rhizophoreae) see Marbuloh. 

MERBULU KECHIL. 

Ali/risfica missionis Ham. ( Myrisficaceae). 

MERABAU AYER. Also MERABAU KUNYIT and MERA- 
BAU TANDOK. 

Afzelia coriacea Bak. {LeguuiinosaeJ. 

MEREBAU PUTIH. MERBAU. 

Afzelia palembauica Bak. {Leguminosae). One of the finest 
timbers in the peninsula. 

MERELANG. (Selangor) 

Pterospermum diversijolinm Bl. fSterculiaceaeJ. A large tree 

MERJAGONG. 

Ixo7ianthes obovata Hook. fil. (Lineae). 

MERKASIH. 

Eugenia zeylanica Wt. (Myrtaceae). 

MERLIMAU. (Akar) 

Paramignya vwnophylla Wight. (Putaceae). A soandent 
thorny wild orange. 

MEROMBONG. (Malacca) 

Timonius jamhosella Thw. {Puhiaceae). A small tree com- 
mon in open country. 
Also Adina polycephala Benth. {Puhiaceae). 

MEROMBONG BUKIT. 

Vernonia arhorea. Ham. {Compositae). 

MEROYAN BATU. 

Lasianthus sp. (Rubiaceae). A shrub. 

MEROYAN BUNGKE. 

Dianella ensifolia Red. (Liliaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 185 

xMEROYAN BUSUK. 

Dissochoeta punctulata Hook. fiL (Melastomaveae). 
MEROYAN JANTAN. MEROYAN PAYA. 

Dissochoeta ce.'ebwa Bl. (Melastomaceae). 

MEROYAN KABUT. 

Clerodendron nutans L. (Verbenaceae). 
MEROYAN NIBUT. 

Didt/mocarjms atrosanguineus Ridl. {CyrtaiidraceaeJ. A 
small plant with beautiful deep red flowers. 
xMEROYAN PAPAN. 

Aspidium Singaporianuni (Filices). Medicine for fever 

MEROYAN SEJUK. (Akar) 

Dissochoeta hracteata Bl. (Melastomaceae). 

MEROYAN SUMBOXG. 

Anadeiidruin itionianuiu Schott. ( AioideaeJ. 
MEROYAN TINGAL. 

Globba sp. (Scitamineae). 

MERPADI PAYA. 

Sijmplocos fasciculata Zoll. (Stgraoeae). 
xMERPOU See Makpoh. 

MERPOIN. 

Carallia interjerrima Dec. (llJnzophoreae). 

mersawah. 

Atnsoptera spp. {Dipterocarpeae). Tall trees giving a good 
timber. 
MERSAVVA MERAH. 

A nisoptera g labra K u rz . 

MERTAJAM. 

Erioglassum edule Bl. (Sapindaceae). 

MERUAN. (Kaju) 

Croton Gnjfitlni (Eujjhorbiaceae). 

MERUAN. (Akar) 

Sphenodesma barbata Schauer. (Verbenaceae). 

MESERAH JANTAN. 

Evodia Roxbarghiana Benth. '^Rataceae). 



186 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MIDING BETINA. Also LAMIDING. 

Stenochloena paiustiis (Ft/ices). A climbing fern. 

MIKU. 

Artocarpus Loivii King. (Urticaceae). 

MILIAN. 

Sterculia macrophijlla Tent. (Stercu'iaceaeJ. A tree with 
large red capsules. 

MILOR. (Perak) 

Alij.ria stellata var acuminata {Apocynaceae). Wray is the 
authority for this. 

MINTA ANAK. (Kedah) 

Arthrophijllum pinnatuni C. B. Clarke. {Araliaceae). A 
shrubby araliad growing on the higher hills. 

MINTAGU. 

FenipJiis acidula Forst. {Lythrarieae). A shrub growing on 
the sea coast, with small white flowers. 

MINYAK. 

Oil. Wood-oils, the chief of which are MlNYAK Kkeukn 
(see Keruen) and MlNYAK Damak. (see Damar). 

MINYAK. (Akar) 

Liinacia cuspklata Hook. fil. (Afenispermaceae). A slender 
climber. 

MINYAK BERUK. 

A name applied to many species of Xanthoph/jllum {Pohj- 
f/alaceae) e. g. X. i^cdeiubanicuia Miq. A". Kunstleri King. 
Some of them produce valuable timber, and nearly all 
are trees. 

MINYAK BERUK JANTAN. 

Xanthophijllum vufum A. W. Benn. {Pohjgalaceae) 

MIRLANG. 

Irvingia makujana Oliv. (Simanibeae). Maingay's list. 
Maingay says the wood is pale yellowish buff and used 
for kris handles. It is a vast tree and is more commonly 
known as Pauh Kuang. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 187 

MISKAM. 

Baccaurea sp. {Euphorhiaceae) sp. A. Flor. Brit. Ind. An 
undescribed species. 

MODU. 

Aglaia argentea King. {Meliaceae), 
MONTEK. (Akar) 

Urceola tornlosa Hook. fil. ( Apocynaceae). 

MORABATU. 

Pariaarium nitidnm Hook. fil. (Romceae). A variant of 
Merbatu. 
MOYIA. (Sungei Ujong) 

Homalanthii.^ populifo/ius Gray. (Euphorhiaceae). 

MUBAGON. 

Aporosa aurea Hook, fil. (Euphorbmceae). 
MUJAGON. 

Parinarium Grifjitliianum Benth. (Rosaceae). 

MURANANG. 

Alpinia Galaiiqa L. (Scitamineae). Commonly known as 
Lankwas. 

MULAI TTKUS. 

Coix /achr>/ma-Jobi L. (Gramiueae). " Job's tear's." 
MULAR FADANG. (Akar) 

Premna coriacea C. B. Clarke. (Verbenaceae). 
MULUMUT. 

Campnosperma oxijrrhachis Engl. {Anacardiaceae). 

MUMBAJU. 

Tarrietia simplicifolia Mast. {Sferculiaceae). A very large 
tree. 

MUMBATU. 

Parinarium nitidu?n Hook. fil. (Rosaceae). See Merbatu. 

MUMBOL. (Akar) (Johore) 

Millettia sericea W. & Arn. {Leguminosae) , 

MUMBULOH. (Akar) 

Moesa ramentacea A. De C. (Myrsineae). A common large 
half climbing shrub with very small white fiowers. 



188 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

MUMBULOH RIMBA. 

Fellacah/x saccavdicmufi Scort. {Bhizojihoreae). A medium 
sized tree. 

MUMBULU. (Akar) 

Tiiiomi'^cym petiolai^e Miers. {^M enispermaceae). A stout 
woody climber, with panicles of small w^hite flowers from 
the old wood. 

MUMJILAI. 

Aphania paucijuga Radlk. (Sapindaceae). 

MUMJILAI HUTAN. 

Ixora opaca Br. {Ruhiaceae). 

MUMPADANG. 

Parinarinm nitidum Hook. fil. (Bosaceae). 

MUMPANANG. (Akar) 

Cissampelos Pareira L. {Meiiii^permaceae). Also LUMPANANG. 

MUMPANJOR. 

Dialium Mainrjayii Bak. {Leguminosae). 

MUMPAT JANTAN. 

Cvjiptocarya ferrea Bl. {Laurineae). 

MUMPAYIAN. 

Anthocepha'.ua Cadamba Miq. {R}dnaceae). 

MUMPAYANG. (Akar) 

Vitis diffusa Miq. {Ampelideae). A common vvild vine with 
black g-rapes. 

MUMPIANG. 

Melanochyla auriculata Hook. fil. (Anacardiaceae) 

MUMPISANG. 

Pohjalthia Jenlcinsn Benth. {Anonaceae) (Mamgay's list). 
Probably a variant of PiSANG-PlSANG. A commonly 
applied to anonaceous plants. 

MUMPISANG BULU. 

Myristica laurina Bl. {Myristicaccae). 

MUMPOYAN. 

Anthocephalns Cadamba. Miq. (Rubiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 189 

MUMPULU RIMBAH. 

Randia anisophjUa Jack. (Rubiaceac). A common small 
tree in forests. 

MUNAHON. Also MANAON, SIAL MUNAHON, and NAUN. 

Kibessia simplex Korth. {Mehtstoinaceae). 

MUNDARONG. 

2\ema amhoinensis Bl. ( Urticaceae). A common shrub. See 
NARONCt. 

MUNDU. 

Garcinia dulcis (Guftiferae). 

MUNGILANG API. 

Gomphcmdra lanceoJata King". (Olactneae). 

MUNGKE. 

Croton argiiratus Bl. {Evphorhiaceae). See SiMMUNGKE. 

MUNGKAL. 

Sarcocephalns Junglinhmi {Ruhiaceae). Compare MagaL. 

MUNGKOI. 

Canthium glabrum Bl. (Rubiacae), A small tree. 

MUNGKOYAN. (Penang-) 

Rhodanmia trwerria Bl. (Mi/rfaceae). 

MUNGLUT. 

Patjena costata King". (Sapofaceae). A small or medium 
sized tree. 

MUNGOL. 

Adinandra sp. {Ternsfroennaceae). 

MUNJUAT. 

Criiptocavya impressa Miq. (Laurineae). 

MUNJULONG BUKIT. 

Gomphostemma criintiin} Wall. {Labiafae). A herb with 
yellow flowers, resembling- a yellow-dead nettle. 
MUNOT. 

Epiprimis Ma/ai/anus Griff. {Eiiphorbiaceae), 

MUNSAGA. 

Eloeocarpvs parvifoUus Wall. {Tiliaceae). 



190 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

MUNSIAL. 

Ardisia colorata Roxb. {Myrsineae). 

MUNSIANG. (Rumput) MANSIYANG. 

Cyperus procerus Rottb. (Cyperaceae). A common sedge 
which is used for making- mats. Compare MusiANG. 

MUNSIRAH. See Musirah. 

MUNUBONG. 

Aporosa aurea Hook. fil. {^Euphorhiaceae). 

MUNUJAN. (Akar) 

Dioscorea glabra Roxb. {Dioftcoreaceae). 

MUPISANG. 

Gomothalamus Malayaims Hook. fil. {Anonaceae). Compare 
MUMPISANG. 

MUPISANG. (Akar) 

Cyathostemma Scortechinii King. {Anonaceae). 

MUPISANG BATU. 

Papoicia nervifolia Maingay (anonaceae). 

MUPISANG HITAM. (Akar) 

Oxymitra hujlandulosa Scheff. (Anonaceae). 

MUPOYAN PAYA. 

Dissochoeta celebica Bl. (Melastomaceae). 

MUPUS. (Penang) 

Swintonia spicifera. Teysm. (Anacardtaceae). A large tree. 

MUHAI BATU. 

Erismanthis ohliqua Wall. (Eupborbiaceae). 

MURA.MBONG. 

Ardisia crassa Clarke. {3fyrsineae). 

MURMAGONG. 

Gomphia sumatrana Jack. {Ochnaceae). 

MUROM BONG. 

Adina rubescens Hemsl. {Rubiaceae). A small tree. 

MURONG. (Rumput) 

Scirpus grossus L. (^Cyperaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 191 

MURUBONG JANTaN. 

Riuidia densiflora Benth. {Ruhiaceae). 

MURUSEH HITAM. 

Gomphandra lanceolata King. (Olaciiieae). 

MUSIANG. (Rumput) 

Scirptis grossus L. (Ci/peraceae). See MUNSIANG. 

MUSIANG. (Akar) 

Roucheria Griffithiana Planch. {Lineae). 
MUSIRAH BUkIt. MUSIRAH PUTIH. 

Ile.i: cijiKOsa BI. (Ilicineae). A common small tree with 
white stem, small white tlowers and red berries. 
MUSIRAH iMATA KERBAU. 

Ramlia densiflora Benth. (Ri(bk(ceae). 

MUSTAH. (Legeh) 

Garcmia iinuigostana L. {Giitliferae). A northern name for 
the Mangosteen. 

MUSUKAXG PUTIH. 

Rgparia fasciculata King. {Bivineae). 

MUTUBONG. (Rumput) 

Panicinn trigonuvi L. [Graiidneae). 

NAH SEPAT. (Pahang) 

Antidesma cuspidafum Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 
NAM-NAM. 

Cgnometra caalifiora L. (Leguminvsae). 

^'amo. 

Connanis gibbosus Wall. {Cunnaraceae). A shrub with light 
pink flowers. 

NANA. (Akar) 

Dioscorea sp. 

NANAS. 

The pine-apple. Ananassa satica L. (Bromeliaceae). 
NANCHONG BESIH. (Penang) 

Fregcinetia aiigustifolia Bl. (Pandanaceae). A climbing 
screw-pine. 



192 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

NANGKA. 

The Jack. Arlocarpus integrifolia L. (Urticaceae). 

NANGKA PIPIT. 

Artocarpus lunceaefolia Roxb. ( Urticaceae). 

NANGKA WOLANDA. 

The Sour-sop. Anona inuricata L. (Anonaceae). More 
commonly called in the Straits DURIAN Bland A. 

NARONG JANTAN. NARONG PAYA. 

Trenta amhoiiiensis Bl. {Urticaceae). A common shrub in 
waste ground. 

NASI-NASI. Also KELAT NASI-NASI. 

Eugenia zei/lanica L. (Mj/rtaceae). A small tree with white 
fruits which sug-gest rice in appearance. 

NASI-NASI. (Akar) 

Psijchotria polijcarpa Miq. (Rubiaceae). A climber with 
white fruits. 

NASI-NASI BUKIT. 

Adenosacme lougi folia Wall. (Rubiaceae). X small shrub 
with white fruits. 

NASI RIMBA. 

Vitex vestita V¥all. f Verbenaceae). 

NASI SEJUK. (Kedah) 

Salacia sp. (KJtanmeae). A shrub with fruit resembling an 
orange but with seeds wrapped in sweet pulp inside. 

NAULI-NAULI. (Malacca) 

Ardisia colorata Roxb. {Myrsineae). 

NERRUM. (Pahang) 

Dipterocarpus ob'ougifolius Bl. D. pulcherriinus Ridl. 
{Dipterocarpeae). A large and beautiful tree. 

NAUN. See Manaun. 

NUTO. NIATO TEMBAGA. N. BALAU. N. PUTIH. 
N. HITAM. 
Pai/ena costata King. (Sapotaceae). A timber tree of 
some repute. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 193 

NIBONG. 

Oncosiierma tigiVaria Griff. (Palmeae). A well known palm 
used in house-building*. 

NIBONG PADI. NIBONG LENAU. 

Oncosperma sp. perhaps only varieties of the preceding. 

NIBONG PALIR. (Johor) 

Oheronia Stnophylla Ridl, {Orchideae). 

NILA. 

Indigo. Ltdigofera tinctoria L. {Legummosae). 

NIDEI. See Kenidei. 

Various species of Bridelia. 

NILAM. 

Pogostemon Patchouli Pell. (Labiafae). The Patchouli plant. 

NILAM BUKIT. 

P. heijneanum. Hook, and Thorns. 

NILAM JANTAN. 

Hemigraphis confinis Nees. (Acanthaceae). A weed grow- 
ing on dry banks. 

NILAU. 

Cupania pallidulxi Hiern. (Sapindaceae). 
NILAU PAYA. 

Commersonia echinata Forst. {Tiliaceae). 

NIPAH. 

Nipa fruticans \j. (Palmeae). 

NIPIS KULIT. 

Memecylon mgrsinoides Bl. (Melastomaceae). The name is 
often applied to other Memecylons. 

NIPIS KULIT BETINA. 

Aporosa Maiiigayi Hook. fil. {Eupihorhiaceae). 

NIPIS KULIT PUTIH. 

Ap)orosa stellifera Hook. fil. {Euphorhiaceae) Probably short- 
ened from SEBASAH Nipis Kulit. 

NIEEH. 

Carapa moluccana Lam. {Meliaceae). 



194 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

NOJA. 

Peristrophe montana Nees. (Acanthaceae). A herb used for 
dyeing- pink. 

NONA. 

The Custard apple. Anona squamosa L. (Anonaceae). 
NONA KAPRI. 

Anona reticulata L. The "Bullock-heart." 

NUBAL. (Akar) (Sungei Ujong) 

Medinilla Hasseltii Bl. {Melastomaceae). 

NIYUR. 

Coconut. Cocos nucifera L. {Pabneae). 
OBAH. 

Eloeocarpus rohustus Roxb. ( Titiaceae). 
OBI. 

Parinarium costatum Hook. fil. (Posaceae). 

OLEH. (Rumput) 

Heiiotropium indicum L. {Boragineae). A common weed. 

OMBA-OMBA. (Singapore) 

Desmodium heterophyllum De C. (Legmmnosae). A creeping 
herb common in grass. 

ONAK. (Malacca) 

Zizyphus calophi/llus Wall. {Rhamneae). A strong climber 
with hooked thorns. 

ORAN MERAH. (Akar). (Malacca) 

Neuropeltis racemosa Wall. (Convohmlaceae). 

ORAWARI RUNGKUP. 

Clerodendron fallax L. ( Verbenaceae). 
OTAK HUDANG. 

Buchanania acuminaki (Anacardiaceae). Lit. Prawn's brains, 
A tree so called on account of the redness of the wood. 

PADAL ITEK. 

Hydnophytum formicarium Jack. (Pubiaceae). A remark- 
able epiphyte, the Ant's nest plant. Perhaps a modifica- 
tion of Ampedal Itek, Duck's gizzard, refering to the 
curious tuberous stem. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 195 

PADANG. (Akar) 

Cnestisra7niflora Grifi. (Connaraceae). Lit. Field-climber. 

PADANG. (Bunga) 

Melochia corchorifolia L. (Sterculiaceaej and Sida rhomhi- 
Jolia L. (Malvaceae). Lit. Field-flower. Common shrubs 
growing in open fields. 

PADANG. (Bua) (Pahang) 

Willuyhheia dulcis Ridl. (Apocynaceae.J 
PADI. 

Rice. Oryza sativa L. {Gramineae), 
PADI BU RONG. ( Rumput) 

Panicum colomim L. {Grammeae). Lit. Bird-rice. A com- 
mon grass. 
PADIJANG. 

Ixora pari'iflora Wall. (Riihiaceae). A tree. 
PAGAR. (Bunga) 

The common Lantana. Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). 
Literally Fence flower. 
PAGAR ANAK. Also P. ANAK MERAH. P. ANAK HI- 
TAM. P. ANAK BETINA. 
Ixonanthes ohovata Hook. fll. {Lineae). There is also a va- 
riant Pagu Anak. a tree of moderate size, giving a 
good timber. 

PAGAR ANAK JANTAN. 

Gordoiiia excelsa Bl. ( Ternstroemaceae) , A moderate sized 
tree. 
PAH KUDAH. (Akar). 

Chailletia defiexifolia Turz. (ChatlletiaceaeJ. 

PAH KEDAH. (Akar) 

Derris Maingayana Benth. (Leguminosae). 

PAJU JARUM. 

Schizoea dichotoma (Filices). Paju is a spur, and jarum 
a needle. The name probably has reference to the long 
slender needle-like branches of the frond. 
PAKAN PAYA. (Akar) 

Vitis adnata Wall. {Ampelideae). 



196 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PAKAN JANTAN. 

Kihara coriacea Endl. {Monimiaceae) . 

PAKAN RIMBAH. (Malacca) 

Allomorphia exigua Bl. (Melastomaceae) 

PAKAN PAYA. 

Fagroea racemosa Jack. {Loganiaceae) 

PAKAN HUTAN. Also PUKAN. P. BETINA. P. JANTAN. 
Jasminum hifarium Wall. {Oleaceae). The common wild 
jasmine. 

PAKU. Also PAKIS. 

A fern, probably because the young fronds are rolled up 
like nails. 

PAKU AJl. 

Ci/cas Rumphii ^Cycadeae). Also called Paku Laut. This 
plant has the young leaves rolled up like those of ferns. 

PAKU BALU, 

I'aenites blechnoides Sw. 

PAKU BENAR. 

Anisogonium esculentuin Presl. 

PAKU BIAWAK. 

Aspidiani Singaporiamim Wall. Biawak is the monitor- 
lizard. Hydrosaurus salvator. 

PAKU BINET. 

Diplazium tomenfosum Hook. 

PAKU CHIAI. 

Pleopeltis nigrescens Bl. 

PAKU DUDOK BUKIT. 

Lindsay a scandens Hook.. 

PAKU GADING. 

Aspidium Leuzeanum Hook. . 

PAKU GAJAH PAYA. 

Cyathea Bninonis Wall. 

PAKU GALA HANTU LAUT. 

Selliguea Feci Hook. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 197 

PAKU HITAM PAYA. 

Cijathea Brunonis Wall. 

PAKU IKAN. 

Blechnum orientale L. 

PAKU KIJANG. 

Diplazium sorzogonense Presl. The Kijang is the muntjac. 
(Cervulus muntjac). 

PAKU KIKIR. 

Aspidiam polymorphum Wall. 

PAKU KILAT. 

Nephrodium dissectum Forst. 

PAKU LANGSUIR. (Selangor) Also RUMAH LANGSUIR. 

T'hamnopteris nidus-avis L. (Filices). The bird's nest fern. 
The Langsuir is a remarkable kind of Goblin which is 
supposed to make its home in this fern. 

PAKU LUMUT BATU. 

Leucostegia parvula Wall. 

PAKU MESIX. PAKIS MERAH. 

Stenochlaena palustris L. 

PAKU MURAK. 

Aspidium singaporianum Wall. " Peacock-fern." 

PAKU PAHAT. 

Cyathea Brunonis Wall. 

PAKU PANDAN. 

Thamnopteris nidus-avis L. Because the leaves are like those 
of a pandan. 

PAKU PIJAI. (Pahang) 

Taenites blechnoides Sw. 

PAKU PINANG. 

Nephrolepis exaltata L. 

PAKU NINGEH. 

Nephrolepis voluhilis Sm. 
PAKU RAMU. 

Stenochlaena palustris L. 



198 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PAKU RESAM. 

Gleichenia linearis Burm. See Resam. 

PAKU RESAM PADL P. R. LUMUT. 

Chei/anthes tenuifolia Sw. 

PAKU RUSA. 

Diplazium Sorxogonense Presl. 
PAKU SELAMAH. 

Cyatliea Brunonis Wall. 

PAKU TANJONG. 

Anisogonium esculentum Presl. 

PAKU TEMBAGA. 

Aspidium cicutarium Sw. 

PAKU TOMBAK. 

Syngramme alisinaefolia Hook. Because its fronds are like 
leaves of tobacco (tombak). 

PAKU TUMBAR. 

Schizaea dichotoma Sw. 

PAKU TUNJOK SANGET. 

Syngramme alismaefoJia Hook. 

PAKU UBAN. 

Nephrolepis exaltata L. 

PAKU UBIL. 

Blechnum orientale L. 

PAKU ULAR. 

Blechnum orientale L. " Snake fern." 

PAKU WANGI. 

Pleopeltis phymatodes L. " Scented fern." 

PALA. 

Nutmeg. Myristica fragrans L. (Alyristiceae). This word 
with adjuncts is used also for some of the wild nutmegs, 
especially the large fruited ones which resemble the tree 
plant. The smaller fruited ones with some of the larger 
fruited ones are called, Pendara, or the variants Pena- 
RA, Menara, Penderhan, or Chenderahan. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 199 

PALA HUTAN BULU. 

Myristica Loiciana King-. 

PALABUKIT. 

Myristica crassa King, and M. Kunstleri King-. 

PALA HUTAN. 

Myristica elliptica Wall. 

PALA JANTAN PAYA. 

Myristica crassifolia Hook. fil. 

PALA-PALA. (Akar) 

Ficus aurantiaca Griff. ( Urticaceae). A climbing fig, the 
figs of which are as large as a very large wild nutmeg 
and orange-red. 
PALAS. 

Licuala paludosa Griff. (Palmeae) and other species. The 
Licualas are fan palms, the leaves of which are cut into 
segments. 

PALAS TIKUS. 

Licuala acufi/kia Mart. {Palmae) and L. pusilla Becc. The 
name is also applied to Iguamira geonomoeformis Mart. 
PALAS BATU. 

Licuala longipes Griff. 
PALAS REWANG. 

Licuala pusilla Becc. {Palmae). 

PALAS PADI. 

Licuala glabra Griff. Also Palas GunONG according to 
Griffith (Palms of British India). A small dwarf species 
occurring on hills at about 2000 feet altitude. 

PALI MUNYIT. (Pahang) 

Anaxagorea Scortechinii King. {Anonaceae). A small tree. 

PALUNG. 

Eugenia nitida Duthie. (Myrtaceae). Maingaj's list. 

PANASAN. 

Homalmm longifolium Benth. (Samydaceae). 

PANCHAN. (Malacca) 

Urophyllum hirsutum Wight. {Rubiceae). 



200 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PANDAN. 

A name given to the smaller screw pines (Pandanaceae). 

The leaves of which are used in making mats. 
PANDAN BIRU. 

Mapania hijpolytroides C. B. C. (Cyperacene). A broad leaved 

sedge resembling a pandan. 

PANDAN DURI. PANDAN DARAT. FANDAN LAUT. 

Pandanus fascicularis Lam. The common sea-shore screw- 
pine. 

PANDAN JELINKEH. 

Pandanus laevis Rumph. The leaves are used to flavor rice, 
for which purpose the plant is often cultivated. 
PANDAN KARA. 

Pandanus sp. A dwarf species (No. 15 Fl. Brit. Ind. p. 487) 
This plant appears as yet to be unnamed. 
PANDAN RESAU. 

Pandanus Rusoiv Miq. A pandan which forms dense lofty 
thickets along the edges of rivers in Johore and elsewhere. 

PANDAN TETONGKAT. (Selangor) 

Pandanus sp. near P. Russow Miq. but apparently un- 
described. 

PANDAN TIKUS. PANDAN BEDURI. 

Pandanus ovatus Kurz. A small prostrate kind. 

PANGHONG. 

Allomorphia exigua Bl. (Melastomaceae). 

PANTAT BERUK. (Akar) 

Oeophila reniformis Don. (Rubiaceae). A small creeping herb. 

PANTAT ULAT. (Malacca) 

Memecylon coeruleum Jack. {Melastomaceae). 

PANTAT ULAT. (Akai) 

Gnetmn Brunonianum Griff. (Gnetaceae). 

PANTAT ULAT PUTIH. 
Ratonia sp. 

PAPINA. (Akar) 

Hiptage sericea Hook. fil. (Malpighiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 201 

PARA. (Johore) 

Mangifera. sp. (Anacardiaceae). 

PARA-PARA. (Rumput) (Malacca) 

C ij i^enis pilosus Rottb. {Cyperaceae). 

PARAH BETINA. (Rumput) 

Cy perns }iol II staclnjiis L. (Cyperaceae). 

PAROH. 

Eloeocarpus parvifolius Wall. {Tiliaceae). 

PAROH UNGANK. 
E. stipularis Bl. 

PARONG. 

Dysoxylon caiilifiorum Hiern. (Meliaceae). 

PASAK ACHONG. 

Popowia nervifolia Hook. fil. (Anonaceae). 

PASAK LINGGAH. 

Dysoxylon aaifangulum King, also Aglaia glahriflora Hiern. 
(Meliaceae). This name appears to be applied to several 
kinds of Meliacious trees, which produce a fairly good 
timber. 

PASAK LINGGA JANTAN. P. LINGGA MERAH. 

Walsura i/mltijuga (Meliaceae). 

PASAK BRAS-BRAS. Also PASAK MERAH. 

Aglaia glahriflora Hiern. 

PASAL. 

Ardisia odontophyl/a Wall. (Myrsineae). 

PASIR. (Rumput) 

Adenostemma viscosuin Forst (Compositae). A common weed 
in villages especially in sandy spots. Lit. Sand-herb. 

PASIR LINGGA. 

Tristania Maingayi Duthie. (Myrtaceae). 

PAUH KIJANG. 

Irvingia Malayana Oliv. (Simarubeae). A gigantic tree, 
wellknown as giving a high class timber. The fruit re- 
sembles that of a Mango. 



202 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

PAUH KIJANG JANTAN. (Malacca) 

Homalvm longifolmm. Benth. {Samjjdaceae). 

PAUH-PAUH. PAIIH-PAUH praya. 

Evodia BoxbiirfjJnana Benth. (Rutaceae). A shrub with 
white flowers common in open countr3\ 

PAUH-PAUH BETINA. 

Evodia latifolia De 0. (Rutaceae). A fairly large tree. 

PAUH-PAUH PASIR. 

Croton caudatus Geisel. {Euphorbiaceae) . 

PAVVAN. 

Clerodendron inerme Gaertn. ( Verbenaceae). 

PAWANG. (Bunga) 

Stertospermum hypostictum Miq. {Bignoniaceae). 

PAYONG ALL 

Biophijtum adiantoides Wt. (Geraniaceae). Ali's Umbrella. 
A small herb the leaves of which spread out so as to sug- 
gest an umbrella. 

PAYUNG. Also KAPAYUNG. 
Pangiuni edule Bl. (Bixineae). 

PERUPAT. 

Sonneratia acida Griff. {Lythracea.e). A big tree growing 
m mud on the coast, used for making the knees of boats. 

PECHA PINGAN. 

Randia macrophtjUa Br. (Rubiaceae). Literall}^ " The broken 
plate." 

PECHA PIRING HITAM. 

Chasalia curvijlora Thw. (Rubiaceae). " Black broken plate." 
On account of the dark purple coloring of the stem and 
leaves. 

PECHA PRIOK. 

Ixora fn/gens Roxb. and other species (Rubiaceae). Literally 
" Broken pot," the petals being supposed to resemble a 
red pot broken. Possibly it was originally Patjab, a 
word used in Javanese and Sundanese, for several plants, 
'^specially the Henna. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 203 

PECHA PRIOK HITAM. 

Clerodendroii deflexum AVall. ( Vevhenaceae). A small shrub 
somewhat resembling- an Ixora. 

PECHA PRIOK PUTIH. 

Pavetta indicah. Also Chamlia curvijlora Hhw. (Rubiaceae). 
Common shrubs with white flowers. 

PECHA PRIOK BIRU. 

Eranthemum malaccense C. B. Clarke. A shrub with violet 
flowers. 

PECHA PRIOK BABI. 

Clerodendron vil/osinn Bl. ( Verhenaceae). 
PEGAGA. 

Hjidrocotijk adatica L. {U i nb el lifer ae^. A creeping herb 
much sought for medicine. 

PEGAGA ULAR. PEGAGA TEKU. 

Geophila reniformis Don. (Rubiaceae). A creeping plant with 
the habit of the Hydrocotyle. 
PEKAN. 

Dehaasia sp. (Laurineae). 
P'LAS. (Akar) (Johore) 

Vitis elegans Kurz. (Aiiipelideae). 
PELER MUSANG. 

Fagroea auriculata (Loganiaceae) . A large shrub with enor- 
mous white flowers. 
PELER KAMBING. 

Heritiera littoralis Dryan. (Sterculiaceae). 
PELUK HANTU. 

Fetnnga venulosa Hook. fil. Also PULAS Hantu. 
PELAWAS. (Akar). 

Calycopteris fovibunda Lam. (^Coiubretaceae). 

PELAWAN. 

Tristania whiticma Griff., T. Maingayi Duthie, and T. burnian- 
nica Griff. {Mijrtaceae). Large trees with bunches of 
small white flowers, and the stems red and covered with 
bark which flakes off and remains in piles at the base of 
the tree. The timber is hard and good. 



204 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PELAWAN BERUK. 

Etheiiies Jen cocaiya J s.ck. (Ocluiaceae). A small shrub with 
white, rose, or red berries. Jack is the authority for this. 
PELAWEI. (Selangor) 

TerminaHa foetidissinm Griff. {Comhretaceae). A big- tree 
common in wet places, flowers small white in spikes, fruit 
like a small green mang-o. It gives a good timber. 
PELANDOK BESAR. 

Trigonostemon indicus Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 
PELANGI. 

Aporosa microca'yx Hassk. (Euphorbiaceae). 

PENAGA. 

CalophijUum mophijUum L. {Criittiferae). More commonly 
called BiNTANGOE. 
PENAGA BATU. 

CalophuUum Wallichiamnn. King". 
PENAGA HITAM. 

Cratoxijlon arbor escens Bl. {Hypericineae). 

PENAGA KUNYIT. Also PENAGA LILIN. PENAGA PU- 
TIH. P. SUGA. 
Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae). 

PENAGA LILIN. (Malacca) 

Myristica sp. 
PENAGA Nasi. 

Litsea myristicaefoUa Wall. {Laurineae). 
PENAGA PAYA. 

Kayea grandis King. {Guttiferae). 
PENAH-PENAH HUTAN. (Akar) 

Psychotria sp. {RnbiaceaeJ. It is also called Akar Ganda- 
RUSA, and is used in native medicine. 
PENAVVAR BILLAH. 

Psychotria angulata Korth. (Rubiaceae). A shrub the leaves 
of which are used for large sores. 
PENAWAR HITAM. 

Ooniothalamiis giganteus Hook. fil. Lit. " Black medicine." 
A diug of great repute »? mong the Malays. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 205 

PEN A WAR PAH IT. 

Eurycoma latijolia Jack. (Simaruheae). " Bitter medicine " 
A small tree with very bitter bark and wood used for 
fever by the natives. 

PENDARAH. Also PENARA and MENARA. 

Gomphia sumafrana Jack. (Ocluiaceae). 

Also commonly applied to the wild Nutmegs Mt/ristka sii- 
perba Hook. fil. and other species {Mijristicaceae). 

FENARA BATU. 

Myristica Scorteckiiiii King". 

PENARA BUKIT. 

Myristica conjerta Bl. 

PENDARA HIJAU. 

Myristica pofysphaenda Hook. fil. 

PENDARA HITAM. 

M. ohlongifolia King. 

PENDARA KIKEH. 
M. intermedia BI. 

PENDARA LAUT. 

Myristica glaucescens Hook. fil. 

PENDARA PADl. 

Myristica luissionis Ham. 

PENDARA PAYA. 

Myristica Collettiana King. 

PENDERAHAN. Also CHENDERAUAN. 

Myristica Maingayi Hook. fil. ^f. tomentosa Hook. fil. and 
other species. 

PENDARAHAN TANDOK. 

Mijristica Curtisii King. 

PENGURAK. (Johor) 

Asystasia intrusa Nees. (Acantkaceae). A herb with violet 
flowers common in hedges. 

PeNING-PENING. See Mempening. 



206 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PENKILAI. 

Clerodendron paniculatum L. (Verbenaceae). 

PENLUROH. 

Lepidayathis loiKjifolia Wight. (AcanthaceaeJ. 

PENATON. 

Clerodendron siphoncmthus Br. {Verbenaceae). Favre is the 
authority for this. 

PENGGEHE. 

Aglaonema angustifolium N. E. Br. (Aroideae) . 

PENURUN LUTONG. (Johore) 

Galearia subulata Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). A shrub. 

PEPISANG. Contraction for PiSANG-PlSANG. 
Polyalthia spp. (Anonaceae). 

PEPITAM. 

Clitoria cajanaefolia Benth. (Legunnnosae), A low shrub 
with larg-e pale violet flowers. 

PEPULUT. A contraction for PULUT-PULUT, which see 
Urena lobata L. (Malvaceae), 

PERAWAS. 

Randia densiflora Benth. (Rubiaceae). See also Medang 
PERAWAS. 

PERIA LAUT. 

Momordica charantia L. (CucurbitaceaeJ, A cultivated pump- 
kin. 

PERIA HUT AN. 

Vitis moUissinia Wall. (Ampelideae). A wild vine. 

PERIA BULAN. 

Cardiospermuin Halicacabum L. (Sapindaceae). The balloon- 
vine. 

PERINGAT. 

Breynia reclinata Hook. fil. {Eaphorbiaceae). 

PERINGAT KATING. 

Croton caudafus Geisel. {Euphorbiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. . 207 

PERACHET. 

Taher noemontana malaccensis Hook, ill. (Apocj/naceae). A 
shrub used in native medicine. 

PERAH. 

Mezzettia leptopoda Oliver. (Anonaceae). A tall straight tree 
with good timber. 

PERAH. (Rumput) 

Fimhristijlis diphjjlla Rottb. {CijperaGeae). A common sedge. 

PERAH PAY A. 

Elaeocarpus Mastersi King. ( Tiliaceae). A tree with white 
flowers. 

PERCHA. 

Dichopsis gvtta Benth. (Sapotaceae), See Getah PerchA. 

PERUPOH. 

Hemifiyrosa longifolia Hiern. (Sapindaceae). 

PERJEP. (Akar) 

Cnestis ramiflora Griff. {Connaraceae). 
PEREPAT BUKIT. 

Cupania Lessertiana Camb. {Sapindaceae). A tree. 
PEROPONG. (Malacca) Also BERUBONG. 

Adiiia ruhescens Hemsl, {Rubiaceae). 

PERUT GAGAK. (Akar) Also PERUT KECHAU. 

Byttneria Maingayi Mast. (Sierculiaceae). A large climber. 
The first name means Crow's intestine. 

PERUT KERBAU. PERUT KIJANG. 

Erycibe Princei Hook. fil. {Conrolrulaceae). Literally Buf- 
falo intestine or Muntjac's intestine. 
PERUT TEMBU. (Akar) 

Gnetum neglectum Bl. (Gnetaceae). 

PERUT TIKUS. (Rumput) 

Scirpus supinus L. (Ci/peraceae). A slender sedge common 
in rice fields. Lit. Mouse intestine grass. 

PERUTAK. 

Myrmecordia echinata Gaud. (Rubiaceae). One of the ant- 
plants. Favre is the -authority for this. 



208 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PETAL 

Parkia higlandulosa W. & A. (Leguminosae). A tree, the 
pods of which are eaten by Malays. 

PETAI BELALANG. 

Fifhecolohium microcarpum Benth. and P. angulatum Benth. 
{Leguminosae). Trees with red curled pods. 

PETAI LAUT. 

Desmodium umheliatum Dec. [Leguminosae). 

PET A LING. 

Ochanostachjs amentacea Mast. (Olacmeae). One of the best 
timbers, a fair sized tree. 

PETALING AYER. 

Pachjnocarpus Wallichii King. {Dipterocarpeae). 

PETALING TANDOK. 

Aporosa Praiueana King. {Euphorbiaceae). A shrub or small 
tree. 

PETALING TUGO. 

Antidesma cuspidatum Muell. [Euphorbiaceae). 

PETUTU. 

Hibiscus floccosus Mast. {Malvaceae). A fair sized tree with 
yellow flowers, with a purple eye, the bast used for 
string. 

PETOLA MANIS. 

The loophar. Sufa oegyptiaca L. ( Cucurbitaceae). 

PIALU. (Malacca) 

Orophea setosa King. (Anoiiaceae), Cinnamomum moUissimum 
Bl. (Laurineae) in Johore. 

PIALU. (Akar) 

Zizyphus calophjllus Wall. (Rhamneae). 

PIANGO. 

Clerodendron nutans. Wall. ( Verbenaceae.) 

PIANGO nUTAN. (Akar). (Pahang) 
Ficus consociata Bl. (Urticaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 209 

PIANGO JANTAN. 

Pellacahjx Saccardianus Oliv. (Tlhizophoreae). Also. Myristi- 
ca Ridley ana King*. (Myristicaceae). 

PINA-PINA. 

PluJcenetia corniculafa sm. {Evphorbiaceae). 

PINANG. 

The betel-nut. Areca catechu L. (Palmae). 

PINaNG BAIK. (Penang) 

Valica Curtisii King-. (Dipterocarpeae). 

PINANG BORENG, 

Pinanga maJayana Scheff. (^Palmae). 

PINANG BORENG PADI. 
P. disticha Blume. 

PINANG LUMBAH. 

Peliosanthes albida Hook. fil. and other species (Ophiopogo- 
neae). Herbs with broad green leaves like those of a 
young- betel nut (Pinang Curculigo or LUMBAH). 

PINANG. (Rumput) 

Mariscus umhellatus G. B. C. (Cyperaceae). 

PINANG RAJAH. 

The red-stemmed palm. Cyrtostachys lacca Scheff. {Palmae). 

PINANG UMU. 

Nenga Wendlandiana Scheff. {Palmae). A palm with 
purplish leaf sheaths. 

PINANG LEGONG. (Pahang) 

Pinanga disticha {Palmeae). 

PINANG DAMPONG. 

Pinanga malaiana Scheff. {Palmae). 

FINANG KAKI PELANDOK. 

Pinanga polymorpha Becc. {Palmae). 

PIPIT. (Rumput) 

Andropogon intermedins Br. (Gramineae). " Sparrow grass." 

PISANG. 

The banana. Musa sapientum L. (Scitamineae). There is a 



210 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

very large number of cultivated kinds which have all 
distinct names. Guppy in "Polynesian Plant Names" 
gives Saing as the Philippine name, and Soanga as Fiji ; 
words possibly connected with Pisang. 

The different rows of bananas on the bunch have different 
names. The first row nearest the stalk is called Tadah 
Ambun (lit the Dew-tray) as it is supposed to catch the 
dew ; the second is Tengkok ; the terminal one Chichit. 

PISANG KAROK. 

The wild plantain. Masa malaccensis Ridl. (Scitamineae). 
The commonest wild species. It is probably the origin 
of some of our cultivated bananas. 

PISANG K'LING. 

A name applied to Vanda gigantea Lindl. (Orchideae) in 
Lanka wi. 
PISANG SEBIAK. 

Carina edulis ; C. indica L. (Scitamineae). Sebiak means a 
bead. The name refers to the seeds of the canna. 

PISANG-PISANG. 

Any wild anonaceous plants especially climbing ones e. g. 
Uvaria purpurea Bl. The bunches of fruit are supposed 
to suggest those of a plantain. Contraction forms of the 
word are Pepisang and MUPISANG, or MuMPiSANG. 
PISANG-PISANG BESAR. 

Popowia foetida Maingay. (Anonaceae). 

PISANG-PISANG BUKIT. Also PISANG-PISANG KECHIL 
and PAYA. 

Phaeanthus nutans Hook. fil. (Anonaceae). A shrub with 
green flowers. 
PISANG-PISANG BUKIT. (Akar) 
M elodorum prismaticum Hook. fil. 

PISANG-PISANG BULDO. (Akar) 
M elodorum latifolium Hook. fil. 

PISANG-PISANG BULUH. (Akar) 

Phytocrene 2^ahnataWa]l COIacineae). A climber with th« 
fruits forming a large globose head. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 211 

PISANG-PISANG BUKU. 

Unona discolor Vahl. (AnonaceaeJ. 

PISANG-PISANG JANTAN. And PISANG-PISANG KU- 

NING. 
Uvaria purpurea Bl. f AnonaceaeJ. A half climbing shrub 
with showy red flowers. 

PISANG-PISANG HITAM. 

Uvaria dulcis Dunal. (Anonaceae). 

PISANG-PISANG PADL PISANG-PISANG PIPIT. 

Unona dumosa Roxb. (^Anonaceae). 

PISANG-PISANG TANDOK. 

Uvaria purpurea Bl. {Anonaceae). 

PONG-PONG. (Selangor) 

Cerbera lactaria Ham. {Apocynaceae). A big shrub with 
large white flowers. 

POUH. 

Sonerila moluccana Jack. {Melastomaceae). Jack is the 
authority for this. 

PONTIANAK. (Akar) 

Quisqualis indica L. (Contbretaceae). 

PRIOK KRA. 

Any species of Nepenthe's (Xepenthaceae), Lit. " Ape's cup." 
The pitcher plants. 

PRIOK HANTU. 

Mijrmecodia echinata Gaud. {Rubiaceae). Lit. "Ghost's cup." 
PRUSAT. 

Mitrephora macrophylla Oliver. {Anonaceae). A tree. 

PUA. 

A name applied to many wild gingers {Scitaniineae). Filet 
gives the word POEAS. 

PUA. (Akar) 

Millettia eriantha Benth. {Leguniinosae). 

PUABUKIT. 

Homalonieiia velutina Hook. fil. (AroideaeJ. 



212 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

PUA HITAM. 

Stenochasma convolutum Griff. (Scitamineae). 
PUA PUTIH. 

Alpinia involucrata Griff. (Scitamineae), 

PUA ACORAGING. (Johor) 

Uvaria crinita Desv. (Leguminosae). A small shrubby plant 
with a dense spike of violet flowers. 

PUA MUNKANG. 

Alpinia Rafflesiana Wall. (Scitamirieae). 

PUCHOT KUNIANG. 

Marlea ebenacea C. B. Clarke (Cornaceae). A big tree. 

PUDAK. 

Pandanus inermis according" to Favre. Filet gives it as Ma- 
lay and Sundanese for P. moscliatus Rumph. 

PUDIH. (Malacca) 

Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Guftiferae). See BiNTANGOR. 

PUDING. 

Codiaeum variegatum L. The garden Croton, the word mean 
variegated. Filet gives the word for Graptophyllum 
hortense Nees. (Acanthaceae). A common cultivated 
plant with variegated leaves. 

Also Clerodendron disparifohum ( Verbenaceae). 

PUDING HUTAN. 

Tabernaemontana malaccensis Griff. (Apocynaceae). 

PUDINRIMBAH. (Akar) 

Ampelocissus cinnamomea (Ampelideae). 

PUKAN. (Akar). (Sungei Ujong) 
Jasminum bifarium Wall. (Olaceae). 

PUJONG MALAM. See BuJANG Samalam. 
Jussieua snffruticosa L. (Onagraceae). 

PUKI ANJING. 

Cynometra caulijlora L. {Leguminosae) 

PULAL 

Alstonia scholaris Br. (Apocynaceae). A large tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 213 

PULAI PIPIT. 

Elaeocarpus stipularis Bl. (Tiliaceae), 

PULAMPAS BUDAK. 

Apostasia nuda Br. {Apostasiaceae). A herb with narrow 
leaves and small white flowers. 

PULANGGA PAYA. 

Aporosa ficifolia Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 

PULASARI. 

Axbjia lucida Wall. (Apoci/naceae). A drug used in medicine^ 

PULAS HANTU. Also PELUK HANTU. 

Petunga venulosa Hook. fil. {Ruhiaceae). 

PULASAN. 

Nephelium mutahile Bl. {Sapindaceae), A well-known fruit. 

PULASAN HUT AN. (Bunga). (Selangor) 

Anthocephalus Cadanba Miq. {Ruhiaceae). A tree. The 
flower heads are globular and suggest the form of the 
PULASAN. 

PULAU HANTU. (Akar). (Malacca) 

Connarus ferrugineus Jack . ( Connaraceae). 

PULAU PIPI. 

Macaranga populifolia Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 

PULEY. 

Alstonia scolaris {Apocynaceae). Favre gives this spelling. 
It is usually Pulai. 

PULIS HUTAN. 

Connarus ferrugineus Jack. (ConnaraceaeJ. 

PULO BIJOH. 

Ficus glohosa Bl. (Urticaceae). 

PULUT. 

Soft Rice. Oryza sativa L. var (Gramineae). 

PULEH KAMBING. (Akar). Also PULEH ANGIN, 

Chailletia Griffithii Hook. fil. {Chailletiaceae). 

PULUT-PULUT. Contracted to Pepulut. 
Urena lobata L. {^Malvaceae). 



214 MALAY PLANT NAMES 

PULUT-PULUT POKO. 

Chrysophylliim Eoxhurghii Don. (Sapotaceae) also Mallotus 
penangensis Muell. (Euphorhiaceae). 

PULUT-PULUT BUKIT. 

Mallotus Griffithianus Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 

PULUT-PULUT HUTAN. 
M, Porterianus MuelL 

PULUT. (Rumput). 

Fimbristijlis ai^perrima Vahl. {Cgperaceae). 

PUNGGAL 

Coelostegia Griffithii Mast. {Malvaceae). A big tree of 
which the bark is used for tanning. 
PULUONG. 

Glycosmis sapindoides LindL (Rutaceae). 

PUMATON. (Selangor). 

Dracaena brevijlora Ridl. (Liliaceae). 

PUNAI MENGANTOK. (Buah). (Penang) 

Ge/onium multifiorum. A Juss. {Euphorbiaceae). 

PUNUBAL. (Akar) 

Vanilla Griffithii Rchb. fil. (Orchideae). The wild Vanilla. 
PUPOL 

Connaropsis sp. A tree, the fruit of which is eaten. 

PUPULAT HUTAN. 

Cephaelis Griffithii Hook. fil. (Kubiaceae). 

PURUJOL (Sungei Ujong) 

Tabernaemontana malaccensis. Cf. PeEACHIT. 

PURUAN HITAM. 

Antidesma alatum Eook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae). 

PURtJN 6ATU. (Rumput) 

Fimbristijlis diphjlla Vahl. {Cyperaceae). A common sedge. 

PURUT PELANDOK. 

Payena cosiata King. {Sapotaceae). 

PUSAT BUDAK. (Akar) 

Heptapleuruni venulosiim Seem. {Araliaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 215 

PUTAT DARAT. 

Barringtonia macrostackj/a Wall. (^Mjirtaceae). 

PUTAT GAJAH. 

Barringtonia pferocarpa Kurz. (Myrtaceae). 

PUTAT PADL 

Barringtonia racemosa Thw. {Myrtaceae). 

PUTAT BUKIT. 

Barringtonia sp. 

PUTAT PAYA. PUTAT TEPL 

Helicia rohusta Wall. (Proteaceae), 

PUTAT. (Akar) 

Gnettim funicular e Bl. (Gnetaceae), 

PUTRI. (Bunga) 

GrammatophyUum scriptum according- to Favre. G. specio- 
sum is probably intended. 

PUTRI (DAUN). 

Mussoenda Jrondosa Vahl. According" to Favre. 

RABANU. 

Srnilax megacarpa A. De C. (Li/iaceae). See also Bano, 
a name applied to several kinds of Srnilax. 

RABU KUMBANG. 

C/erodendron fragrans Yent. (Verbenaceae). Also AJchornea 
rugosa Muell. (Euphorbiaceae) . 
RAGIN. 

Vernonia sp. {Compositae). 

RAJA SARI. (Rumput) 

Dendrobium conostalix Rchb. fil. (Orchideae). A slender 
terrestrial orchid, common in wet spots. 

RAJANA. 

Alstonia spathulata Bl. (Apocynaceae). A tree with small 
spathulate leaves common in wet jungle. 

RAMBAHAN BUKIT. 

AJchornea vil/o.m Muell. {EuphorbiaceaeJ. Also Cryptocaryn 
Griffithiana Wight. (Laurineae). 



216 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

RAMBAI. RAMBEH. 

Baccanrea motleijana Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). A common 
fruit tree. 
RAMBAI PONTIANAK. 

Galearia affinis Bl. {Euphorbiaceae). 
RAMBAI BUKIT. 

Baccaurea brevipes Hook, fil, (Euphorbiaceae). 

RAMBAI AYAM. 

Baccaurea WalHchii (Euphorbiaceae). Also Ryparia fasci- 
culata King. (Bixineae). Also Anisophyllea disticha. 
RiMBAI HUTAN. 

Baccaurea bracfeata Muell. B. brevipes Hook. fil. B. parvijlora 
Muell, and other species. Also Ostodes macrophylla Hook, 
fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 

RAMBAI OHUCHUT. (Malacca) 

Aporosa aurea Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 

RAMBAI DAUN. 

Oalearia phlebocarpa Br. (Euphorbiaceae). 

RAMBEH DAUN. (Akar) 

Aeschynanthus radicans Jack. (Cyrtandraceae). An epiphy- 
tic climber with tubular scarlet flowers, the hanging 
stems with their round leaves suggest the hanging spikes 
of Rambeh fruits (Baccaurea motleyana Hook. fil). 

RAMBEH DAUN. 

Shorea acuminata Dyer. (Dipterocarpeae). 

RAMBUT CHAMBAI. (Akar) 

Cynanchum sp. (Asclepiadeae). A monstrosity of some 
species of this genus, with abortive flowers. 

RAMBUTAN. 

NepheJium lappaeum L. (Sapindaceae). The well known 
fruit tree. 

RAMBUTAN PASSEH. 

Nephelium costatum Hiern. (Sapindaceae) (Maingay's list) 

RAMBUTAN PACHAT. 

Xerospermum noronhianum Bl. (Sapindaceae). Pachat is a 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 217 

jung-le leech. A wild Rambutan, with yellow eatable 
fruit. 

RAMBUTAN HUTAN. 

Erioglossum edule Bl. (Sapindaceae). This common tree is 
more often called Mertajam. 

RAMI-RAMI. Also RAMIN. 

Boehmeria nivea Hook. ( Urticaceae). The Rhea or China 
grass, a well known fibre plant. 

RAMI BETINA. 

Macaranga Loicii King. {Eiiphorhiaceae). A small tree. 
RAMI HUTAN. 

Ficus chartacea Wall. ( Urticaceae). The bark of which is 
used as string Also. Commersonia ecJiinaia Bl. {I'iliaceae). 
RAMI HUTAN. RAMI BUKIT. 

Alchornea villosa Muell. {Euphorhiaceae). A large common 
shrub, from which a fibre is obtained. 
RAMUNGGAI. 

Moringa pterygoKperma L. (Mormgeae). The '' Horse 
radish tree." 
RANANG. 

Glochidion brunnevm Hook. fil. {Euphorhiaceae). A big 
shrub or small tree. 
RANGAN. 

Cryptocarya caesia (Laurineae). A big tree. 

RANG-RANG. 

Crofa/aria striata De C. (Legunmiome). A common yellow 
flowered herb. 
RANG-RANG (Kachang). 

CanavaUa ohtusifolia De C. {Legmmnosae). The large pink- 
flowered sea-shore bean. 
RANEK DAUN. 

Eurya acuminata De C. {Ternstromiaceae). A small tree 
common in secondary jungle. 
RAPAT BQKIT. 

Melanochyla angusiifolia Hook. fil. {Anacardiaceae). (Main- 
gay's list). 



218 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

RAU. 

Canarium laxiim A. W. Benn. (Bur.^eraceae). A fair-sized 
tree. 

RASOW. 

Pandanus Russow Miq. (Pandanaceae) . This screw-pine 
forms dense lofty thickets along the banks of tidal rivers 
forming a most conspicuous part of the scenery. 

RAY A. (Bunga). 

The cultivated Hibiscus or shoe-flower, Hibiscus rosa-si- 
nensis L. {Malvaceae). 

REJANG. 

Acrom/chia lauri folia Bl. (Rutaceae). A small tree with 
little dark green aromatic fruits. 

REJANG. (Malacca) 

Alstonia scholaris Hook. fil. (Apocf/iiaceaeJ More commonly 
called PULAi which see. 

REMPENANG. fAkar). (Selangor) 

Cyclea arnoffi Miers. ( .\feuispermaceae). 

rengas. 

Melanorhoea Curtisii Oliv. M. WaUichii Hook. fil. Also. 
Gltita Rengas Miq. ( Anacardiaceae). The "Mahogany" 
of the Straits. All of these have a fine red timber but are 
impregnated with a very poisonous black varnish. 

RENGAS MANAU. 

Melanorhea Wallichii Hook. fil. (Anacardiaceae) . 

RENGAS DAUN BESAR. 

Myristica Hookeriana Wall. (Mj/ri'^ticaceae). A very large 
leaved wild nutmeg. 

RENGUT. 

Epipreninuin (jiganteurn Schott. (Aruideae). A large creep- 
ing Aroid, with huge leathery leaves. It is one of the 
herbs used m making the poison for darts, by the Sakais. 

RENKONG. (Penang) 

Anisoptera Curtisii King. {Dipterocarpeae) . A fine large 
timber tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 219 

RESAK 

A name applied to a variety of trees producing similar tim- 
ber including- Shorea barbata Brandis, Dipterocarpeae Cas- 
tanopsis nephelioides {Cupuliftvae). 

RESAK PICHA. (Penang-) 

Macaranga Loit'ii Hook. fil. ( Euphorbiaceae). 

RESAM. 

Gleichenia linearis {Fiiices). A common fern. 

RESTONG. (Poko) 

Tabernaemontana malaccensis Hook. til. and. T. covyinbosa 
Roxb. {Apocynaceae). The word sig^nifies venereal disease, 
for which the plant is a native remedy. 

RIDAN. 

Xepheliam yfaiiKjaiji Hiern. (Sapindaceae). A tree with 
rather sour fruits resembling those of a rambutan but 
almost perfectly smooth and bright red. 

RIUNG. (Prov. Wellesley) 

Anthistiria gif/antea CsLV. (Graniineae). A very tall showy 
grass forming dense tufts of leaves and throwing up 
stems about eight feet tall. 

RIANG-RIANG. 

Arc/iytea Vahlii (Jhois. ( Ternsfroeiniaceae). The name Riang- 
Riang is applied to the Cicada. 

RiBU-RIBU. 

Lygodium scamlen^ {Fiiices). 

RIBU-RIBU GAJAH. 

L. pinnatifidum (Filices). Two common climbing ferns. 

RINGEI JERENANG. 

Mitrephora reticulata Hook. til. (Anonaceae). A tree. 

RINGGIN. (Rumput) 

Care.v cryptostachys Hance. {Cyperaceae). 

RIO. (Johore) 

Timonius Jambosella (Rabiaceae). A small tree or large 
shrub with yellow liowers common in secondary jungle. 



220 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

RONGGA. 

Dysoxylon sp. 

RONGGA JANTAN. 

Sterculia parviflora Roxb. {Stercicliaceae). A large tree with 

showy pink pods. 
ROSOK. 

Glochidion superhum Baill. (Euphorbiaceae). A common tree 

in secondary jungle. 

ROTA. (Johore) 

Canarium sp. (Burseraceae). 

ROTAN. 

A rattan or climbing palm. Generally applied to the plants 
belonging to the genera Calamus and Daenionorops. There 
are a large number of different kinds and still more names, 
and owing the incompleteness of the descriptions of many 
species, it is not easy to identify the Malay names. 
Besides there are a number of trade names applied to the 
rattans as brought into the market, which apply to the 
form of the rattan rather than to the kind. 

Griffith (Palms of British India) describes and figures a 
number obtained in Malacca ; to these he gives in many 
cases Malay names, but I cannot find that these names 
are now at least applied to the species he describes even 
in Malacca. 
ROTAN BAKAU 

Daemonorops propmquus Becc. A rattan which is often to 
be seen on edges of mangrove swamps. 

ROTAN BATU. 

Calamus insignis Griff. (^Palmae). 

ROTAN BINNI. Also ROTAN TIKUS. 

Flagellaria indica L. {F/agellariaceae). Lit. the Wife's Rat- 
tan or the Mouse-Rattan. A common climber, the leaves 
of which have prehensile tips. It grows on the edges of 
mangrove swamps. Baskets are made of the stems. 

ROTAN BUAH. 

Daemonorops Hgstrix (Palmae). More commonly called 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 221 

ROTAN Sabut which see. It produces very large sprays 
of fruit whence the name. 

ROTAN CHICHE. 

Daemonorops oblongus Mart. {Paliuae). 

ROTAN CHUCHUR. Also ATAP CHUCHUR. 

Calamus casfaneus Griffith. {Palmaej. This rattan does not 
produce climbing- stems, so the Malays usually call it simply 
Atap Chuchur. It forms large dense thorny tufts the 
leaves are used for thatching and making Ataps. 

ROTAN CHUCHUR MINYAK. 

Daemonorops calicarpus Griffith. 

ROTAN DAHAN. 

Plectocomia Grifjitlui Hook. til. (Paimae). A gigantic rattan 
common every where. The stems are used for making 
baskets, chiefly used in tin mining and for legs of long 
chairs. They also produce much water when cut, and thus 
are classed among the water vines by the Malays. 

ROTAN GAJAH. 

Mijrialepis Scortechimi Hook. til. Also RotaN KertonG, 
which see. 

ROTAN GETAH. ROTAN HUDANG. 

Calamus didgniupliyUus Becc. (Palmeae). One of the species 
in which the skin of the fruit produces a red coloring 
matter known as Dragon's blood. The stem is full of a 
white latex whence its name Rotan Getah. The shoots 
are eaten by Malays. 

ROTAN GUNONG. 

Calamus exilis Griff, according to Griffith. "Mountain- 
rattan." 

ROTAN JERENANG. 

Daemonorops Draco L. (Palmae). The true Dragon's blood 
rattan. It is very doubtful whether this plant occurs 
in the Peninsula. Griffith's plant described under the 
name of ROTANG Jernang from Malacca has been sepa- 
rated under the name of D. propinquus by Beccari. 



222 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

ROTAN KERAI. 

Daemonorops geniculatus Mart. {Palmae). 

Also called RoTAN Kamanting, Rotan Chin-Chin, Ro- 

TAN GrULANG and ROTAN TUNGUL. 

ROTAN KERTONG. 

Afyrialejns scortechinii Hook. fil. (Palmae). A curious rattan 
of large size, resembling Plecfocomia, but the fruits are 
round and green, covered with minute scales like shagreen. 

ROTAN KIPAS 

Cerato/obus kingianus Becc. (Palmae). A very long Rotan 
with fan-shaped leaflets. 

ROTAN KUMBONG. 

Calamus ornatus Griff. (Palmae). 

ROTAN LILIN. 

Calamus javensis Bl. {Palmae). A very slender rattan with 
a few broad leaflets on each leaf. It is considered one 
of the most valuable kinds. 

See also Rotan Sindek, Rotan Tungul. 

ROTAN MACHAP. 

Doemonorops loiujipes. Also ROTAN Sepah, Rotan Cho- 
CHOR. 

ROTAN MANANA. 

Calamus conirostris Becc. {Palmae). A very beautiful rattan 
the leaflets close set together, deep green above and white 
beneath. The fruit is prolonged into a beak and black. 

ROTAN MUSANG. 

Fregcinetia. angustijolia Bl. {Pandaneae). A climbing screw 
pine, common in woods. 
ROTAN SABUT. 

Daemonorops hi/strix. An exceedingly thorny rattan, one 
of the commonest species. 

ROTAN SEGA BADAK. 

Calamus ornatus Griff. {Palmae). 

ROTAN SEMAMBU. 

Calamus scipionum Lout. The Malacca cane. The name is 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 223 

also applied to Doemonorops gmndis. 

ROTAN SEMUT. 

Korthalsia scaphigera Mart. {Palmue). A slender climbing- 
ratan, with an enlarged ligule in which ants make their 
nests, whence its native name. 

ROTAN SINDEK. (Perak) 

Calamus javensis Bl. (Palmae). See also ROTAN TUNGUL 
and ROTAN LiLiN. 

RU. RU LAUT. Also ARU. 

Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. {Casuarinae). A common tree 
often planted and wild along the sea coasts. 

RU BUKIT. 

Dacrgdium e/atiun Wall. (Coniferae). From the resemblance 
of the plant to the Casuarina. It is a Cypress like plant 
growing on the hills at two thousand feet altitude and 
upwards. 

RUAI GAJAH. 

Ooniocaryuvi Jongeracemosnm King. (Olachieae). A large 
shrub. 

RUAS-RUAS. 

Geloniam hifarium Roxb. {Euphorbiaceae). A tree. 

RUAS-RUAS JANTAN. 

Daphniphglhini htuviniiin Baill. {Eiiplwrhiaceae). A big shrub. 

RUDOMO. 

Evodia Roxburghiana Benth. {Tiutaceae). More often called 
Pauh-Pauh which see. 

RUKAM. 

Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb. and other species {Bixineae). 
Trees usually armed at the base with strong thorns. They 
produce an excellent little fruit, dark-red in color as big 
as a cherry, with a taste of a goosberry. 

RUKAM HUTAM. 

Scolopia rhinanthera Clos. {Bi.rineae). A shrub resembling 
the true Rukam (Flacourtia) to which indeed it is closely 
allied. 



224 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

RUKU GAJAH. (Sung-ei Ujong) 

Vernonia chinensis Less. (Compositae). A common village 
weed. 
KUKU HUTAN. (Penang-) 

Adenosma capitatum Benth. {Lahiatae). 

RUKU-RUKU. 

Basil. Ocimum hasilicum L. and 0. album (^Lahiatae). A 
kind of mint-herb much used in medicine. 
RQKU JANTAN. 

Hemigraphis confinis Nees. (Acanthaceae). A low herb which 
vaguely suggests the Rdku-Ruku. (Basil) 

RULANG HUTAN. 

Torenia peduncularis Benth. {Scrophularineae). A small 
herb with blue flowers which grows in damp fields. 
RULUS. 

Sapium haccatum L. (Euphorbiaceae). A tree. 

RUMAH LANGSUIR. 

Tliamnopteris nidus avw (Fih'ces). The birds-nest fern. See 
Paku Langsuie. 

RUMANG PAN AS. 

Breynia coronata Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). Also HUJAN 
Panas which see. 

RUMBIA. Also REMBIA 

Scifjus laevis Roxb, (Palmae) This is a common name for 
the Sago-palm in many parts, but in others it is common- 
ly called Sagii. 
RUMININIYA. Also RUMIA. 

Bouea microphylla Griff. (.AnacardiaceaeJ. A common fruit 
tree bearing small yellow very acid mangos. 

RUMPEL 

Laportea crenulata Forst. ( Urticaceae). The tree-nettle, 
the leaves of which usually sting violently. It is one 
of the ingredients in the Sakais dart poison. 
RUMPO-RUMPO. 

Fagraea racemosa Jack. (Loganiaceae). A large shurb more 
rarely a tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 225 

RUMPUT. 

Herb espeeially grass. The different plants called Rumput 
are to be found under their specific names. 

RUNDA. (Province Wellesley). 

Gardenia carinata Thw. {Ruhiaceae). A very fine tree 
gardenia with fine orange flowers. 

RUPAH. 

Daphniphyllum laurinum Baill. {Euphorbiaceae). 

RUSA-BABI. (Johore) 

Rhodannia trinervia Bl. (Mi/rtaceae). A common tree in the 
low-country. 

RUSA-RUSA. (Akar) 

Agelaea vestita Hook. fil. (Connaraceae). A large jungle 
climber with small velvety wrinkled scarlet pods. 

RUSEH. 

Pohjaltlda Beccarii King. (Anonaceae). A small tree with 
orange flowers in tufts on the stem. 

SABA. 

Cijcas Ruiiiphii Miq. {Cijcadeae). Favre is the authority for 
this. 

SABALAT. (Malacca) 

Aralidiuin pinnatifidum Miq. (Araliacea). 

SABASAH. Also SEBASAH. 

A name applied to several small trees or shrubs, chiefly of 
the order Euphorbiaceae such as Glochidion desmocarpwn 
Hook. fil. Also Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. {Ru- 
hiaceae). A seashore shrub. 

SABASAH BATU. 

Cleistanthus nitidns Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae). A small tree. 

SABASAH HITAM. SABASAH MINYAK. SABASAH NI- 
PIS KULIT. 

Aporosa aurea Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SABASAH JANTAN. 

Aporosa ficifolia Hook. til. {Euphorbiaceae). 



226 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SABERNAS. (Akar) 

Dischidia alhida Griff. ( Asdipiadeae). A small creeping- 
epiphyte with succulent leaves and very small white 
flowers. 

SABIAK. Also SEBIAK. 

Tacca cristata Jack. (Taccaceae). A herb common in jung-les 
with large broad leaves, and curious purple flowers, with 
large purple and white bracts. 

SABIAK. (Akar) 

Gynura sarmentosa De C. (CompositaeJ. A climber with 
yellow flowers and a purple involucre. 

SABIAK GAJAH. 

Cephaelis Grijflthn Hook. fil. {Rubiaceae).' 

SABUEH BATU! 

Limnopliia villosa Benth. {Scrophulariiieae). A little blue 
flowered herb. 

SABUEEH PAYA. (Akar) 

Qnetum funicular e Bl. (Gnetaceae). k strong climber. 

SABUREH PUTIH. (Akar) (Malacca) 
Psychotria sp. {Rubiaceae). 

SABURU. 

Sterculia ruhiginosa Vent. (Sterculiaceae). A small tree, 
with pink flowers, and scarlet capsules with black seeds. 

SABURUS. (Akar) See also SABUREH. 
Gnetum funiculare Bl. {Gnetaceae). 

SABURUTEH. 

Ficus pisifera Wall. ( UrticaceaeJ.^ 

SABUSUH. (Akar) 

Coptosapelta Jlavescens Korth. {Rubiaceae). A climber with 
white flowers. 

SABUSUH BETINA. 

Canthium glahrum Bl. {Rubiaceae). A shrub or small tree. 

SABUSUK. (Rumput) 

Clitoria cajanifolia Benth. {Leguminosae). A small shrub 
with large pale violet or white flowers, common in open 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 227 

country. Probably introduced from South xlmerica. 
SABUT. (Akar) 

Hedyotis capitellata Wall. {Rulnaceae). A climbing" herb 
with tufts of white flowers. 

SABUT-SABUT. 

Grewia filohulifera Hook. fil. (Tiliaceae). A small tree. 

SACHERIT HITAM. (Akar) (Malacca) 

Gnetiim neglectum Bl. (Gnetaceae). 

SADAPU. 

Chisocheton sp. (iMeliaceae). 

SADA TURI. 

Sida carpinifolia L. {Malvaceae). A small shrub with buff 
flowers common in waste ground. 

SADAWI. (Akar) 

Smilax calophylla Wall. (Liliaceae). 

SADINGIN. (Malacca) 

Bryophyllum cahjcinum Salisb. (Crassulaceae). A common 
succulent herb on seacoasts, often cultivated as a curio- 
sity, on account of the ease with which it grows from 
portions of leaves. 
SAGA. 

Adenanthera pavonina L. {Legwninosae), A well-known tree 
with small scarlet seeds. 

SAGA BETINA. 

Ahriis precatorius \j. (Leguminosae). The Crab's-eye plant, 
or Weather-plant. A small climbing herb with round 
scarlet and black seeds. 

SAGA PAYA. 

Dalhergia Junghuhnii Benth. {Legu?ntnosae). A climber with 
greenish white flowers. 

SAGA GAJAH. 

Pithecolohium fasciculatum Benth. {Leguminosae). A large 
tree with twisted red pods and black seeds. 

SAGA KAYU. 

Micromelum puhescens Oliv. (Eutaceae). 



228 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SAGA MOLEH. (Akar) 

Lettsomia ruhicunda Clarke. {Convolvulaceae). 

SAGADING. 

Oironniera parvifolia Planch. (Urticaceae). 

SAGU. 

Metroxylon sagus Rottb. and M. Rumphii Mart. The sago 
palms. But the word is more often applied to the flower, 
the trees being more usually called Rembia. 

SAGUT. 

Aglaonema angustifoUum N. E. Br. (Aroideae). A common 
herb with narrow deep green leaves. 

SAJA. (Akar) 

Abrus precatorius L. {Leguminosae). This word is perhaps 
a variant of Saga, which see. 

SAJUR WAH. 

Gomothalamns macrophyllus Hook. fil. {Anonaceae). A small- 
tree. 

SAKARIOT. (Akar) 

Vitis macrostachys Miq. (Ampehdeae). A vine with long 
hanging spikes of green flowers. 

SAKAI. 

Dracontomelum mangiferum Bl. {Anacardiaceae). A tree 
with large plum-like fruits. 

SAKAOHA LIMA. 

Clerodendron deflexwn Wall. {Verbenaceae), 

SAKARITO. (Akar) (Pahang) 

Embelia coriacea Var. (MijrsineaeJ. A climber with small 
white flowers. 

SAKAT. 

A name applied to many epiphytes especially Aroids and 
ferns. 

SAKAT BAWANG. Also SAKAT UBAT KAPIALU. 

Acriopsis javanica Reinwdt. (Orchideae), A small epiphytic 
orchid, with pink flowers. Lit. Onion-orchid, from the 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 229 

shape of its psend bulbs, and Head-ache orchid, the de- 
coction of it being- used for fever. 

SAKAT BILIMBL 

Thecosfele maculosa Ridl. (Orchideae). A little orchid often 
to be found on Bilimbing- trees (Bilimbi). 

SAKAT. (Bung-a) 

Afjrof^tophylluvi glumaceum Hook. fil. (Orchideae). An epi- 
phytic orchid with small white flowers in heads. 

SAKAT GA JAH. 

Anadendrum medium Schott. (Aroideae). A climbing" epi- 
phytic aroid. 

SAKAT RIBU-RIBU. 

Drymoglossum piloselloides (Filices). A common fern creep- 
ing on trees. 

SAKAT KALUMBAl. 

Dendrohium pumilum Roxb. {Orcliideae). A small orchid 
common on trees. 

SAKAT LIDAH BUAYA. (Malacca) 

Oberonia anceps Lindl. (Orchideae). A small epiphytic 
orchid. 

SAKAT TULONG ULAR. 

Coelogyne Rochussenii De Vr. (Orchideae). An epiphytic 
orchid with long hanging racemes of flowers. 

SAKAT ULAR. 

Sarcanthus secundus Griff, (Orchideae). 

SAKATI LIMAH. (Pahang) 

Aganosma marginata Don. (Apoci/naceae). A climber with 
white flowers. 
SAKE L AT. 

Sterculia ruhiginosa Vent. CSterculiaceae). A tree with scar- 
let fruits. Sakelat is said to be a modification of the 
Eng-lish scarlet. 

SAKELAT. (Akar) Also AKAR MERAH. 

Connarus ferrugineus Jack. (Connaraceae) , A climber with 
red fruits and shoots. 



230 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SAKELLET. (Pahang) 

Antidesma leucocladon Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). A shrub 
or small tree. 
SAKIJANG. (Akar) 

Erycibe malaccensis Clarke and E. Princei Wall. (Convolvu- 
laceae). Common climbers with small white flowers. 
SAKIRDAMAK. (Johore) 

Sarcocephalus suhditus Miq, (Euhiaceae), 
SAKIT HUDANG. (Malacca) 

Ixonanthes reticulata Jack. (Lineae). A tree often called 
also Pagar Anak. 
SAKULAN. (Johore) 

Octhocharis borneensis Miq. {Melastomaceae). A sea-shore 
shrub with pink flowers. 
SALAH NAMA. 

A name often given by Malays to plants of which the pro- 
per name is obscene. Such as Decaapermmn paniculatum 
Kurz. " Kelintek Nyamok." 
SALAH LAKU. 

Vitis quadrangularis Wall. {Ampelideae) . Favre is the au- 
thority for this. 
SALAK. 

Zaiacca edulis Bl. (Palmae). Also called Salak kumbar ac- 
cording to Griffith. A stemless thorny palm, the brown 
scaly fruits of which are eaten by natives. 

SALAK BETUL. 

Zaiacca affinis Griff. {Palmae). 

SALAK RUNGUM. 

Z. macrostachya Griff. {Palmae). Griffith (Palms of^ British 
India) is the authority for these names. The first is, I 
think, doubtfully identified, as the real Salak is Z. edulis. 
SALAM. 

Eugenia cymosa Lam. {Myrtaceae). Favre is the authority 
for this. 

SALAMANL 

Blainvillea rhouboidea Dec. {Compositae). A common little 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 231 

weed with white flowers. 

SALAN HUTAN. (Akar) 

Manama verrucosa (Me/astomaceae). 

SALEMBAT. 

Eugenia conglomerata Duthie. {Mgrtaceae). A large tree. 

SALEMPAR. (Akar) 

Antrophyum reticnlatwn (Filices). A fern with broad entire 
fronds, found on rocks. 

SALIMPAT. 

Piptospatha Ridlegi Hook. fil. (Aroideae). A small aroid 
with the leaves either green with yellowish spots or plain. 
It grows on rocks in Johore. 

SALIMPAT AYER. 

Aglaone/na ininus Hook. fil. {Aroideae). A small aroid 
common in wet jungles. 

SALUNTAS ORANG TINGGI. 

Ardisia villosa Roxb. {Mgrsineae). A small shrubby plant 
with pink flowers. 

SAMAK. 

A name given to a variety of trees the bark of which is 
used for tanning. 

SAMAK BUKIT. 

Eugenia papillosa Duthie. (Myrtaceae). 

SAMAK DARAT. 

Eugenia pyrifolia Wall. {Myrtaceae). 

SAMAK JANTAN. 

Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. {Ternstroeiniaceae). 

SAMAM PAYA. 

Eugenia inophylla Roxb. (Myrtaceae), 

SAMAK PULUT. 

Eugenia mbdecussata Wall, {^fyrtaceae). 

SAMAK SERAI. 

Glochidion nanogyaum Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae). 



232 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SAMAK TEBRAU. Also SAMAK UBAR. 

Eugenia lepidocarpa Wall. {Myrtaceae). The most common- 
ly used of the Samaks. 

SAMALU. (Singapore) 

Mimosa pudica L. {Leg amino sae). The sensitive plant. 

SAMARUM. 

Payena Leerii Oliv. (Sapotaceae). A large timber tree, 

SAMBARAN ANGIN. 

Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae). 

SAMBAN. 

Eleusine coracana L. ( Gramineae). A grass the grain of 
which is used though rarely as food. 

SAMBOKO. 

Myrmecodia echinata Gaud. (Rubiaceae). One of the Ant's 
nest plants. An epiphyte with a large tuberous stem 
covered with thorns. 

SAMBON PAYA. 

Chloranthus officinalis Bl. (Chloranthaceae). A herb with 
white flowers and fruits used in native medicine. 

SAMBU BADAK. 

Ophiorrhiza sp. {Rubiaceae). A small herb. 

SAMBUKAN. (Singapore) 

Tylophora asthmafica Wight. (Asclepiadeae). A climbing 
plant with small yellowish flower. 

SAMP AT. (Akar; 

Willughbeia jirma Bl. {Apocynaceae). One of the rubber 
vines (Getah Grip). 

SAMPO PAYA. (Akar) 

Aspidopterys concava Juss. {Malpighiaceae) . 

SAMPU CHACHING, 

Bonnaya veronicaefolia Spr. {Scrophalarineae). A little creep- 
ing herb with pale blue flowers. 

SAMPU KELADA. (Akar) 

Hedyotts capitel lata WaW. {Rubiaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 233 

SAMPU PUCHUT. (Malacca) 

Hedyotis congesta Br. {Rubiaceae). A tall herb gro wing- 
in the jungle, used in native medicine. 

SAMPU TIKUS. 

Ixora grandifolia Zoll. {Eubiaceae). 

SAMUBUT. 

Thottea grandiflora Rottb. (Aristoloa/imceae). 

SANA. Also SENA. And ANGSANA. 

Pterocavpus indivus h. {Leguminosae), 

SANALU API. See Bendalu. 

Lorcuithus pentamlrus L. (Lovanthaceae). 

SANDANG. (Rumput). 

Finihristglis glohulosa Bentb. ((Jijperaceae). 

SANDANG PADI. (Akar) 

Conocephalus subtrinerrius Miq. ( Urticaccae), 

SANDERAP. (Akar) 

Connarus ferruyineus Jack. { ConnaraceaeJ. 

SANGGOL LUTONG. 

Nephelium enopetalum Miq. {Sapmdaceae) . A wild rambu- 
tan with the flowers and fruits in hanging spikes. 

SANGGOL LUTONG HITaM. 

Chif<udietoit pendidtfioriis Planch. (Afefnictar). 

SANGKAP JANTAN. 

Kibessia mnpifrx Korlli. { MdmUjtnacco.t). 

SANGKAP. (Akar) 

Pipe^v 6p. {Pipertweae). A wild peppei. 

SANJUANG. See Senjuan. 

SANGKANG BUAYA. (Akar) 

Urceo/a malaccensis Hook. fil. (ApoajnaceaeJ. 

SANKAU MERAH. 

Lvoiianthes obovata Hook. fil. {Lineae). 

SANGKUANG. Also CHANGKUANG. 

Dracontointiuin mangiferum Bl. {Anafardiaceae). 



234 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SAPADAN. 

Iguannra pobjmovpha Becc. {Palinae). A ?mall palm. 

SAPAGI. (Rumput) 

Vernonia cinerea BL {Compositae). A common weed with 
purple flower heads. 

SAPEDAS. 

Mac'iranga 7uegalophi/lla Miiell. [Eaphorbiaveae). 

SAPONG. 

Piftosporum ferruf/ineum Ait. (Piftosporeae). 

SAPULUT. (Singapore) 

Hijptis suarelens Poit. (Lahiatae) A strongly scented mint- 
like herb. 

SAPARU KRAS- 

Aspaiagus. A. ojficinalis L. (Li'iaceae). This which means 
" half-hard " is a native perversion of the word Asparagus. 

' SAPUT TUNGAL. Akar 

Tiji'ophora tennis Wall. {Asclepiadeae). A climber with small 
pink flowers. 

SAPULI. Pahang 

Fagraea raceviosa Jack. (Loganiaceae). 

SAPUTI. 

Sindora siamensis Tejsm. {Leguminosae). 

SAPUT[ StNDO. 

S. Wallichii Benth. Lofty trees producing a valuable tim- 
ber. They can be easily recognized by the prickly round 
flat pods. 

SAPUTI MINYAK. 

Sindora sp. A species with no prickles on the pods. It pro- 
duces an oil. 

SARAH JANTAN. (Buah) (Penang) 

Kunstleria Kingii Prain. (Legnminosae). A lofty climber. 

SARANG PIPIT. (Rumput) 

Anthistiria argueus (GramineaeJ. A rough grass common 
on road-sides. Literally Sparrow's nest grass. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 23 5 

SARANG PL^NAI. (Akar) 

Chailletia deflexi folia Turcz. {Chaillefinceae). Lit. Pigeon's 
nests. A climbing shrub. 

SARANG BUAYA. (Rumput) 

Pamcuiii nodosum {Qramineae). " Crocodile grass." 
SARANG TUP A I. 

Aneilema nudiflorum Br. {Oommeltnaceae). Literally "Squir- 
rel's nest." A common iittle herb with pink flowers. 
SARANGAN. 

A variant of Berangan according to Favre. 

SARANL (Rumput) 

Ljjcopodinm cernuum. (Li/copodiaceae). The common clubraoss. 

SAROJA. See Sekoja. 

NelumhiiDii speciosum Willd. {Niimpheaceae), The lotus. 

SARAPAPAT. (Akar) 

Streptocau/on Wallichn W. and A. (Asdepiadeae). A very 
milky climber. 

SARAPAT. (Akar) 

Hoija direi si folia Bl. (Apoc/piaceae). A pink wax-flower. 

SARAPAT JANTAN. (Akar) 

Gnetum neg/ectum Bl. (Gnetaceae). 
SARAPOK. 

Xorrisia ma/accensis Oliv. {Loganiaceae) A tree with 
white flowers. 

SARAPOH JANTAN. 

Evodia latifolia Dec. (Rutaceae). A tree with large masses 
of small white flowers. 

SARATONG. (Johore) 

Tahernaemo)itana corymhosa Roxb. (Apocijnaceae). A small 
tree with showy white flowers. 
SARATONG PADI. (Johore) 

Lvora pendala Jack. (Rabiaceae). A shrub with bunches of 
pink and white flowers on long hanging stalks. 
SARI BUMI. 

Heliotropium indtcwn L. (Boragineae). The little wild helio 



236 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

trope with small white flowers. 
SARI BULAN. (Suiig-ei Ujong-) 

Erigeron Iviifolius Willd. (Compositae). A tall weed com- 
mon in waste ground. 

SARI INGANK. SARI HUTAN. 

Huptis brevipes Poit. {Labiatae). A weedy herb the leaves 
of which are eaten as a vegetable. 

SARPANG. (Malacca) 

Kiirriiiiia sp. {Rhamneae). 

SARUDANG BETINA. 

fombrefnm extensunt Koxb. {Coinhrefaretw,). A climber with 
green flowers. 

S A RUNE. 

Wedelia bif/ora De C. (Compositae). A sea-shore shrub with 
yellow flowers. See Serenah. 

SARUNX^HE. (Johore) 

Hiptage sericea Hook. fil. {Malpighiaceae). 

SASARAN. (Akar) 

Conocephalus suhtrinervus Miq. ( Urticaceae). K small herb 
with violet balls of flowers. 
SATAGIT. 

Dianella ensifolia Red. (Liliaceae). A common herb in 
woods with blue or white flowers and berries. 

SATUBAL. (Akar) 

Henslowia Lobbiana A. D. C. {Santa! aceae). 

SAUH. SAW A. 

Mimusops kauki L. (Sapotaceae). A fruit tree. 
SAUH HUTAN. 

Parinarhtm Grijfilhiaimm Hook. fil. (Rosaceae). A lai'ge 
tree with deep green leaves, white flowers and yellow 
plum-like fruits. 
SAU MANILLA. SAWA MANILLA. 

The Chiku or Sapoti. Achras Sapota L. {Sapotaceae). This 
may be a Malaicised form of Sapodilla, the West Indian 
name for the fruit. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 237 

SAUT. (Akar) 

Modecca singaporecuia Mast. (Pa^^iforeae). A climbing' 
plant with small gTeen flowers and scarlet fruits contain- 
ing- black seeds in a white fleshy aril. It is said to be 
poisonous. 

SAWL Also SESAWI. 

Mustard. Brassica nigra L. (Cruciferae). 

SAYUK. 

Mustard. Brassica nigra L. {CriiCAfprap). Also a common 
word for veg-etable. 

SAYTK FAKIS. 

Steaochhena pahtstris (Fi/icts). A common climl>ing" fern 
found in swamps the shoots of which are commonly 
eaten. 

SEBASAH. 

Scyphiphora hydrophyVacea Gaertn. {Ruhuiceae). See Sa- 
BASAH. 

SEBEH 

^^ Canna pulchra'' according' to Favre. Probably Camia 
indica L. {Scitannneap) the Indian shot is meant. 

SEBIAK. See Sabiak. 

SEBILEK. 

Castanopsis hysfri.r Dec. (Cupuli ferae). A wild chestnut. 

SEBONG HUTAN. 

Lasianthus appressus Hook. fil. {Ruhiaceae). A hairy shrub 
with small white fiowers and blue berries. 

SEBUGO. 

Lagerstroeiina Flos-reginae Retz. (Sythraeae). More com- 
menly known as BUNGOH, which see. 

SEBUNGKAH. rAkar). 

Viiis cinnarnomea \Vall. (^Arnpelideae). A wild vine. 

SEBUNKAK. (Akar). 

Pterisanthes heterantha Miq. (Ampelideae). 

SEBURAS. 

Pol Ha AcHsia Hassk. {Commelinaceae) A herb with white 



238 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

flowers and blue berries. 
SEBURAT. 

Variants Saburut and SUPRUT. ThoHea grcmdi/fora Rottb. 
( A ristolochiacea e). 

SEBUSOK. SIBUSUK. Also BUSOK-BUSOK. 

Cassia nodosa L. (Lef/u/mnosae). A common tree with pink 
flowers. 

SEBUTA. 

Sarcocephalus Junghuhnii Miq. (Ruhiaceae). 

SEDANG. 

Salacia favescens Kurz. (R/mmneae). A scandent shrub. 

SEDANG. (Akar) 

Parameria pohjnenra Hook. fil. {Apoci/naceae). A climbing" 
shrub with pink flowers which produces a rubber. 

SEDAPAT. (Akar) 

Aspidopetrys concava Juss. {Malpighiaceae). 

SEDOMANG. (Malacca) 

Rhodanmia trinervia Bl. (Myrtaceae). 

SEGADING JANTAN. 

Ixora grandifolia ZoU. (^Ruhiaceae), 

SEGAN BEDAHAN. 

Arthrophy'iiim diversifolhim {Araliaceae). A common small 
tree in open country. 

SEGAN JANTAN. Penang 

Portulaca oleraceae L. (Portufacaceae). Purslane. A com- 
mon weed with yellow flowers. 

SEGAN PA DANG. 

Euphorbia thymifolia L. ( Euphorhiaceae). A small weed. 

SEGAN PAYA. 

Jachia ornata Wall. {Ruhiaceae). 

SEGOREH. 

Mussaenda glabra Vahl. (Rubiaceae). Ardisia villosa Roxb. 
{Myrsineae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 239 

SEGUMPA BETINA. Malacca 

Alsodeia echinocarpa Korth. [Violaceae). 

SEJANGAT. (Akar) 

Spathohhus gyrocarpus Benth. {Leguunnosae). A big climb- 
er with small purple flowers. One of the water vines. 

SEJARANG. 

Taheniaemontana pedancularis Wall. (Apocgnaveae). 

SEKAM BULAN. 

Greenia JacJcii W. and A. {Rubiaceae). A shrub with green 
flowers. 

SEKAPU. (Akarj 

Grewia ambellata Koxb. {7'iliaveae). 
SEKOYI. 

Italian millet. Panicum itallcmn L. (Gramiiteae). 

SEKOET. (Akar) 

SpatJiolobus ggrovai-pus Benth. {Legunrinos'.ie). 

8EKUBING AYER. 

Mallotus Jloribundus Mueil. ( Euphorbiaceae). 

SEKUNTUT. (Akar) 

Paederia joetida L. (Uuhiaceae). A climber with a very un- 
pleasant scent. 

SEKUNTUT. 

Saprosma sp. and Lasmnthus sp. (Rubiaceae). Shrubs with 
white flowers exhaling a very foetid odour when broken. 

SELARU. 

Macaranga javanica Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SELASIH ANTAN. 

Ocginum basilicuiii L. {Labiatae). Basil. A kind of mint 
often to be found in villages. 

SELASIH DEXDE. Also SELASIH HUTAN. 

Stachytarpheta itidica L. ( Verbenaceae). A common little 
shrub with blue flowers. 

SELASIH HUTAN. 

Hgptis suaceoleiid Foit. {Labiatae). Also StacJigtarpheta 



240 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

indioa L. (Verbeiiaceae). 

SETAWO. (Rumput) 

Spermacoce hispida L. (liuhiaceae). A common prostrate 
weed in waste ground with small pink flowers. 

SELEMBAH. (Akar) 

Selimbar according- to Favre. Uncaria sclerophijlla Roxb. 
{Rubiaceae). A large wild gambier. 

SELEMPAH. (Selangor) 

Gnetum neglecfum Bl. {Gnetaceae). 

SELENDAP. 

Crinuni asiaticuiu L. {Amari/Ukleae). Favre is the authority 
for this. 

SELENDAP BUKIT. 

Trigonosteiiion indicam Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). A small tree. 

SELIGURL (Akar) 

Desmodium parvifolium Bak. (Legnininosae). A little creep- 
ing plant with very small pink flowers, common in grass. 

SELIGURI and SELiaURI BETINA. 

Clerodendron disparifolium Bl. {Verbenaceae). A shrub or 
small tree wsth yellow flowers. 

SELIGURI PADANG. 

Sida rhombf/olia L. (Malvaceae). A common small shrub 
in open country. 

SELIMPAS. 

Qmsqual(f> dtnslflora Wall, (Combretaveae), A climber in 
pink flowers. 

SELINSING 

Scirpodendroa codatain Thw. {Ctjperaceae). A narrow 
leaved sedge forming close thickets by river banks espe- 
cially near the sea. 

SELOWUNG 

Miquelia caadata King. (Olacineae). A rather rare climber 
with small green flowers and curious red flattened ovate 
fruits in a head. It is used in making the poison for 
darts by the Sakais. According to Vaughan-Stevens. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 24l 

SELUANG MUDIK. 

A vtanema seswiwides Benth. ( Scrophulariaveae). A herb with 
violet flowers growing- in swamps, the narrow leaves are 
supposed to be of the shape of the Seluang fish. 

SELUBAT. 

Arafidiuiu pinnati/idum Miq. (Araliaceae), 

SELUMAR. 

Mussaendopsis Beccariana Baill. (Rubiaveae). A tree with 
yellow flowers with one lobe of the calyx produced into a 
large white petaloid limb. 

SEMBARANG. 

Ardisia (anceo/ata Roxb. {M yrsiaeae). A shrub with pink 
flowers. 

SEMBANG. 

Clerodendron diaparifoliuni Bl. (Verbenaceae). 

SEMBONG. Also SUMBONG. 

Bluinea balsamifera De C. {Couipodtae). A strongly scented 
herb producing the Ngai camphor of the Chinese, aqd 
used by the Malays in native medicine. 

SEMBONG HUTAN 

Vernonia cinerea Bl. (Compositae). 

SEMBONG GAJAH. 

Adenostemma viscosuni Forst. {Compositae). A common village 
weed with mauve flowers. 

SEMBONG HUTAN JANTAN. 

Clerodendron deflexum Wall. {Verbenaceae). 

SEMIJO. (Akar) 

Strychnos laurina Wall. {Loganiaceae). A shrub with small 
green flowers. 

SEMILAT. Also SEMBILAT and SEMELIT. 

Rourea fulgens Planch, also R. rugosa Planch. {Connaraceae) 
The former is also called Semilat Darat and S. Putih. 
Climbing shrubs with small leaves often red when young, 
and pink or white flowers. Used for stomach-ache by 
natives. 



242 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SEMILAT MERAH. Also SEMILAT PAPAN. 

Cnestis vamifora Griff. {Connaraceae). A common large 
climber with red shoots and pink flowers, fruits red, pear- 
shaped. 

SEMPELAS LIDAH KUCHING. (Akai) (Malacca) 
Greicia laevigata Vahl. {Tiliaceae). 

SEMPEDU PAHIT. 

Eurijconia longifolia Jack. (Svnarubeae). Variant of Lem- 
PEDU. See BiDARA Pahit. 

SEMPIAN PETRI. 

Clerodendron disparifotium Bl. (Verbenaceae). 

SEMUGUM. 

SijmploGOs adenophijlla Wall. (Sti/raceae). A small tree. 

SENA. 

A variant of SANA i. e. Angsana Petrocarptm indiciis L . 
Chiefly used by Europeans in error for SANA. 

SENA. SENA MAKI. 

■'^ The Senna. Cassia anyustijolia Vahl. (Leyuniiaosae), the 
leaves of which are imported from Arabia whence the 
plant derives its name of Mecca Senna. 

SENAIAN API. 

Xanthophylium rufuiit A. \V. Benn. (Pohjgalaceae). A tree. 

SENALA API LAUT. 

Hydnoj)hytum. formicaritun Jack. (Rubiaceae). The ant's nest 
plant. 

SENAMBON. 

A variant for Set AMBON ; Bacoaurea parviflora Muell. 
(Euphorbiaceae). - 

SENANCHONG. 

Croton argyrifes Bl. (Euphorbiaceaej. A shrub. 

SENDAGURL 

Variant of SeliGtURL Sida vhombijolia L. (Malvaceae). 

SENDERAI. 

Variant for ChendeeAI. Greivia spp. f Tiliaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 243 

SENDEREIAN. (Rumpiit; 

A name for several kinds of Sedges, ohiefly Selena fCt/pera- 
ceae). 
SENDOK-SENDOK. 

Endospermum malaccense Muell. {EypJwrbiaceaej. Lit. 
" Spoons " on account of the spoon-shaped leaves. A big- 
tree with rather soft wood used for making clogs. 

SENDUDOK. Also SENDUDU. 

Mf^astoma po/ijanthnm Bl. {Melastomaceae) and allied species. 
Shrubs with showy pink flowers, commonly called 
" Singapore Rhododendrons." 

SENDUDOK. (Akar) 

Marximia muscosa Vahl, and other climbing Melaf^tomaceae 
such as AnplectvKni r/laucirm Triana and Dissochaefa piinc- 
tulata Hook. fil. 
SENDUDOK GAJAH. SENDUDOK HUTAN. 

Allomorphia exigua Bl. (^ffIa.^iomaceae). A shrub with 
greenish flowers. 

SENDUDOK PUTIH. 

Melastoma sanginneum Sims. {Mela.^tomaceae). A shrub with 
showy pinkish flowers. 

SANJUAN BUKIT. 

Dracaena terniflora Roxb. (Li/iaceae). A dwarf Dracaena. 

SENJUANG HUTAN. Also SANJUAN. 

Aglaonema minus Hook. fil. (Arouhae). Also Apostana 
nudaR. Br. (Apo.'>fas:iareae). 

SENGKAWAS. 

Dioppi/ros Ivcida Wall. (Ebenaceae). An Ebony tree. 

SENGKUANG. Also BENGKUaNG. 

• Pach fjrrliiz us angulatus Rich. {Legunnnosae). The Yam-bean. 

A bean with a tuberous root like a turnip, eaten by 

natives. 

SENTADA. Also SETADA. 

Podocarpus neglectus Bl. {Coniferae). A tree like yew'.'com- 
mon near the sea. 



244 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SENTOL. 

SandoriGum inclicum L. (Meliaceae). A well known fruit- 
tree. 

SEPADAS BUNGA. 

Cratoxylon formosum Benth. {Ilypericineae). According* to 
Jack. 

SEPA PUTRI. SEPA PETRI. 

Pentace triptera Mast. (Wiaceae), A big" timber tree, with 
white flowers. Also Gonystylns Maingayi Hook. fil. in 
Malacca. 

SEPAN. (Malacca) 

Dialium patens Bak. (Leguminosae), A word used in Malacca 
for Kranji. 

SEPANG. 

Sappan wood. AsaJpinia Sappan L. {Leguminosae). A 
thorny tree with yellow flowers. The wood gives a red 
dye. 
SEPIT. 

Vitex vestita Wall. ( Verbenaceae). A tree with yellow 
flowers. 

SEPUIL. 

Arthrophylum divernfoHum Bl. {Araliaceae). 
SEPUKU. 

HeptapleKriim venvlosum Seem. (Araliaceae). An epiphytic 
shrub. 
SEPUM. 

Mangifera Maingayi Hook. fil. (Anacardiaceae). A large 
wild mango with eatable fruits. 

SERA FAT. (Akar) 

Parameria polyneura Hook. fil. (Apocynaceae). A climbing 
rubber-vine with jink flowers, the bark used in native 
medicine. Serapat or Serapit is a name applied to 
several climbers chiefly Apocynaceae some of which are 
used in medicine. 

3ERAPAT JANTAN. (Akar) 

Vrceola mai accensis Hook. fil. {Apocynaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 245 

SERAPAT KUNING. 

Gymnema acuminatum Wall. (Asclepiadeae). A climber. 

SERAPOH. 

Daphniphyllum kmrinum {Euphorbiaceae). A shrub or tree. 

SERAPOH. (Akar) 

Celastrus monosperma Roxb. (Celaf^tnneae). A climbing" 
shrub. 
SERAPU. 

Gironniera parvifolia Planch. (Urficaceae). x\ shrub. 

SERAPU PUTIU. 

Lindera malaccensis Hook. fil. (Laurineae). A common 
shrub or small tree. 

SERAU. (Akar) 

Parameria glandulifera Hook. fil. (Apocynaceae). 

SERAU LIPIS. 

Pavetta indica L. {Rubiaceae). \ shrub with white flowers. 

SERA WAN. 

Erycibe Sp. (Convolvulaceae). 

SERAWAN. (Akar) Also SURAWAN. 
Roucheria Grijithii Planch. (Lt'neae). 

SERAWAN KUBANG. 

Ebermactra setigera Nees. (Acanthaceae). A little white 
flowered herb, common in woods. 

SERA WAS. SERAWAS PAYA. Also SURUAS. 

Fagraea racemam Jack. {Loganiaceae). Often known as 
Sapuli. 
SERAYAH. 

A name given to timber of several trees belonging to the 
genera Shorea, and Hopea (Dipterocarpeae). 

SERDANG. 

Livistona cochinchineusis (Pahnae). A tall fan palm. 

SERGA. 

Lepidagathis longifolia Wight. (Acanthaceae). A tall herb 
with dull purple flowers inhabiting dense jungles, used as 
an abortient by natives. 



246 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SERENAH LAUT. 

Saruney according to Favre. Wedeh'a bijora De C. {Compo- 
sitae). A yellow flowered composite common near the 
sea. 

SERERAS. (Malacca) 

Pittosporum ferrugineum i^it. (Pittospareae). 
SEREY. 

Citronella grass. Andropogon Schoenanthns L. {Gramineae). 
SEREY BUKIT. 

Oahvia javanica Zoll. (Cgperaceae). A tall sedge with black 
flower and spikes growing on mountains. 

SERI ENGGANG. 

Hyptis brevipes Fo\t. {Lahiatae). 
SERENGAN. 

Desmodiuin latifolhnn Dec. {Legunnnome). Also KamANI 
Bab I. 

SERINGAN. 

Uraria crinita Desv. {Leguminosae). The Malay Lupine. 
A small shrub with thick spikes of violet flowers. 

SERINGAN JANTAN. 

Flemingia congesta Roxb. {Leguminosae). 

SEROJA. 

The lotus. Nelumbiwn speciosiim Br. (Nij^npheaceae). 

SERTONG. (Malacca) 

Kopsia pauciHora Hook. fil. (Apoci/naceae).. A shrub with 
white flowers. 

SERUNTU. 7 

Lepidagathis longifolia Wight. {Acanthaceae). 

SERUPAH BUKIT. 

Norrisia jualaccensi.^^ Gsirdn. (Loganiaceae). Also Sarapok. 

SESAWI. 

Mustard. Brassica nigra L. {Cruci ferae). 

SESAWI PASIR. 

Artanema sesamoides lier\\\\. {Scrophularineae). - '■■ 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 247 

SESENDOK. 

Contraction for Sendok-Sendok. Endosper/nuiu malaccense 
Muell. {Euphorhiaceae). 

SESEPIT. (Singapore) 

Sesuvium portulacastriuH L. {Ficoideae). A creeping succu- 
lent plant with pink flowers common on tidal mud. 

SETAMBON. Also SENAMBUN. 

Baccaurea parvijolia Muell. {Euphorhiaceae). A small tree 
the wood of which is used for making sticks. It is very 
hard and yellow. 

SETAMBON BETINA. 

Baccaurea Wallichii Muell. {Euphorbiactat), 

SETAVVBON LI LIN. 

Baccaurea Irecipes Muell. (Euphorhiaceae). 

SETAMPIN. (Selangor) 

Mallotus Grifjithianus Hook. til. 

SETAVVA. Also SATAVVA. 

Costus speciosus L. {Scitandneae) also Forrestia spp. (Coni- 
melmaaeae). Herbs, the creeping stem of which are used 
in medicine. Variants are Tawa-Tawa and Tawaga. 

SETAWA GAJAH. SETAVVA BETINA. 

Forrestia mollis Clarke. 

SETAVVA JANTAN. SETAVVA UUTAN. 

Forrestia Griffithii Clarke. 

SETEBAL. 

Fagrae racemosa Jack. {Loganiaceae). A variant of Sii tubal. 
SETEBAL. (Akar) 

Hoga coronaria Bl. (Apocgnaceae). A wax flower with 
downy leaves and large waxy white star shaped flowers. 
SETtJ or SETOL. 

Enhalus acoroides Zoll. (Hgdrocharideae). A marine plant, 
the fruits of which are eaten by children. 
SETUI. (Lankawi) 

A local variant for Seutol {Sandorioum iiidicum). 



248 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SETUBAL. (Akar) Also SATUBAL. 

Hensloicia Lobbiana De C. {Santalaceae). 

SETUBAL PAYA. 

Kibara coriacea Endl. {Monimiaceae). 

SETULANG. (Johore) 

Moesa ramentacea A. De C. (Myrsineae). 

SHINGHE. 

Microstemon veluHna Engler. (Anacardiaceae). A big tree 
said to produce a dammar. 

SIAK. (Akar) 

Physostelma Wallichii Wight. ( Asclepiadeae). A slender 
climber with white flowers. The roots are sweetly icent- 
ed and are used in native medicine. 

SIAK-SIAK JANTAN. 

Dianella ensifolia Red. Lihaceae)^ 

SIAK-SIAK RIMBAH. 

Mapania huiailis Naves. {Cypevaceae). 

SIAL MUNAHON. See Manaon. 

Pternandra coerulescens Jack. (Melastomaceae). A tree. 

SIAL MUNAHON. (Akar) 

Jasminum smilacifolium Griff. (Oleaceae). The three nerv- 
ed leaves suggest those of Pternandra whence the name. 

SIAMET (Rumput) 

Fimbristylis asperrima Vahl. (Cyperaceae). A common sedge. 

SIANGGIT. (Sungei Ujong) 

Ageratum conyzoides L. (Compositae). The white weed. 

SIANGAN JANTAN. 

Diospyros sp. (Ebenaceae). 

SIANGUS. 

Croton Oriffithii Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). A common 
shrub. 

SIANTAN JANTAN. Also SIANTAN HUTAN. 

Ixora amoena Wall. {Rubiaceae). An orange red Ixora. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 249 

SIANTAN HUTAN. 

Randia longiflora Lam. {Rubiaceae) . 

SIBILEK. 

Alsodeia evhinocarpa Korth. (Violaceae). A shrub with 
mossy fruit of which the seed is used in medicine as a 
purg-ative. Compare Sebilek. 

SIBONGKOK BUKIT. 

Sarcocephalus Junghuhnh Miq. {Ruhiaceae). 

SIBU. (Rumput) 

Oldenlandia cori/mbosa L. (Rubtaceae). A weed with small 
white flowers. 

SIBUEH APL f Akar) 

Gpmiema acuminafunt Wall. {Asclepiadeae). 

SIBUEH BATU. 

Limnophila villosa Benth. (Scrop/mlarineaeJ. A little herb. 

SIBUEH JANTAN. (Rumput) 

Hedyotis glabra Br. {Rubiaceae). A common weed. 
SIBUEH. (Akar) 

Gouania microcarpa De 0. (Rhaumeae). A climber. 
SIBURU. 

Gomphia Suviatrana J 3ick. {Ocknaceae). According to Jack. 

SIDIN. (Akar) 

Lygodium diclwtomum {Filices). A common climbing fern. 

SIAGNOS BETINA. 

Parastemon urophyllum E. (Rosaceae). A tree. 

SIBIAK. (Malacca) 

Justicia sp. {Acanthaceae). 

SIGAM. 

Goniocarijum longeraceinosam King. (Oiainceae). A half scan- 
dent shrub with long hanging racemes of purplish green 
flowers. 

SIGOH. Also SIGONIAH. 

Alsodeia Kunstleriana King. (Violaceae). Also Microdesmis 
casearifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Shrubs or the colter some- 
times a small tree. 



250 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SIGRAN. (Akar) 

WiU'iKjhheia Jirma Bl. (ApocijnaceaeJ. 

SIGUMBONG PAYA. 

Kihara coriacea Endl. (Monhmaceae). 
SIGUMBOR URAT. 

Pothomorphe suhpeltata Miq. { Piperaceae) . A larg'e leaved 
pepper common in the hill districts. 
8IGUN. 

Cri/ptocai'ija Griffitkiana Wight. (Laurineae). A large tree. 
SIGUNDOL. 

Microstylis congestu Lindl. (Orchideae). A small gTound 
orchid. 
SIGURAL 

Webera longifolia Hook. fil. (Riihiaceae). A sbrub with 
white flowers. 

SIKAP DADA. 

Oxalis cornicuhtta L. (Geraniaceae). A little yellow-flowered 
weed common in gardens. 

SIKU-SIKU. 

Striga lutea Lour. ( Scrophularineae) A small herb with 
yellow or pink flowers growing in grass. The name is 
also applied to Oldenlamlii conjnibosa (Ruhiaceae). 

SIKU KELUANG. 

Tarrietia siviplicijolia Mast. (Stercu/iaceae). Lit. " Bat's 
elbow." on account of the winged fruits. A vast tree. 
SILAM KULU. 

Psijchotria polycarpa Miq. (Pubiaceae), A climbing plant 
common in hedges. 
SILANGSANG. 

Pandanvs n sp. A dwarf species allied to P. ovatus with 
globose heads of fruit. It also called SINDAYEN Masing. 
SILAYER. (Selangor) 

Sterculia scaphigera Wall. (Sterculiaceae). More commonly 
known as KuMBANG Samangko. 
SILINCHA. (Johore) 

Phoebe sp. (Laurineae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 251 

Sir. AT KAIN. (Rumput) 

Oentotheca lappacea Beau. (Gramineae). A grass the heads 
of which are very adhesive to cloth whence the name. 

SILOKAN. (Singapore) 

Octhocharis javanica Bl. (Melastomaceae). A seashore shrub 
with pink flowers, 

SIMAMBA HUTAN. (Langkawi) 

Gl/jcosmis siapindoides Lindl. (Rutaceae). 

SIMPAYAN ULAR. (Malacca) 

Cnpania pleitropteris Hiern. (Sapindaceae). A common tree 

SIMPOH. 

Favre gives also SiMPUH and there is a variant Chimpoh. 
Dill en la tndica L. {DiUeniaceae). A larg-e tree with very 
large white flowers. Also Randia anisophi/lla Jack, 
which is also called SiMPOH Gajah. 

SIMPOH AYER. 

Cleistanthus hirsutulus Hook. fil. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SIMPOH BUKIT. 

Criiptocarija Grijfithiana Wight. {Lcmrineae). 
SIMPOH JANTAN. SIMPOH BUKIT. SIMPOH HUTAN. 

Wormia meUosinaefolia King. {DiUeniaceae). A yellow 
flowered tree common in hill woods. 
SIMPOH PAYA. 

Wormia puhliell a Jack. {DiUeniaceae), 

SIMPOR. (Perak) 

Dichopsis sp. (Sapofaceae). A Gutta-percha producing tree. 
SIMINJOH. (Akar) (Pahang) 

Sinilax Helferi A. De C. {LUiaceae). A climbing shrub. 

SIMMUNGKE. Also MUNGKE. 

Croton argyratufi Bl. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SINDARONG. 

Olochidion sericeum Hook. fil. {Euphorbiaceae). A tree. 

SINGGA. 

Antidesma cuspidatnm Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). 



252 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SINGGA BETINA. 

Cinnamonum iners BL (Lmirineae), A common wild cin- 
namon. 

SINGGA PUTin. 

Myristica glaucesceus Hook. fll. (Mijrisficaceae). 

SININTOT. (Jobore) 
Evodia sp. 

SINJARANG. (Akar) See also Jarang-Jarang. 
Cyathnla prostrata BL {Amarantaceae). 

SINONIA. 

Memecylon coeruleum Jack. (Melasto?naceae). A shrub with 
blue flowers. 

SINTENG. 

Cassia tomsntosa L. {Legwninosae). A hairy weed with 
yellow flowers introduced from South America. 

SINTULANG. 

Jackia oriiata Wall. (Rubiaceae). 

SIPET. 

Vitex vestita Bl. ( Verhenaceae). 

SIPITUM. (Pahang) 

Hedyotis glabra Br. {Rubiaceae). 

SIRIH. 

Betle pepper. Piper betle L. {Piperaceae). There are two 
cultivated varieties, SiREH Mat ayu and SiRiH China. 

SIRIH AYER. 

Piper miniatum Bl. {Piperaceae). A wild pepper with red 
spikes of fruit. 

SIRIH KADOK. 

Piper longum L. {Piperaceae^. ^ee also Kadok. 

SIRI CHICHEWI. (Province Wellesley) 

Scindapsus pictus Hassk. (Aroideae). A climbing aroid with 
varigated leaves like those of a peppei. 

SIRIT BUDAK. (Johore) 
Oarcinia sp. (Quttiferae), 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 253 

SISIK NAGA. 

Burmannia coelestis Don. (Burmanniaeeae). Lit. " Dragon's 
scales." A little herb with violet urn -shaped flowers 
g-rowing in grass. 
SISIK NAGA. (Akar) 

Desmodium heterophyllum Bak. {Leguniinosae). A small 
creeping plant with pink flowers. 

SISIK NAGA. (Akar) 

Pellionia Duvanana N. E. Br. ( Urticaceae). A creeping 
plant with green or purple variegated leaves often cul- 
tivated. 
SITAKA. 

Plumbago rosea L. {Plumhagineae). According to Favre; in 
Singapore it is called (Jheraka. 

SITOE SOPIE. 

Elaeocarpus rohiishis Roxb. (Tiliaceae). 

SITULANG. (Pahang) 

Coptosapelta GriJfit^H Hook. fii. (Rubiaceae). 

S'RIAN PUTIH. 

Kibara eoriacea Endl. { Mommiaceae). 

SRIGALA. 

Hedijohs glabra Br. {Ihdnaceae). A common herb. 

SRI KAYA. 

The " Bullock's heart." Anona sqi(a?nosa L. {Anonrtceae), 

SRI KAYA BLANDA. Also NONA BLANDA. 

The " Sour-sop." Anona muricata L. {Anonaeeae). 

S'TANDANG. (Rumput) 

Spermacoce hispida Br. (Rubiaceae). A little pink flowered 
creeping herb. 

SUA PAH. (Akar) 

Urceola torulosa Hook. fil. (Apocgnaceae). 

SUASA. (Rumput) 

Eiiocaulon sexangulare L. {Eriocaiiloneae). A herb with 
the flowers in white balls on the end of the peduncles, 
common in and near water. 



254 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SUBANG. (Akar) 

Si)henodesma pentandra Jack. ( Verbmaceae) . 
SUBIDAI. (Akar) 

Tylophora Wallichu Hook. fil. (Asclepiadeae). 
SUBURUS. (Akar) 

Randia rugulosa Thw. {Rahiaceae). A thorny climber with 
white flowers. 
SUBURUS HIT AM. 

Diplospora sp. (Ruhiaceae). A small tree with green 
flowers. 
SUBURUTEH. See Ara Scburuteh. 

FiGus pisifera Wall. ( Urticaceae). 
SUBURUTEH PUTIH. (Akar) 

Psychotria sp. (Ruhiaceae). A climbing species. 

SUBUTA. 

Sarcocephalns suhditiis Korth. {Rnbiaceae). 
SUGA. 

Ormosia venosa Bak. (Legunmiosae). A tree with white 
flowers. 

SUGAOPETALING. 

Diphfipora sp. (Rybiaceae). 

SUGl. 

Cupania puhescens Radlk. {Sapindaceae) in Maingay's list. 

SUGI JANTAN. 

Byttneria uncinafxi Mast. {Sterculiaceae). (Maingay's list.) 
Maingay 8ays this has dull red wood and is used for the 
sides of Gharries.^He is the only person who has col- 
lected the plant. 
SUGI-SUGI. 

Gnetum Brunonianuin Griff. {Gnetaceae). Also Aporosa 
microcalyx Hook. fil. (Euphorhiaceae). 

SUGU-SUGU.' 

Macaranga ja.vanica Bl. {Ei(phorhiaceae). 

SUGUNJA. 

Anadendron montanum Schott. {Aroideae). An aroid climb- 
ing on trees. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 255 

SUJARONG. 

Tahernaemontana pedunculans Wall. (Apoci/iiaceae). 

SUKAM BULAN. 

Greenia Jackii Wight. ( Rubiaceat). 

SUKAM MERAH. 

Aporosa microsphaera Hook. til. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SUKUN. 

The bread fruit. Artocarpus iiicisa L. {Urticaceae). 

SULIMBAT. 

Eufjenia comjlonierata Duthie. (Mi/rfaceae). 

8ULENGSEN. (Rumput) 

MarisGvs pennatu!< C. B. C. (Ci/peraceae). 

SULOH. (Akar) 

Quisqua/is indica L. (Coiiihretaceae). A climber with red 
flowers often cultivated. 

SULOH BELALANG. (Rumput) 

Cyperus Iria L. {Ct/peraceae). A common sedge. 

SULOH HUTAN. (Akar) 

Urceola forulosa Hook. fli. {Apoci/naceaeJ. 

SULONG. (Akar) 

Psychotria poli/carpa Mi({. Also Gijnochthodes mblanceolata. 
Miq. (Rubiaceae). 

SULOR API JANTAN. 

Loranthiis pentandrus L. (Loranthaceae). 

SULUANG MUDEH. 

Eranthemum malacceiise A. B. 0. (Acanthaceae). 

SULUBAT JANTAN. 

AgJaia odoratissima L. {Meliaceae). 

SULUDANG PINANG. 

Peliosanthes albida Hook. liL {Op/iiopogoneae). 

SULU KRANG. 

Kmbelia Pabes L. (lUyr^ineae). A common woody climber 
with small white flowers and black berries. SULU is a 
long- shoot and Krang is coral. 



256 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SULUMSAI. 

Aporosa Maingayi Hook. til. {Euphorbiaceae). 

SULUPUT. (Akar) 

lodes vehitina King-. (0/aciiieae). A climber with green 
tiovvers. 

SULURO. 

Wehera stellata Hook. til. (Ritbimeae). A shrub with 
white flowers. 

SUMANG. 

Quisqualis densiflora Wall. Jack is the authoritj'- for this. 

SUMANGSO. 

Croton argyrites Bl. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SUMBAN PAYA. 

Chloranthus officinalis Bl. {Chloraiithaceae). 

SUMBAWANG. (Johore) 

Kayeaferriiginea Pierre. (Gultiferae). 

SUMBO. (Rumput) 

Cyperus Haspan L. {CyperaceaeJ. 

SUMBONG. See SEMBONG. 

SUMBONG MERAH. 

Didymocarpus crinitus Jack. rCyrtandraceae). 

SUMBOR. 

Breynia reclinata Hook. fll. (Euphorbiaceae). 

SUMIN JANTAN. 

Alchornea villosa Muell. (EuphorUaceae). 

SUMPAYAN ULAR. 

Cstodes macrophyllus Benth. (EuphorbiaceaeJ. 

SUMPELAS LIDAH KUGHING. (Sungei Ujong) 
Grewia umbellata Koxb. (TUiaceae). 

SUMPUH. (Akar) 

Jasminum bifariuvi Wall. (Oleaceae). The wild Jasmine. 

SUMPUH BADAK. 

Ophiorrhiza sp. {Rubiaceae) 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 257 

SUMPUH BULAN. Also SUMPUH KRING. 

Aglaonema angustifolium N. E. Br. (Arokleae). 

SUJVIPUH KELADA. 

Hedijotis capitellata VV^all. (Rubiaceae). 

SUMPUH KRING. 

Argostenima elatostetinna Hook. fil. (^Rubiaceae). 

SUMPU KUHAO. (Malacca) 

Clerodendroii dejfexum Wall. (Verbenaceae). 

SXJMPUH LANDAK. 

Forrestia Griffithii Clarke. {Com/neHiKweae). 

SUMPUH LUMPO. 

Ardisia odoatophifUa Wall. {Mijycinia). 

SUMPUH MUNAHAN. 

Cyrtandromea megaphyUa Kemyl, {Cyrtandraceae}. 

SUMPU PUCHOT. 

Coptosapelta Griffithii Hook* fil. (^Rubiaceae). 

SUMPU TILINGA BADAK. 

Crypteronia Griffithii VAsivkii. {Lythraceae). A fairly large 
tree. 
SUMPUH SEMUT. 

Chasalia Gurvifora var aiign^tifolia {Rubiaceae), 

SUMPUH ULAT. (Akar) 

Henslowia Lobbiana A. De C {Santa/ aceae), 

SUMULUT. (Akar) 

Lettsomia Slaingayi Clarke. {Convolvulaceae). 

SUMUNLAT. (Akar) 

Lettsomia Maingayii C. B. Clarke. (Contolvuluceae). 

SUNAI LAUT. See Serenah Laut. 
Wede/ta bijiora De C. (Compositae). 

SUNARONG BETINA. 

Corchorus capsularis L. (Ti/iaveae). A herb with yellow 
flowers. 

SUNDAL MALAM. 

Polianthes tuberosa L. {Aniaryllideae). The tuberose. 



258 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SUNDIK. GETAH SUNDIK. 

Paijena Leerii Oliv. (Sajwtaceae). A tree producing a good 
Gutta perch a. 

SUPAH. (Akar) 

Hoya caudata Hook. fil. (Apocyuaceae). 

SUNGOL HUTAN. SANGAL HUTAN. 

Canariu/N rufam A. VV. Benn. (Burseraceae) (Maingay's list). 

SUNGOL LUTONG. Also SANGGOL LUTONG. 

NepheHuni enopetcdum Miq. (Sapimlaceae). A wild Rambu- 
taii with pendent spikes of flowers and fruits. 

SUNG-SUNG HARUS. (Akar) 

Combvetum trifoliatum Vent. ( Combretaceae). The fruits are 
sold in the shops as an anthelmintic. 

SUNKIT.. 

Mt/ristica eUiptica Wall. {Myristicaceae), A large wild 
nutmeg. 

SUNKO RIMAU. 

Parinariuiii Griffithiamuu Hook. fil. {Rosaceae). 

SUNTxVNG PUTIH. 

Cedrela febrifuga Bl. {Meliaceae). 

SUNTO BUKIT. 

HuUettia dumosa King. (Urticaceae). 

SUPATl. 

Ixora nigricans Br. (Eubiaceae). A white-flowered Ixora. 

SUPIDANG. (Rumput) 

Mapania bancana Miq. f Cyperaceae). A sedge 

SUPUCHA. 

Phyllochlamys spinosa Bureau. ( Urticaceae). A compact 
thorny shrub. 

SUPUDEH. Also SUPIDEH. See under Aea. 
Ficus urophylla Wall. (Urticaceae). 

SUPIDEH JANTAN. 

Ficus alba Wall. {Urticaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 259 

SUPUJIT BUKIT. 

Cyrtandromoea megaphyUa Hemsl. (Cyrtandraceae)- A large 
herb with white flowers and a red calyx. 

SURAL (Rumput) 

Mariscus pennatiis ( Cyperaceae) . 

SURAL (Akar) (Sungei Ujong) 

Bragantia corymhosa Griff. (Arisfohchiace/xeJ. 

SURANGKING. 

Cleistanthus sp. [Euphorhiaceae). 

SURORAS. (Malacca) 

Pittospovum fermqineuiu Ait. {Pittosporeae). 

SURUAS. SURUAS PAY^A. See SERAWAS. 

Fayraea racemosa Jack. ( Loganiaceae). 

SURUMAT. (Akar) 

Canthium sp. (Rubiaceae). 

SURUNDANG. (Akar) 

Anodendron montanum Wall. Also Scindapsnts Perakensis 
Hook. fil. (Aroideae). 

SURUNGKO. 

Pavetta indka L. {Rubiaceae). A shrub with white flowers. 

SURUNKOP. 

Ryparia fasciculata King'. {Bixineae). A small tree with 
flowers in slender spikes. 

SURUNTING. (Akar) 

Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. {Dioscoreaceae). One of the wild 
yams with spikes of green flowers. 

SURUYIAN. 

Breynia rhamnoides Muell. {EuphorbiaceaeJ. A large shrub, 

SURAT BELUKAR. (Rumput) 
Mapania bancana (Cyperaceae). 

SUSAWAT. 

Vitis! cinnaihomea Wall. {AmpeUdeae). 

SUSOR. (Rumput) 

Spermaeoce hispida L. {Rubiaceae). 



260 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

SUSORDAUN. (Rumput) 

Vernonia cinerea Bl. (Compositae). 

SUSOR PAY A. (Akar) (Malacca) 

Lecananthiif^ eriihesceiifi Jack. (Ruhiaceae). 

BUSU. (Bunga) 

Tahernamontana coronaria Br. (Apocynaceae). Lit. milk 
flower a common cultivated plant. Favre g-ives SUSUNG. 
SUSU RIMAN. 

The Sclerotium or resting- stage of a fungus. Lentinus sp. 
{Tuber' regium) of Rumph. (Herb. Amhoin VI.) Used in na- 
tive medicine. 

SUSU PUTRI. (Akar) 
Ficus sp. ( Urticaceae). 

SUSUDU BUKIT. (Akar) 

Hoya diversifolia Bl. (Asclepindeae). A climbing' plant with 
pink flowers, one of the wax plants. 

SUSUDU HUTAN. 

Synadenium sp. {Euphorhiaceae). A milky succulent herb 
growing on rocks at Penang. 

SUSUN KELAPA. 

Tahernaeiiwvtana malaccensis Oliv. {Apocynaceae). 

SUTAPO. 

Aporosa Praineana King. {Euphorbiaceae). A large shrub. 

SUTAPO BUKIT. 

Antidesma velutinosum Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). 

SUTNIBUT. 

H edy Otis capitel lata Wall. {Rubiaceae). 

SUTUBAL. 

Marlea nobilis C. B. A. (Coniaceae) Also Fagrea racemosa 
{Loganiaceae}. Compare Setebal. 

TABAH. (Sungei Ujong) 

Timonius Jambosella Thw. {Rubiaceae). A small tree. 

TAB AN. TABAN MERAH. 

Dichopsis gutta Benth. {Sapotaceae). The Gutta percha. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 261 

TABONG BUNG A. 

Iccora 2)endula Jack. {Ruhmccae). A shruV) with pink and 
white flowers. 

TAH. (Kelantan) 

Borassus fiabelliformis L. (Pa/mae). Thp Palmyra palm. 
Compare Lontar. 
TAHI AYAM. 

Lantana mixta L. ( Verbenaceae). Also called Tahi A YAM 
BUSUK. The name is also applied to Vvica rosea and 
Ageratiim corijzoides L. These are all weeds which spring- 
up near houses and so are supposed to be connected with 
chicken's dung- which the name means. 
TAHI BABI. 

Vernonia cinerea Bl. {Compo.^tfae). Literally Pig^'s dung". 
A common weed. 

TAHI KERBAU. (Rumput) 

Fimhristilis miliacea Benth. {C)jperaeeae). " Buff aloe dung." 
The buffaloes eat the plant and the seeds passed often 
germinate. 
TAJAM BALAT. 

Ryparosa Jasciculata King. {Birineae). 

TAJAM MOLEH. 

Baccaurea hrevipes Muell. {Euphorbiaceae). A tree with 
eatable fruits. 
TALAN. 

Saraca triandra Bak. {Leguminosae). A half scandent shrub 
or a small tree with red flowers. 
TALAX KUNYIT. (Malacca) 

Saraca cauliflora Bak. (Leguminosae). A tree with large 
masses of yellow flowers, and long pink pods. 
TALAN. (Rumput) 

Adenosma capitatum Benth. (Scrophulariiieae) 

TAMAN. (Rumput) 

Cy perils punnlus Vahl. {Cyperaceae). A small sedge. 

TAMBAK. 

More usually TOMBAK which see. Tobacco. 



262 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

TAMBAK BUKIT. 

Vernonia cinerea Rl. {Covipositae). 

TAMBANG SISIR. 

Pimelandra WaUichii k. De 0. {Myrsineae). A. small tree. 
TAMBO. 

Eiithremis leucocarpa (Ochnaceae). A little shrub with 
terminal spikes of pink flowers, and red or white berries. 
TAMBON CUUCHUT. 

Aporosa aurea Hook. fil. {Euphorhiaceae). 
TAMPANG. 

Artocarpus Gomeziana W^W. (Urticaceae). Also called 
Tampang Tulong and Tampang Nasi and Tampang 
BUEONG. A large tree with soft eatable fruits g-reen 
outside and pink within. 

TAMPANG BURONG. 

Ficiis vascu/osa Wall. {Urticaceae). This name is also 
applied to Artocarpus Oomeziana, Wall, which is the 
true Tampang. 

TAMPANG BULAT. 

Artocarpus Gomeziana Wall, var Griffithii {Urticaceae'). 

TAMPANG Mi\NIS. TAMPANG AMBONG. 

Artocarpus Lahoocha Roxb. (Urticaceae). 

TAMPAN PUTRI. 

Eranthemuni malaccense Clarke. (Acanthaceae). A shrub 
with violet flowers. 

TAMPONG BESIH. Also TAMPOH BESIH. 

Callicarpa longifolia Lam. {Verbeanceae). 

TAMPONG BESIH PUTIH. 

Callicarpa cana Lam. There are shrubs with violet flowers 
and small black or white fruits. The latter has the backs 
of the leaves white. 

TAMPONG ARL (Akar) 

Also RUMPUT Ulah Ari. (Clifford and Swettenham). 
Erycihe angulata King". {Convoh'ulaceae). Ari is a poison- 
ous snake. A climbing* shrub. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 263 

TAMPINAH. 

Hydrocera friffora W. and A. {Gerwiiaceae). The water- 
balsam. 
TAMPINES. 

Sloetia sidero.cijlon Teysin. ( Urticaceae). A well known tim- 
ber. Slight variations or states of the plant are known 
as T. Merah, T. Kerong, T. Putih, T. Hitam. 

TAMPO KALIN. 

Pollia sorzogoneasis Endl. {Coiinneliuaceae). A herb occur- 
ring" in hill jungles. 

TAMPO KULANG. Also GULANG and GLANG. 

Leptaspis urceolaia Br. (Gvaunneae). A broad leaved grass 
growing in jungles. Also called Get ah Puyuh. 

TAMPON TULONG. 

Avalidiuin pinnatifiduin Miq. {AraliaceaeJ. 

TAMPOI. 

Bavcaurea /nalw/ana Hook. til. {Eupkorbiaveae). A well 
known fruit. 

TAMPOI PAYA. (Johore) 

Gomphia Hookeri Hook. til. (OcknaceaeJ. A tree with red 
flowers. 

TAMPOI TUNGA. TAMFOI TUNGNAU. 

Baccaurea macroplujlla Hook. fil. (^Euphorbiaceae). A tree 
with brown fruits. 

TAMPOI DADA. 

Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. (^Ternatroemiaceae). 

TAMPOI PACHAT. 

Aporosa Mainga>/i Hook. til. {Euphorbiaceae). 

TAMPUNEH. 

Artocarpus rigida Bl. (Urticaceae). The Monkey -jack. A 
big tree with an excellent fruit. 

TANAK R[MAU. (Akar) 

Sphenodesma pentandra Jack. (Verbenaceae). 

TANDOK-TANDOK. (Akar) 

Strophanthus dichotomus De C. (Apocipiaceae). Lit. ''Horns" 



264 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

on account of the horn-shaped fruits. A climber with 
curiously shaped tailed flowers purple and white. The 
The name is also applied to some other kinds of Apocy- 
naceous climbers with similar fruits. 

TANJONG. (Bunga) 

Miniusops Elengi L. (Sapotaceae). A commonly planted 
tree. 

TANTAN. rBung-a) 

Amomum xanthophlebiuin Baker. ( Zingiberaceae). A wild 
g-inger the flowers of which are used in curries. 

TAPAK BURONG. 

Aneilema nadiflorum L. {Coiu/nelinaceae). Also Mollugo 
stricta L. (Ficoideae). Lit. " Bird's feet." Little strag- 
gling weeds common in waste ground. 

TAPAK ETIE. 

Floscopa scandem {Commeli7iceae). Lit. " Duck's feet." A 
herb with pink flowers growing in wet places. 

TAPAK KERB ALT. 

Clerodendron villosain Bl. ( Verbenaceae). " Buffalo's feet' 
A common shrub whith white flowers. 

TAPAK KUDA. 

Ipomea pes-caprae Roth. (Couvolviilaaeae) Lit. " Horse 
feet" from the shape of the leaves The Goat's foot con- 
volvulus, a pink convolvulus common on sea coasts. 

TAPAK RIMAU 

Trevesia sundaica Miq, (Araliaceae). " Tiger's feet " A shrub ; 
curious palmate leaves suggesting the paw marks of a 
tiger 

TAPAK RUSA. (Akar) 

Lettsomia pegaensis Clarke. (Concotvalaceae). Lit Deer's feet. 

TAPIS. (Johore) 

Mesuaferrea L. {Guttiferae). The Ceylon Iron wood. 

TARASAY MANIS. 

G/ochidion insulare Muell. (Euphorbiaceae). A sea shore 
shrub. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 265 

TARING PELANDOK. 

Diospfjros hirusta var liwida Wall. (Ebenactae). (Maingay's 
list). 

TAROK MANIS. 

More commonly Chekop Manis. Sauropus albicans Bl. 
(Euphorhiaceae). 

TARUM. 

Indigo, Indiffofera tinctoria L. {Legundnosae). 

TARUM. (Akai) 

Marsdenia tinctoria Br. {Asclepiadeae). A climber some- 
times but seldom cultivated for indig-o. 

TARUMBO. (Pahang) 
Marsdenia sp. 

TASAl. (Malacca) 

Cupania Lessertiana Camb. (Sapindaceae). A tree. 

TASEH-TASEK. 

Adenosma capitatmn Benth. (Scrojyhularineae). 

TAVVAK. 

Siderovijhn fenugineum Hook. (Sapotaceae). A small tree 
with coppery leaves common on the sea coast. 

TAWAGA. (Penang) 

Forrestia mollis Hassk. {Counnelinaceae), See Setawa. 

TAWA-TAWA ANTAR. See Setawa. 

Costas speciosa L. (Scita/nineae) A tall plant with large 
white flowers and red calyces. The name Tawa-Tawa is 
most commonly modified into Setawa and is applied to 
this plant and various species of Forrestia (Coninielynaceae) 
The creeping stems of both being used in medicine. 

TEBRAU, 

A name applied to several of the larger grasses chietij *Sa- 
ckarum arundinaceurn L. S. Ridleyi Hook. (Pahang) and 
Thysanolaena acarifera Nees. 

TE. 

Iliea chiiiensis {Terndtroemiaceat). The tea plant. 



266 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

TE (Poko) 

Panax frtitioosiuii L. {Araliaceae). A comrnonlj cultivated 
ornamental shrub. 

TE MACAO. (Malacca) 

Scoparia dulcis {Scrophularineae). An introduced weed 
with small white flowers. Leaves used to make a medi- 
cinal tea. 

TEBAN. 

Variant of Taban. Dichopsis gutta Benth. (Sapotaceae). 

TEBING AGA. 

Leonurus sihirius L. {Labiatae). A pink flowered weed 
sometimes cultivated by the Chinese. 

TEBU. 

Sugar-cane. Sacchanim officinavum L. (^Gramhieae). 

TEBUANG B'LANG. 

Myristica sp. near po/ijsphoei'ula Hook. fil. One of the wild 
nutmegs. 

TEJEH. 

CinnamoinuiiL nioUisshnuiK Hook. fil. {Laarineae). Favre 
gives Teja. A wild cinnamon with downy leaves. 

TELINAH KERBAU BUKIT. 

Vanilla Griffithii Rchb fil. {Ordiideae). A climbing orchid. 

TELINGA TIKUS. (Akar; 

Bestnodiani heterophi/lhcm \)e G. ( Leguminosae). Lit. mouse - 
ear ; a little creeping plant probably so called from the 
shape of its leaves. 

TELINGIN KRA. (Kedah) 

liensloiL'ia Lohhiana A. De C. (Santafaceae). " Ape ears." 

TELOR BELANGKAS. 

Sida carpinifolia L. (Malvaceae). " King-crab's eggs." Also 
Maesa ramentacea A De C. (Mi/rsineae) from the resembl- 
ance of the small round fruits to the eggs. 

TELOR BUJAK. (Akar) 

Ageloea vestita Hook. fil. {Connaraceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 267 

TELOR IKAN. (Rumput) 

Panicnm radicans L. (Gramineae). A grass with a very fine 
panicle of small black spikelets. Literally " Fish-eg-g- 
grass." 

TELUTA JANTAN. 

Heptapleurum venuJosuin Seem. (AraliaceaeJ. 

TEMAH. (Lanka wi) 

A species of Shorea ( Dipterocarpeae) I have seen no flowers. 

TEMAH BATU. 

Pentacine Malaijana King. {Dipterocarpeae). A straggling 
tree on lime-stone rocks. 

TEMAGNU. (Singapore) 

Glochidion fuperhum Muell. (Euphoi-hiaceae). A small tree 
common in open country. 

TEMBAGA. (Rumput) 

Ischaemurn muticnm Vahl. {GrariiineaeJ. One of the com- 
monest grasses. 

TEMBAGA SUASA. (Bunga) 

Criniun amaticum L. (AmarijlHdeae). ** The Pinch-beck onion." 
A common sea-shore plant, with white flowers. The 
coppery sheaths of the bulb are alluded to in the native 
name. 

TEMBATU. 

Parwarium nitidum Hook. fil. (Hosaceae). See also Meeba- 
TU. A big tree with a good timber. Also applied to 
Scortechinia Kingii Hook. fil. (Euphorhiaceat). 

TEMBUSU. Also TEMUSU. 

Fagraea fragrans Roxb. (Leguminosae). A very common 
large tree giving a first class timber. 

TEMBUSU JANTAN. 

Pofi/osma iiiutabile Bl. (Saxifragaceae). A tree with good 
timber whence the confusion with Fagrata fragrans Roxb., 
the real Tembusu. 

TEMBUSU PAYA. 

Alstoma vmcrophylla Wall. (Apocynaceae). 



268 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

TEMIN. (Prov. Wellesley) 

Balanoslrehlns i/icifoh'uf) Kutz. (Urticaceae). A thorny 
shrub. 

TEMOHONG. 

Buchanama amiminata Tiircz. (Anacardidceae). A ivhb "k'lth. 
white flowfers. 

TEMPAH RAGAT. (Pahang;). TEMPU RANAIt. rMilacca) 
Rubus tnoluccanus L. {Rosdchae). The wild ria^jiberry. 

TEMU. 

A name given to many wild g-ingers. {Scitdminedi). 

TEMU KUNCHI. 

Koempferia pandurata Rose. A small cultivated gihgef. 

TEMU KUNYIT. 

Turmeric. Curcuma longa L. 

TEMU LA WAS. 

Curcuma zedoaria Rose. The Zedoary. A white turmeric 
used in curries. 

TEMURUS. 

Ardisia oxyphyl fa Wall. (Mi/r^ineae). A shrub with pink 
flowers. 

TENGAH. 

C'enops candoUeana Arn. {Riiizophoreae). A mangrove of 
which the bark if extensively used for tanning and 
dyeing. 

TENGAH HUTAN. 

Ternstroemia penangiana Chois. {Terastroemiaceae). A tree 
with deep green leaves, white flowers, and very conspicu- 
ous plum-shaped red fruits which split and let the seeds 
which are scarlet hang out. 

TENGGEH BURONG. Also S'TENGAH BURONG. 

Evodia Roxhurghiana Behth. E. latifolid De C. apd other 
species. Shrubs or tre^s with corymbs of whit^ flowers. 

TENGKAWANG. (Minyak) 

The fat of Diplocnemia sehifera Pierre. It is indpottid ifito 
Singapore from BorneB. 



MALAt PLANT NAMES. 269 

TENGKOK BIAWAK. 

Fagraea racemosa Jack. {Loganiactae). Also Allomorphia 
exigua Bl. (Me/astomaceae). Lit Lizard's neck. 

TENGKOK BIAWAK HiTAM. (Akar) 

Ficus aurantiaca Grii^. ( Urticaceae). A climbing" fig" with 
larg-e orang-e (igfs. Literally, the black lizard*s neck. 

TENOL. 

Myristica laurina Hook. fil. {Mi/risticaceae). A small tree. 

TENTAWAN. (Akar) 

Conocephahis suaveolms Bl. {Urticaceae), One of the water 
producing^ vines, with larg-e leaves and balls of pinkish 
flowers. 

TE^TtJLANG MERAH. 

Garcinia eugeaiaefolia \Vall. ( Guttiferae). Oontr&clidn for 
TULANG-TULANG ? 

TE^TARONG. (Akar) 

Lettsomia Mamgai/i 0. B. Clarke. {Convohmlaceae). 

TEPUS. 

Wild ging"ers, chieHy of the o-enus Sttnochasma etc. {^cita- 
mineae), 

TEPUS DANA. 

Stenochasma urcholare Griff. A large plant with the red 
flowers borne in heads, on the under g-round portion of 
the stem just appearing above ground. 

TEPUS KIJOI. 

Alpinai Rafflesimia Wall. A pretty g-ing-er with a ter£&in&i 
spike oif orange and red flowers. 

TEPUS MERAH. 

Amomnm arnleatum Roxb. 

TERAP. 

Ariocarpuf^ Kunstleri Hook. fil. {^ Urticaceae). A tree pro- 
ducing- a kind of rubber used for catching* birds and a 
bark cloth used by the Bakais. 
TERATEI. 

Nthmbium speciosum Willd. ( Ny mpheacWe). ThI Lotus 



270 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

TERATEI KECHIL. 

The common Water lily. Nijmphaea Mel lain Wall. 

TERENTANG. 

Campno.^perma mirk'ulata Hook. fil. (Anacardiaceae). A big- 
tree with large leaves and small green flowers. The 
wood though soft is good as it is of a beautiful silvery 
white. 

TERENTANG BUKIT. 

Allophyllii.'i cohhe \i. fSapindaceae). A common shrub. 

TERMAL. 

Myristica eolhtiana Hook. fil. ( Mi/risttcaceae). 

TERONG. 

A name given to various species of Solanum {Solanaceae). 

TERONG ASAM HUTAN. TERONG BLANDA. TERONG 
PURAT. 

Solanum acuUatissimum Jacq. A small species very thorny 
with globose orange fruits. 

TERONG KUMAN. (Lankawi) 

Ct/clea arnotfi Mievs. {Memsperinaceae). A climbing plant. 

TERONG MERANTI. (Kedah) TERONG PARACHICHIT. 

Solanum nigru/n L. A common weedy plant growing all 
over the world. It is eaten as a spinach. 

TERONG PIPIT. 

Solanum torvurii Swartz also ^S". verbascifolium L. Common 
shrubs in waste grounds. 

TERONG RAYA. Also T. BULAH and TERONG PIPIT. 
TERONG RIMBANG. 

Solamum rerhasdfolium L. A shrub with white flowers. 

TERONG TIKUS. 

S. sarmentosum Nees. (Sofanaeeae). 

TERONG-TERONG. (Akarj 

Lettsomia Maingayi C. B. Clarke {Convolvulaceae). 

TERUNTUM. 

Aegiceras mqjiis Gaertn. {Myrsinea.e). A sea-shore shrub. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 271 

TERUTAP BATU. 

Torenia poljfgojioidex Beuth. (Sorophularineae). A small 
creeper common in grass, flowers brown and white. 

TERUTUS. (Rumput) 

Ischoemiiin muticam (Grannneae). 

TIGA CHABANG. (Akar) 

Trichosanthes Wawraei Cogn. (Cucurhitaceae). A wild 
pumpkin with trifoliate leaves. 

TIGA SARI. (Rumput) 

Cy perns compressus L. (Cyperaceac). A common sedge. Lit 
three-angled grass. 

TIMAH BANG AN. 

Glochidion superbnin Muell. (Euphoi-biaceaej. 

TIMAH-TIMAH. Contrated to TlTlMAH. 

I/ex cymosa (Ilkineae). A small tree with a very white 
stem flowers very small greenish white. 

TIMAH-TIMAH BULAN. T. GADING. 
Ilex macrophyUa Wall. (Ificineae). 

TIMAH KETAM. (Akar) 

Streptocaiilon WaUichii W. and A. (AsQlepiadeae). A very 
milky climber. 

TIMBAHTASEK. Also TASEK-TASEK. 

Adenosma coeruleum Benth. (Scrophor/arineae) . 

TIM BANG DAYONG. (Sungei Ujong) 

Anthocephnlus Cadamba Miq. {Rubiaceae). 

TIMUN. Also ME.VTIMUN, KUTIMUX. and TIMUN- 
TIMUN. 

Any small pumpkins {Cucurbftacfae) and passion-flower? 
(Passifforeae). 

TIMUN CHINA, 

The cucumber. Cucamis saticus. L. 

TIMUN DENDANG. 

Passifiora foetida L. Also Modecca Stuyaporeaua Mast. 
{Passijloreae). 



272 MAl^AY PLANT NAI4ES. 

TIMUN DENDANG LUNJUNG. 

Trichosanthes ce/ebica Oogn. (Cticurbitaceae). A ^ild pump- 
kin with white flowers and scarlet fruits. 

TIMUN GAJAH. 

Trichosanthes Wallichiamim Cogii. {Cucurhitactae), 

TIMUN GAJAH MERAH. 

Modecca singaporeana Mast. (Passijlfreai). 

TIMUN HUTAN. 

Passijiora quadrangular is L. {Passifloreae). The gFQnaiJjnit. 

TIMUN PADANG. 

Passijiora foetida L. {PassiHoreae). A passion flower with 
small white flowers and red fruit enclosed in a viscid ca- 
lyx, common in waste ground bufe not indigenous. 

TIMUN PAYA. 

Modecca singaporeana Mast. (Passifipreae). 

TIMUN TlfCUS. 

Mukia sp. {Cuciirbitaceie), A small wild pumpkin witl^ f riling ' 
no bigger than peas. 

TINGAL BALAI. 

Aralidiiim pinnatifldum Miq. (Araliaceae). 

TINGAO. 

Leptonijchia glabra Turcz. {Sterculiaceae), 4 shrub with 
small green flowers. 

TINGAR BELUKAR. 

Elaeocarpus paniculatus Wall. (2'iliaceae). 

TIRAK. 

Eurga acuminata De C. {T^rnstroemiaceae). ^ smpll tree. 

TITIMAH. 

Contraction for TiMAH-TlMAH. Ilex cymosa B\. (Ilicineae). 

TITIMAH BETINA. (Malacca) 

Micronielum pubescens Bl. (Eutaceae). 

TIUP-TIUP. 

Adinandra dumosa Jack. (Ternstroemiaceae). xS. small tree 
common in secondary jungle ; flowers white. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 273 

TIYUNG. 

Cycas Rumphii (Cycadeae) according to Favre. It is more 
commonly known here as Paku Laut. 
TOl. 

Leea sp. (Ampeltdeae). 

TOIOH. (Singapore) 

Goniocaryum longiracmiosum King. (Olacineae). A large 
shrub. 
TOKONG BULU. 

Hedyotts vestita Br. {Rubiaceae). A weed with small lilac 
flowers. 
TOL. 

Coscinium fenestratwa Colebr. ( Menispermaceae). On the 
authority of Prof. Vaughan-Stephens. Probably a Sakai 
word. A large climber used in native medicine. 

TOMBAK-TOMBAK. TOMBAK BUKIT. 

Vernonia cinerea Bl. ( Coinjmsitae). The name is also applied 
to several other composites found in waste ground. See 
Tambak. 

TOMBAK-TOMBAK J ANT AN. 

Ageratum conyzoides L. {Compositae). 

TONGKAT ALL (Poko) 

Grewia umhellata Roxb. (Tiltaceae). 

TONGKAT ALL (Rumput) 

Panicum sarmentosum Roxb. (Gratmneae), A large grass 
common in woods. 
TONGKAT BAGINDA. (Penang) 

Eiirycoma longifolia Jack. {Simaruceae), See BiDAEA 
Pahit. 
TONGKAT SETAU. 

Clinogyne grandis Benth. (Scitamineae). 

TONGKING. (Bunga) 

Pergularia minor Andr. (Asclepiadeae). The well-known 
Tongkin Creeper. 
TONGMOGU. 

Cleistanthus hirsatulus Hook. 111. {Euphorbiaceae), 



274 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

TRALING. 

Tarrietia simplicifolia Mast. (Sterculiaceae). A gigantic 
tree. (Maingay's list). Traling is a very good timber 
much in request. 

TRANGNOK. 

Pittosporum ferrugineum Ait. (Pittosporeae). 

TUAK-TUAK. Also TAWAK. 

Sideroxylon ferruginemn Hook. (Sapotaceae). 
TUBA. 

Der7'is elltjHica Beuth. {Legunnnosae). A climber with pink 
flowers. The roots used a fish poison. 

TUBA-TUBA. (Akar) 

Derris maingaijana Hook. fil. {Legumiaosae). 

TUBANG. 

Chasalia curvi flora Thw. (Rubiaceae). 
TUBO. 

Adinandra sp. {Ternstroemiaceae). 

TUBO BUAH. 

Cryptocarya Griffithiana Wight. {Laurineae), 

TUBO KELOI. 

Pollia sorzogonensis Endl. (Commelinaceae). 

TUDONG HUMAN. 

Clerodendron dispar (folium Wall. {Verhenaceae). 

TUGOR PONTIANAK. (Akar) 

Chailletia dejlexifolia Turcz. (Chailletiaceae). 

TUI. (Buah) 

Ixonanthes icosandra Jack. (Lineae), 

TUI KARAS. 

Aquilarta nialaccensk Lam. (Thymeleaceae). See also Ga- 
HAEU. This name is applied to the j^oung plants of 
Gaharu. 
TUKAS. (Akar) 

Ventilago leiocarpa Benth. {Rhamneae) . 

TUKI. (Rumput) 

Kyllinga inoiiocephcda Vahl. {Cyperaceae). 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 275 

TOKO TAKAL. (Akar) 

Croion candatus Geisel. {Euphorhiaceae). A bush or climber 
with yellowish globular fruits. 

TUKO TAKAL. (Poko) 

Baccaurea icallichii Hook. fil. (Euphorhiaceae). A tree. 
TUKUL. 

Artocarpus n. sp. (Urticaceae). An undescribed species of 
Artocarpus with pinnate leaves common in Singapore. 

TUKUS. 

Caryota initis Lour. (Pahneae). A common palm. 

TUKUS TIKUS. 

Peliosanthes alhida Hook. fil. (Ophiopogoneae). A herb with 
broad leaves and white flowers found in woods. 

TULAXG BETINA. 

Petunga sp. (Ruhiaceae). A small tree. 

TULANG BUKIT. 

Derris thyrsiflova Benth. {Leguminosae). A scandent shrub 
with white flowers. 

TULANG DAENG. 

Millettia abupurpurea Benth. (Leguminosae). A big tree 
with deep purple flowers. 

TULANG HUTAN. 

Moesa ramentacea Vahl. {Myrsineae). A scandent shrub. 

TULANG PADANG. (Akar) 

Connarus gihbosus Wall, and C. grandis Jack. (Connaraceae) 
Climbing shrubs. 

TULANG-TULANG. 

Garcinia nigroHneata Planch. (Guttiferae). Commonly 
known as Kandis. 

Also Psyckotna malayaaa Jack. (Ruhiaceae). Tulang-Tulang, 
literally Bones, seems to refer to the wood of the plants 
which is white and bony. I do not however see why it 
is applied^ to the second of these, which is a small shrub. 

TULO BELALANG. (Rumput) 

Sporoholus diander L. (Gramineae). A common roadside grass. 



276 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

TULO BELANGKAS. 

Oldenlandia corymbosa Heyne. (Jiubiaceae) . A common little 
weed. 

TULOHBIJO. 

Ficus globosa Bl. ( Urticaceae). A shrub with green figs. 

TULOBUJAK. (Akar) 

Agelaea vestita Hook. fil. {Cojinaraceae). A scandent shrub. 

TULO PUTIH. 

Callicarpa lanata Benth. ( Verbenaceae). 

TULO SINTADOK. (Rumput) 

Paspalum scroUculatum L. {Oramineae). A very common 
grass. SiNTADOK is a caterpillar. The name refers to the 
spikes, which resemble them 

TUMBAH UTAN. 

Hetaeria obliqua BI. (Orchideae). A little ground orchid. 

TUMBET KAYU. 

Allophyllus cobbe Bl. {Sapindaceae). A common shrub. 

TUMBO DAUN. 

Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. (Aras,mlaceae). 

TUMBO DAUN BUKIT. 

Leea sambucina Willd. {Ampelideae). 

TUMIANO. (Akar) 

Lettsomia peguensis C B. Clarke. {Convolvulaceae). 

TUMILANG. 

Aglaia odoratissima {Meliaqeae). 

TUMMU. 

Didymocarpus crinitus Jack. (Ayrtandi^aceae). 

TUMMU KEOHIL. 

D. reptans Jack. Jack is the authority for these two. I 
never heard the name. 

TUMPANG. 

Croton Griffithii Hook. fil. {Eiiphorbiaceae). 

TUMU. 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza Lam. One of the mangrove trees, 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 277 

the wood used for firing, the bark for tanning-. 

TUMURUANG. 

Maba cordata Hiern. (Ebenaceae). 

TUMURUS. 

Ardisia oxyphylla Wall, {^ft/rs^neae). 

TUPAI. (Poko) 

Polyosma mutabilifi Bl. {Saxifragaceae). \Ai. Squirrel tree. 

TUPOI. (Penang) 

Zingiber spectabile Griff. (Scitamineae). 
TURI. 

Agati grandi flora Desv. {Leguminosae). An ornamental tree 
with large white or pink flowers. 

TtJRI. rRumput) 

Clitoria cajamfolia Benth. [Leguminosae), 

TURUBOL. 

Ixora grandifolia Zoll and Mor. {Rubiaceae). 

TURUKOP BUMI. 

Cassia nodosa Ham. (Leguminosae). 
TUTOK. 

Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. (Malvaceae). A tree of which 
the bark is used for fibre. 
TUTUBO. (Akar) 

Gnetum Juniculare Bl. (Gneiaceae). 

TUTUMBA MERAH. 

Endlia sonchifolia De C. (Compositae). The pink groundsel 

A common weed. 
TUTUMBA is perhaps a contraction for TOMBAK-TOMBAK. 

TUTUP BUML 

Elepliantopus scaber L. (Compositae). Lit. Cover the ground 
a pink flowered weed common in grass plots. 
TUTUP BUMI PAYA. 

Blainvilleajiati folia De C. (Compositae). A small white 
flowered weed. 
TUTUP BUMI RIMBAH. 

Allomorphia Grijitkii Hook. fil. (MeJastomaceae). A herb in 



278 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

woods with larg-e round leaves red beneath, and white 
flowers. 
UBAH. 

Various species of Glochidion (Euphorhiaceat). Some of 
which supply a first class timber. 

UBAH HITAM. 

Gl. desmocarpum Hook. fil. 

UBAH KECHIL. 

Glochidion leiostylum Hook. fil. 

UBAH MERAH. 

Glochidion brunneum Hook. fil. Also called Ubah PAYA. 

UBAH PAYA. 

Glochidion inicrobotri/s Hook. fil. also G. hrunneum. 

UBAI-UBAI. 

Pouzohia pentandra Berm. ( Urticaceae). A common weed. 
UBAK. 

Galearia phlebocarpa Br. (Euphorbiaceae). 

UBAN KAYU. (Akar) 

Cardiosperimnn Halicacabum L. (Sapindaceae). The balloon- 
vine. A slender climber. 
UBAT. 

Drug or medicine. 
UBAT CHAOHfNG. 

Iledychium longicornutwn Hook. fil. (Scitamineae). Lit. "An- 
thelmintic." One of the very few Epiphytic Gingers, tlie 
roots used in medicine for worms. 
UBAT HALAN. 

Psychotna Jackiana {PubiaceaeJ, A shrub the roots of which 
are used in cases of snake-bite. 
UBAT RAJA. 

Smilax china L. (Liliaceae). A well-known Chinese drug. 
The tubers are sold in the markets. It is called Ubi 
Rajah in Java. 
UBI. 

Any yam or tuberous root. Most are classified under their 
special names. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES 279 

UBI BENGGALA. 

The potato {Solanum tuberosum). See also under Kentang. 

UBBI KAYU. 

Tapioca. Mauihot utilissima (Euphorhiaceae). 

UBI NASI. 

Dioscorea alata Roxb. The commonest cultivated yam. 

UBI PASIR. 

Dioscorea pentaphjlla L. ( Dioscoreaceae). Also UbiJabbeT 
see under Jabbet. 

UJOL. 

Willughbeia coriacea Wall. (A nocynaceae). A lofty jungle 
climber supplies an Indian rubber; see Getah Ujol. 

ULAN. (Akar) 

Tkunbergia ahtta Roxb. fAcanthaceaej. Also Ipoiiiea cgmosa 
{Convolvukiceae) and Asjndopterys concava ( Malpighiaceaej 

ULxVN BUKIT. 

Lettsomia peguensis C. B. Clarke. (Convolvu laceae). 

ULAM GAJAH. 

Ipomea peltata Miq. (Concolvulaceae). 

ULAN J ANT AN. (Akar; 

Erycihe Princei Hook. fil. (Concolvulaceae). A climber 
with small white flowers. 

ULAN PUTIH. 

Ipomea untflera Roem. {Comolvvlaceae). A white convol- 
vulus. 

ULAN RAJAH. 

Cosmos caudatus (Compositae). Leaves used as a vegetable. 
A herb common around villages. 

ULAM TIKUS. (Akar) (Malacca) 

iVikama scandens Wahl. {Compositae). 

ULAR. (Akar) 

Freycinetia augustifolia (Pandanaceae). Lit. Snake climber ; 
• a common climber in the jungles. 

ULAR ARI. (Rumputj 

Erycibe augulata King. (Convolvulaceae). 



2 so MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

ULAS. (Kayu) 

Helicteres Isora L. (Sterculiaceae) . A shrub the fruits of 
which imported from India, are much used by Malays in 
medicine. 
ULOH-ULOH. 

Diplospora sp. (Rubiaceae). 
UMBAI. 

Mapania hjpolytroides Benth. {CyperaceaeJ. A sedge used 
for making mats. 
UMPAONG PUTIH. 

Petunga venulosa Roxb. {Ruhiaceae). 

UMU. (Akar). (Johore) 

Conocephalus scortechinii Hook. fil. ( Urticaceae). *' Purple 
climber," from its violet flower heads. 

UNAK. Also spelt ONAK, and UNAR. 

Plectocomia Griffithii (Palviae). A common climbing rattan 
more commonly known as ROTAN Dahan. 

UNAK. (Akar) 

Zizijphus coJophyllus Wall. ( Celasfrmeae). A climber with 
strong short hooks. 

UNCHONG. (Province Wellesley) 

Hibiscus floccosus Mast. (Malvaceae). A tree ; Hibiscus with 
yellow flowers with a narrow eye. 

UNTING-UNTING. 

Clerodendron nutans ( Verhenaceae). 

UNTING-UNTING BESAR. 

StercuHa ruhiginosa Jack. (Sterculictceae). According to 
Jack. 
UPAS. 

Antiaris toxicaria ( Urticaceae). Given by Favre as Malay, 
but rarely if ever used in the Peninsula. See iPOH. 
UPAT. 

Panicum radicans (Oramineae.) 
WA-WA. 

Dipodium pictum (Orchideae), Authority of Prof. Vaughan- 
Stevens. Probably a Sakai word. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 281 

WAMPANU. (Johore) 

Antidesma salicifoHa Hook. fil. {Ephorhiaceae). A shrub with 
long" narrow leaves. 

WANGI. rAkar) 

Andropogon muncatus L. {Gramine'.ie). The Vetiver or Kus- 
kus grass ; literally scented root. It is a native of India 
and sometimes though rarely cultivated here. 

WANGI. (Rumput) 

Cy perns distans L. (Cyperaceae). A common sedge. 

WARANGAN. 

Variant of Berangan, which see. 

WARINGIN. 

Ficus benjamna L. ( Uriicaceae). Also BarinGIN. A large 
fig tree often cultivated. Probably a Javanese word. 

WARU. 

Variant of Baru. Hibiscus tiliaceus L, 
YU. 

Ryparia sp. (Bixineae). 



282 MALAY PLANT NAMES. 

ADDENDA. 

BALAU. 

This proves to be Parinarium ohlongifoHum Hook. fil. 
(Rosaceae). 
CHICHIT. 

Popowia ramosissima King. (Anonaceae), A small tree. 
GERITTA. 

Ihirpinia pomifera De. C. (Sapindaceae.) A tree. 
HALIYA ENGGANG. (Lankawi) 

Calanthe ruheiis Ridl. Literally " Horn-bill's ginger." 
A handsome orchid ; the pseudobulbs used in native 
medicine. 
KATA KRAN. 

Callicarpa arborea Roxb. ( Verhenaceae). A tree with pink 
flowers. 
KELIPONG. 

A variant for Kelumpung. 
LOW KAYU. (Lankawi). 

Vanda gigantea Lindl. {Orchideae). Compare Daun Low. 
LUMBU JAWA. 

Morinda rigida Miq. (Eubiaceae). A climber used for bird- 
lime. 
MARALAPIT. 

Ilhgera appeiuliculata Bl. (Combretaceae.) A climber used in 
native medicine for rheumatism. 
MALAS. 

Parastemon urophijUum A. De. C. {Rosaceae). A big tree 
with a useful timber. 
PEPARU. 

Cyperus vennstus Br. (Cyperaceae), A large and handsome 
sedge. 
RAMBEH PADANG. (Akar) 

Psychotria sarmentosa. Bl. (Rubiaceae). 
ROTAN TUKUS. 

Plecticomia Grijfithii Hook. fil. 
SEMANTAH. 

Vitex simplicifolia. Clarke. ( Verbenaceae). A tree. 



MALAY PLANT NAMES. 



283 



CORRIGENDA. 



'g. 


, 40 


line 25 


vylophylla. 


read xijlopkylla. 


,, 


46 


V 


27 


Aussaenda. 


55 


Mussaenda. 


J) 


93 


55 


2 


Saportea. 


35 


Laportea. 


55 


96 


55 


10 


cariacea. 


55 


coriacea. 


55 


55 


55 


29 


Dichopis pustlatau 


55 


Dichopsis pustulatus. 


,, 


97 


55 


21 


NuUetia. 


•5 


Millettia. 


)5 


98 


55 


4 


setusa 


55 


retiisa. 


J5 


99 


55 


12 


TlAP-TlAP 


55 


TlUP-TIUP 


55 


55 


55 


33 


GhaesauUila 


55 


Ghaesenihilla. 


55 


100 


55 


13 


tnalvacense 


5« 


malaccense. 


55 


55 


55 


30 


Acanehiis ehractiatus 


55 


A canthus ebracteatus, 


,. 


101 


55 


3 


accuella 


55 


acmella. 


55 


)5 


55 


21 


apiscarpa 


55 


apiocarpa. 


55 


103 


)) 


4 


Imjyaticus 


5> 


Impatiens, 


55 


55 


55 


10 


tariarius 


5) 


tanarius. 


5) 


5> 


55 


33 


Rancheria 


55 


Roucheria. 


55 


104 


55 


24 


JlWYT 


5) 


JlWAT. 


55 


152 


55 


15 


caniuni 


55 


caninum. 


55 


193 


55 


7 


Stnophylla 


55 


stenophylla. 


55 


208 


5) 


24 


Suffa 


55 


Luffa, 


55 


249 


J' 


29 


Olainceae 


55 


Olacineae. 



An account of 

THE CULTIVATION OF RICE 

IN MALACCA. 

The following account of the method of rice cultivation 
in the territory of Malacca was written in 1893, by Inche Mu- 
hammad Ja'far, Malay Writer in the Resident Councillor's 
Office, at the request of Mr. E. M. Merewether, who has contri- 
buted it to this Journal. 

For the translation the sole responsibility rests with me, 
but I am indebted for the interpretation of certain words and 
phrases to the kind assistance of Mr. H. T. Haughton and the 
author. 

The Notes (except such as are enclosed in square brackets) 
are part of the original, but to their English renderings the same 
remarks apply. 

C. 0. BLAGDEX. 



Derihal Pkerja'an bersawah 
di Malaka. 

Baliwa telah di-adatkan didalam negri Malaka pada tiap-tiap 
tahun sakali bertanam padi, maka kerap-kerap kali jatoh musim^ 
nya itu di antara bulan Zilkaidah dengan Zilhijab ; tetapi apabila 
handak memulai pekerja'an menanam padi itu jikalau buleh 
di-sukai uleh orang- bersama'an dengan katika musim ang-in barat 
bertiup, karana terkadang--kadang katika itu kerap kali hujan 
turun, jadilah lembut tanah sawah itu dan senangiah di-bajak, 
lag-i-pun samemang-nya 'adat bertanam padi itu salalu mahu ber- 
ayer di-dalam sawah itu, sepaya baik tumboh-nya padi itu ; 
tetapi jikalau terlampau dalaiii ayer-nya itu neschaya matilah 
padi Itu. Maka kerap kali di-perhatikau orang akan musim barat 
itu bersatujuan waktu-nya itu dengan bulan yang ka'ampat deri- 
pada bilangan bulan China, dan terkadang-kadang berbetulan juga 
dengan bulan Zilkaidah atau Zilhijah. 

2. Ada pun peraturan pekerja'an bersawah pada zaman 
orang tua-tua itu adalah saperti tersebut di-bawah ini : — 

a. Mahulah bermuafakat orang tua-tua dengan Pawang. 

h. Mahulah di-tetapkan waktu-nya 

c. Mahulah di-mauludkan^ ibu beneh itu serta membakar 
kemenyan yang di-beri uleh pawang. 

d. Mahulah di-lengkapkan segala 'alat^ pekerja'an bersawah 
itu saperti tersebut di-bawah ini. 

(1) Kerbau yang kuat (akan penarek bajak). • 

(2) Bajak dengan perkakas-nya (akan pembalekkan 
tanah dan rumput yang pendek). 

(3) Sikat dengan perkakas-nya (akan meratakan dan 

1 J/awZMc/— Suatu kitab cherita derihal Nabi Muhammad di-peraiiak- 
kan di-bacha dengan ber-lagu-lagii nyanyi ramai-ramai di mesjid. 

An account of the birth of the Prophet Muhammad which is iutoae-i 
by a number of peoi>le in the Mosque. 

2 ^?af—MateriaIs, apphances. 



DERIHAL PKERJA'AN BERSAWAH DI MALAKA 287 

inenghaluskan kahanchuran tanah). 

(A) Giling^ dengan perkakas-nya (akan merebahkan rum- 
put yang panjang jikalau ada mendeiung di-sawah yang 
lama-lama tinggal). 

(5) Parang (akan membaiki apa-apa perkakas yang rosak 
katika membajak). 

(6) Changkul (akan membaiki batas-batas atau tanali 
tinggi akan di ratakan). 

(7) Tajak"* (akan meraatnskan akar-akar rumput yang 
panjang). 

(8) Pemechut^ (akan penhalaukan kerbau yang malas). 
3. — Apabila sampailah musim-nya yang patut di-mulakan 

pekerja'an turun ka sawah itu dan telah safakat Fawang dengan 
orang tua-tua-nya, maka pada suatu hari Jema'at lapas deripada 
sembahyang' di-dalam mesjid, maka Penghulu pun berserulah 
kapada sakalian orang-orang yang hathir di-situ mengatakan 
pada hari anu, sakian hari bulan mahulah tiap-tiap orang yang 
ada bersawah itu membawakan satengah chupakpadi (ibu beneh) 
kadalam mesjid, sepaya di-bachakan maulud (katika itu di-per- 
buatkan, makanan, ketupat*"', lepat", bagi orang-orang 'yang 
membacha maulud itu). 

3 Giling — A roller. 

4 Tajak — ]Macham parang tetapi bengkok hujong-nya dan hulu-nya 
di-beri bertangkai panjang lebeh kurang satengah depa. 

A kind of wood cutter's knife, but curved at the end and furnished witli 
a handle about a yard long. 

5 Pemeclmt — A whip. 

6 Ketupat — Di-rajut (any am — to braid) dua helai puchok kalapa dan 
di-perbuatkan arapat penjuru, diberi berlubang kosong, di-isikan beras 
separoh kadalam-nya kemdian di-rebus hingga masak penohlah ia. 

Two strips of cocoanut leaf are braided into a square bag, hollow inside, 
which is half filled with rice and then boiled so that when cooked the rice 
fills the bag. 

7 Lepat — Tepong yang di-gaul dengan gula dan santan kalapa dan 
di-masokkan kadalam dahun pisang sabesar dua jari lebeh kurang, lalu 
di-lipat, maka di-kukus (arti-nya di-masokkan kadalam suatu tong nama- 
nya kukusan) dan di-letakkan dalam kuali yang berayer, di-jadikan api 
di-bawah-nya, maka masaklah ia dengan wap ayer itu sahaja. 

Flour is mixed with sugar and with the expressed juice of the pulp of 
the cocoanut, and put into a piece of plantain leaf about two fingers long, 
which is then folded and the whole is steamed, that is put into a pail known 



288 DERIHAL PKEKJA'AN BERSAWAH DI MALAKA 

Satelah selesai deripada maulud itu, maka masing--masing' 
pun turunlah ka sawah (jikalau sempat pada hari itu atau esok- 
nya) memulakan membajak petak semaian (suatu petak yang 
hampir rumah-nya atau yang siidah di-biasakan tahun-tahun 
menyemaikan beneh di-situ). Tetapi jikalau terlalu banyak 
petak -petak itu, maka di-dahulukanlah membajak saparoh petak 
itu ; maka di akhir-akhir bulan Zilhijah mahulah di-perbaiki akan 
petak semaian itu dengan semporna-nya didalam sapuloh hari 
lebeh kurang siaplah. 



Derihal Menyemai atu Menabur. 

4. — Adapun perbuatan menyemai itu, mula-mula di-jemurkan 
padi-padi beneh itu dan ibu beneh pun, tetapi di-asingkan sepaya 
kering, kemdian direndamkan pada suatu bekas (tong atau pasu) 
lama-nya dua hari dua malam baharu di-angkat dan di-tiriskan^ 
serta di-hamparkan rata-rata di-atas tikar sama-sama tebal-nya, 
maka di-tutup-nya dengan dahun-dahun yang hidup (yang ter- 
lebeh baik dengan dahun pinang^, maka pada tiap-tiap petang 
di-renjiskan ayer rata-rata di-atas beneh itu, sepaya segera 
kaluar (pechah) mata-nya, barangkali didalam dua malam lebeh 
kurang. 

5. — Didalam masa merendamkan beneh-beneh itu mahula 
di-sediakan baik-baik akan petak semaian itu, ia itu 

(1) di-bajak balik, 

(2) di-sikat, 

(3) di-ratakan, 

(4) di-balur^ 

(5) di-dudokkan^*^ tanah itu, 

(6) di-baiki batas-nya, 

(7) di-lechok^^ lichin-lichin. 

as kukusan which is placed in a large pan containing water, having a fire 
lighted under it so that contents of the kiikman are cooked by means of 
steam only. 

8 Tiriskan— To strain. 

9 Balur—Falur (?J—Di-^erh\iaik&,n parit di-dalam petak itu jarak 
sadepa di-tinggikan tanah-nya sapanjang petak itu, sepaya turun ayer ka 
parit-nya itu. 



DERIFIAL PKERJA'AX BERSAWAII DI MALAKA 289 

Maka apabila bertumbohlah mata beneh itu lalu di-bawalah 
kapada tempat petak semaian itu dan di-bakarkan kemanyan yang* 
di-beri Pawang itu, serta di-renjis petak itu dengan tepong ta- 
war^^, maka baharulah di-taburkan dahulu akan kapala beneh 
itu pada suatu penjuru petak semaian yang telah di-sediakan 
sabesar sadepa ampat persegi, kemdian baharulah di-taburkan 
beneh yang banyak itu pada sarata petak semaian itu (baik 
menabur katika petak berayer, sepaya samua-nya mata beneh 
itu terka'atas dan akar-nya kelak tiada panjang dan senanglah 
menchabut-nya) tetapi mahulah katika menyemai itu didalam 
masa bulan gelap, sepaya terplihera tanaman itu deripada di-ma- 
kan hulat-hulat. Shahadan lepas tiga hari beneh itu tersemai 
naiklah raenjarum^'" tumboh-nya; maka katika itu di-keringkan 
sakali ayer deripada petak petak itu ; dan lepas tiijoh hari 
mengekoi pipit^^ ; dan sampai sapuloh lima-blas hari memechah 
dahun ; maka katika ini di-masokkan kembali ayer itu sedikit- 
sedikit kadalam petak semaian itu sepaya gemok batang-nya 
beneh itu. 

Drains are made in the plot at intervals of a fathom, and the earth 
between them is raised throughout the lengtli of the plot, so that the water 
may run into tlie drains. 

10 Di-dudokl-an tanah itu — Apabila selesai deripada di-bajak dan di- 
sikat yang berseh sakali, maka di-diamkanlah tanah itu terdudok barang 
dua tiga raalam, sepaya sejuk, dan baiklah kelak jadi-nya beneh itu. 

When one has finished ploughing and made a thoroughly clean harrow- 
ing, the soil is allowed to remain undisturbed for two or three nights, so 
that it may be cool and the seed n.ay thrive. 

11 Di-Jechol- — Di-sapu atau di-gosok-gosok dengan tangan, sepaya 
lichin. 

To sweep or rub with the hands in order to make it smooth. 

12 Tepong taicar — (1) Tepong chayer, (2) dahun ribu-ribu (melata), 
(3) gandarusa'(pokok kechil), (4) senjuang. (5)sambardara (rumput), (6)8i- 
puleh (pokok kechil), (J) Sitawar (pokok kechil), dan (8) chakar bebek 
(pokok kechil), di-ikat serba sedikit dahun-dahun itu, maka di-chelupkan 
hujang-nya kadalam tepong chayer itu. 

Tepong taiuar consists of (1) flour mixed with water. 

A bundle is made of the following leaves : (2) A creeper known as 
dahun ribu-ribu ; (3) gandarusa. a small shrub : (4; senjuang ; (o) saynbar 
dara, a weed ; (0) sipuleh, a small shrub ; (7) sitawar.n small shrub 
and (8) chakar bebek. a small slu-ub. 

The end of this bundle is dipped into the tepong taivar, which is then 
sprinkled about. 



290 DERIHAL PKERJA'AX BER8AWAH DI MALAKA 

Maka lama-n^^a beneh itu tersemai sa-kiirang*-kurang ampat 
I'uloh-ampat^® hari chukuplah tiiiggi tutiiboh-nya itii, tetapi yang 
sabaik baik unior-nya didalam petak^ ^ semaian itu hingg-a tnjoh 
pnloh hari lebeh kurang, 

G. — Maka samantara beneh itu tersemai berpindahlah mem- 
bajak kapada petak-petak yaiig lain, lepas suatii kapada siiatu 
saberapa banyak petak-petak itu hinggalah babis ; inilah di naina- 
kan bajak bungaran^* maka di-perbaikilah akan batas-batas itu 
di-pupok^^ samula dengan tanah, sepaya jangan terkaluar ayer 
yang didalam sawah itu dan jangan kakeringan. Satelah di-per- 
baiki batas-batas itu baharutah disikat di-mulai deripada petak 
yang mula-mula dibajak (lain deripada petak semaian) itu, karana 
disitu tanahnya sudah lembut dan rumput-nya sudah busok, 
beberapa hari sudah terendam, ia'itu saperti suatu baja juga, 
demikianlah di-perbuat satu-persatu-nya. Kemdian di-bajak lagi 
(bajak balas) sakali, dan di-sikat pun, karana sikat yang mula- 
mula itu memechahkan tanah sahaja, dan 3'ang kadua kalinya 
itulah menghaluskan hanchur tanah itu dan mematikan rumput 
tetapi kabanyakkan apabila sudah di-sikat dengan pengikat besi 
itu di-balas lagi dengan pengikat kayu, sepaya lagi -lagi halus, 
dan suborlah kelak padi-nya itu lebeh baik deripada Iain-lain 
sawah orang yang kurang rajin; karana pekerja'an bersawah itu 
di-kata orang "tunang harapan" (artiuya akan pengisi prut). 
Maka pada tiap-tiap hari bekerja didalam petak-petak itu sama 
saperti aturan pekerja'an pada petak semaian yang tersebut di- 
dalam fasal yang kalima itu. 

13 Menjarum — Tumboh-nya itu saperti sabatang jaruni. 

The term denotes the stage when a single needle-like shoot appears. 

14 Mengekor pipit — Berdahun dua helai. 

The stage when the shoot divides into two blades. 

15 Memechah dahun — Berdahun ampat lima helai. 
When four or five blades have appeared. 

16 Kurang kuat akar-nya, barangkali musim hujan lebat atau angin 
kendang lekas ia rebah. 

The roots are not very strong and in the case of heavy rain or strong 
wind the seedlings are liable to be beaten down . 

17 Kuat akar-nya. 

At this stage the roots are strong. 

18 Bungaran — Yang mula. permula'an. 
The beginning ; the first. 



DERIHAL PKERJA'AN BEESAWAH DI MALAKA. 291 

Derilial Mengubah. 

7. — Apabila chukuplah masa-n3^a beaeh itu tersemai dan 
sawah pun sudah siap berseh akan meng'ubah-*' (lebeh kurang 
di-dalam Safar, ia'itu August), maka di-chabutlab beneli itu dan 
di-ikat-ikat dengan tali vaug di-perbuat deripada dahuu palas 
yang di-keringkau. sachekak-^ besaruya (di-kata sa'unting) kem- 
dian jikalau panjang akar-nya dan dahun-nya bulehlah di-kerat 
sedikit-sedikit lalu di-chelupkan akar-nya itu kadalam baja (habu 
tulang kerbau yang sudah di-bakar dengan sekam, hangus- 
hangus, dan di-tumbok halus-halus dan di-ayak dan di-gaul pula 
dengan lumpor, ini-lab baja yang terlebeh baik bagi menanam 
padi, di-namakan "baja pangkal " ; dan ada juga di-pakai baja 
itu di-taburkan sahaja, saperti tatakala handak di-ubah itu di- 
keratlah hujong dahuu beueh itu laki di-tanamkan, kemdian apa 
kala di-Uhat puleh -^ nampak-nya puchok-nya itu baharulah di- 
taburkan baja itu pada sa-rata-rata sawah itu, tetapi ada juga 
tempat-ten>pat yang tiada sakali-kali memakai baja itu, karana 
tempat itu meraaug gemok). Kemidian di-anginkan akan dia 
kira-kira dua malam ; satelah itu di-bawalah kadalam sawah dan 
ditanamkan pada tiap-tiap sa'unting itu di-pechah-pechahkan 
sedikit-sedikit ampat lima batang sakali di-chuchokkan, lebeh 
kurang jarak-jarak sajengkal, sapanjang-paujang petak itu sa- 
bingga habis ; barangkali banyak petak yang akan di-ubah itu 
buleh-lah di-panggilkan sapuloh lima-belas kuli-kuli perampuan 
menulong tanamkan (di-kata orang " berkuli mengubah ") dan 
demikian juga tatkala men-chabut beneh pun, maka upah-nya 
itu tiap-tiap saratus unting ampat cent. 

Derihal padi yang sudah di-ubah. 

8. — Satelah siap teruljah sakalian beneh itu. didalam sapuloh 
hari lagi nampaklah puleh padi itu ; dan dalam tiga puloh hari 

19 P'tpok — Di-tambah atau di-tampal dengan lumpor. 
To build up and repair an embankment with mud. 

20 Mengubah — Tiikar tempat ; pindahkan bertanam. 
To transplant. 

21 Chekak — Di-pertemukan hujong telunjok dengan hujong ibii jari 
isi yang di-dalani-nya itu-lah sachekak. 

Tlie space enclosed hy the thumb and tlie index finger, when their ends 
meet, is called Chekak. 



292 DERIHAL PKEKJA'AN BERSAWAH DI MALAKA. 

kaluarlah anak-nya ; dan masok dua bulan merepaklab^^; dan 
masok katiga bulan rata-lah^*; maka di dalam tig-a bulan 
satengah umor-nya itu termenunglah ^5 ^ dan masok ka'ampat 
bulan-nya bunting kechil^'^ maka katika ini batang-nya itu baliaru 
lima ruas, dan deripada masa padi bunting kechil itu mahulali di- 
rabun^ ^ sa-hari-hari padi itu hingga terbit buat-nya. 

Maka sa-kira-kira hampir menjadi anam ruas batang-nya itu 
jadi-lah bunting besar ; maka di-dalam ampat puloli had lagi 
terbit-Iah buah-nya tinjau-meninjau^^, dan dalam dua puloh 
had lagi menghampar- ^; maka pada katika ini mahulah di-kering- 
kan sakali ayer di-dalam sawah itu, sepaya segera masak- 
nya; dan didalam lima anam had menghampar itu mendaporlah ; 
kemdian sedikit had sahaja lagi ratalah masak-nya padi itu ; 
maka telah di-kira-kirakan lama-nya semenjak had di-ubah itu 
hingga rata ma.^ak-nya itu adalah anam bula>, lain deri-pada 
beberapa had membajak dan menyemai itu, barangkali sabulan 
atu dua bulan, atan pun jikalau banyak-banyak petak-nya itu 
sampai tiga bulan baharulah selesai deripada membajak itu. 

22. Puleh — Gemok, subor, segar. 
Great, not faded. 

23. Merepah — Anak ber-anak lagi. 
To increase and multiply. 

24. Rata — Samalah tinggi-nya samua-nya. 
The same height all over. 

25. 7 ermenung — Terdiamlah sahaja ; tiada lagi bertambah tinggi dan 
mcrepak. 

To remain just as it is, without growing taller or increasing. 

2G. Bunting Kechil — Narapak-nya gemok ruas yang di atas sakali. 
Lit. ' ' The lesser pregnancy : " the topmost joint beomes thick, [ Simi- 
liarly bunting besar literally means the greater "pregnancy."] 

27 Bubun — Di-asap-asap. 
To fumigate. 

28 Tinjau menin/au — Tengok menengok — terbit buah-nya sa-batang sa- 
batang. 

The grain appearing on a stalk here and there. 

29 Menghampar — Rata terbit buah-nya (di-kata orang tengah meng- 
hampar). 

The grain appearing all over the field. 

30 Mendapur — Masak sa-tompok sa-tompok. 
Ripening in patches. 



DERIHAL PKERJA'AN BERSAWAH DI MALAKA 293 

Derihal menuai dan mengambil semangat padi. 

9. — Apabila handak memulai meuuai buali padi itu inahulah 
deiigan ; ithin pawaiig- dan meinbakar kemenyan yang- di-beri-nya 
itudisawah serta di-sediakau perkakas-iiya saperti yang' tersebufc 
di-bawah ini ; — 

(1). Bakul kechil akau tempat padi yang- iiiula-iuula di- 
tuai, ia itu semangat^^ padi. 

(2). Jari lipan^- akan di-letakkan di-keliliog bakul kechil. 

{3). Tali terap akan pengikafc padi yang mula-mula di-tuai. 

(4). Sabatang pendek buloh kasap kechil akau dibuboh 
bandera di-chachakkan dalam bakul kechil itu akan jadi tanda 
semangat padi yang mula-mula di-tuai. 

(5). Kain puteh sedikit akan pembungkus semangat padi. 

(6). Anchak'^'" akan tempat meletakkan tempat bara. 

(7). Tempat bara akan membakar kemenyan yang di-beii 
pawang. 

(8). Paku, buah keras"^ akan diletak-kan didalam anchak 
sama-sama tempat bara. 

Tatkala buah padi itu sudah masak rata, handaklah di-ambil 
semangat-nya dahulu, di-pileh pada saiata, petak sawah sendiri 
itu dimana yang terlebeh baik padi-iiya itu, dan dimana yang 
betina-nya (rumpun-nya yang besar) dan dimana yang tujoh ruas 
batang-nya ; maka pada rumpun 3^ang demikian itulah mula-mula 
di-tuai tujoh tangkai akan menjadi semangat padi, maka di-tuai 
lagi satu gemal'^^ akan men jadi ibu beneh pada tahun hadapan 
kelak. 

31 Semangat — The soul, good spirit. 

32 Jari lipan — Pucliok kalapa yaug di-anyaiii saperti gambar lipan 
ber-jari. 

A coconut frond braided into tlie semblance of a centipede's feet. 

33 Anchak — Bilah-bilah buloh atau pelepah-pelepah yang di-rajut (any- 
am) ampat persegi terhanipar dan di-beri bertali pada ka'ampat penjuru-nya 
dan sakalian puncha tali itu di-satukan di-tengah sepaya bulih di-gantong 
atau di-jenjet. 

Strips of bamboo or fronds braided into an open square shape with cords 
attached to the four corners, the ends of the cords being joined so that it can 
be hung up. 

34 Paku — A nail. Buah Keras, a candle nut. 

35 Gemal — Di-dirikan jari hantu dan ibu jaripun, tetapi tiada bertemu 



294 DERIHAL PKEEJA'AN BERSAWAil Dl MALAKA 

Maka semangat padi itu dibungkus dengau kaiii puteh dan 
di-ikat dengan tali terap, di-perbuatkan saperti rupa budak kecbil 
didalam bedong^f maka di-masokkan kadalam V^akul kechil itu: 
maka ibu beneh itu pula di-masjokkaii kadalam bakul lain, lalu 
di-asapkan kadua-nya dengan kemenyan, keradian di-susunkanlah 
kadua bakul itu di-bawahlah pulaiig sampai karumah di-masok- 
kanlah kadalam kepuk (tempat menyimpau padi). 

10 Di belakan tiga hari (di-kata .orang •' pantang tuai") 
baharulah buleh di-tuai atau di-potong akan padi yang lain-nya 
itu, tetapi di-tuai dahulu sakedar sabakul dua sabaja, maka di- 
jemur, di-kisar^' dan di-kipas^^, lalu di-tumbok di-jadikan beras, 
maka di-masakkan nasi, lalu di-panggilkan orang di-khandurikan 

11 Satelah itu di-perbuatkanlah tong akan tempat meniban 
ting^^ padi dan suatu balubur"*" akan tempat menyimpan padi 
sementara di-sawah itu juga; kemdian di-panggilkan lima anam 
orang kuli akan menyabit dan membanting padi itu ; adapun waktu- 
nya berkerja itu deri pukul anam pagi hingga sebelas satengab, 
saberapa dapat padi yang di-banting-nya itu di-masokkan kadalam 
balubur itu. 



36 Bedung — Swaddle, to SAvathe. 

sajarak ampat jari lebeli knrang, maka saterek-terek isi pegangan di-dalam 
nya itvilali sagemal. 

The middle finger and thumb are stretched out not so as to meet but 
with the tips about four fingers' breadth apart and the amount that can be 
held betAveen them, packed as^ tightly as possible, is called a gemal. 

37 Kisar — To veer, to turn round. 

38 Kipas—A fan to winnow. 

[Kisar is to winnow. Kisaran is an arrangement of two baskets, of 
which the lower is fixed while the upper one spins round and winnows the 
grain so that tlie chaff flies out. Kipas is a winnowing machine with an 
open mouth, out of which tlie chaff is driven by a fan turned bv a handle. — 
C.O.B] 

39 MeinhantiiKj — Di-ambil sabitan padi itu sarhekak hesur (di-pertemu- 
kan kadua hujcmg jari liantu dan kadua ibu jari pun) di-pukulkan ka tepi 
tong itu sepaya gugor buah padi itu masok kadalam tong, itulah me.mban- 
tivg padi. 

You take of the rice that has been cut with the sickle (sabit) a large 
chekak (as much as can be held between the ends of the thumbs and middle 
fingers of both hands) and beat it against the (inner) edge of the bucket 
90 that the grain falls into the bucket ; this process is called membanting padi 
[here rendered by •threshing'J. 



DERIHAL PKERJA'AX BERSAWAH DI MALAKA. 295 

12 Jikalau baik jadi-nya padiitu, didalam sagantang buleh- 
lah di-dapat buah-nya itu saratus gantanof ; dan pada tiap-tiap 
sapetak sawah itu adalah sagaiitang beneh-nya itu. 

13. — Satelah habis di-potong" padi itu baharulah di-angin*' 
akan membuangkan hampa-nya, lalu di-jemurkan kering-kering, 
sepaya jangan berlapuk tatkala di-simpaii bertabun : kemdian 
deripada itu di-kaluarkanlah upali kuli itu tiap-tiap sapuloh 
gantang dua gantaug. Apabila selesai deripada itu jikalau 
tiada di-jualkan padi itu, di-angkatlah pulangdi-masakkan kada- 
lani kepuk. Maka barangbila handak di-uiakan di-ambillah saba- 
kul-sabakul di-jemurkan, di-kisar dan di-kipas, laki di-tumbok 
menjadilah beras, baharulah di-buboh sakedar-nya kadalam priok, 
di-basohlah, dan di-bubob ayer sakira-kira tinggelam beras itu 
lalu di-jerangkan ka'atas dapur sahingga masak menjadi nasi 
bulehlah di-makan. 

14. — Adapun pekerja'an meayabit (di-potong dengan sabit) 
dan membanting padi sapertiyang tersebntpada fasal 11 jadilali 
saperti adat baharu, maka yang terlebeh gemar berbuat demikian 
itusakarang iuiorang-orangyang tinggaldihampir bandar Malaka, 
sepaya segera habis pekerja'an-nya ; tetapi dahulu-dahulu tiada 
buleh demikian, hingga sakarang pun orang-orang yang tinggal di 
sebelab darat-darat Malaka itu suka mengetam padi-nya dengan 
di-tuai sagemal-sagemal di-masokkan ka-dalam bakul (jikalau 
di-kulikan, upah-uya itu sapuloh sata) beberapa hari baharulah 
habis, maka pekerja'an yang demikian itu kunun berkat*^, tiada 
terperanjat semangat padi ; dan ada juga satengah-ny a orang yang 
perchaya saperti yang tersebut itu, berkata, '• semenjak sudah 
jadi adat membanting padi iou banyaklah susut buah padi itu 
deripada tahun vang duhulu-dahulu katika biasa dengan di-tuai 
itu." 

15. — Baraig' siapa yang bersawah lebar, jika tiada terdaya- 
kan uleh sendiri-nya bekerja menanam padi itu, maka kerap kali 
di-berikan-nya kapada orang lain mengerjakan sawah-nya itu 
dengan perjanjian berbahagi dua (sama-sama kena belanja 



41 Di-angin — To ventilate. 

[This is the literal sense of the word : it seems to be used here for kirai, 
to winnow with a winnowing fan. — C. 0. B.] 

42 i5erA.-a?— Blesied. to bless. 



296 DEKIHAL PKET^.TA'AN BERSAWAII DI MALAKA. 

menyewa kerbau dan sama-sama kena di-atas sabarang' belanja 
didalara hal bertanam padi itu ) atau berbahag-i tig-a (umpama-nya, 
tuan-nya raeng-aluarkan sabarang apa belanja-nya dan orang- yan^ 
bekerja itu buleh mendapat sapertiga ; atau orang yang bekerja 
itu, buleh raengaluarkan sabarang belanja itu, maka tuan-nya 
buleh mendapat sapertiga sahaja) atau pun di-sewakan-nya 
sahaja, sa'umparaa sawah-nya itu lazim buleh naik sakoyan padi- 
nya tahun-tahun, maka sewa-nya itu bulehlah di-dapat-nya lebeh 
kurang dua-iatus gantang padi. 

IG Sabarang orang yang bersawa yang tiada memperbuat 
saperti aturan yang tersebut didalam fasal 9 dan 10 itu, maka 
jadilah saperti tiada ia memakai sakalian pantang^'^ berladang padi 
karana jikalar tiada di-bawahkan sagala tertib-nya*"* itu tentulah 
kachewa*^ kasudahan-nyadan sia-sia sahaja pekerja'an-nya dengan 
tiada semporna akan hajat-nya itu, karana sakalian aturan dan 
pantang itu guna-nya, sepaya menjauhkan dan melindungkan deri- 
pada sakalian musoh padi itu, saperti benah"^^*, tikus, dan babi, 
atau sabagai-nya. 

48 Pantang — A prohibition. 

44 Tertib — Disjjosition [i. e. arrangement, order : the same as aturan']. 

C. (). B. 

45 Kdchewa — To miss, t» fail. 

4r> lieunh — A worm or a;rub. magcjot or small grasshopper. 



An Account of 
The Cultivation of Rice in Malacca. 

It is the established custom in Malacca territory to plant 
rice once a year and the season for doing so generally falls 
about the month of Zilkaidah or Zilhijah*, In starting planting 
operations^ however, the object is if possible to coincide with the 
season when the West wind blows, because at that time there 
are frequent rains and accordiug'ly the earth of the rice-field 
becomes soft and easy to plough. Moreover in planting rice it 
is an invariable rule that there must be water in the field, in order 
that the rice may sprout properly ; though on the other hand if 
there is too great a depth of water the rice is sure to die. It 
has also been observed that as a . rule the season of the West 
wind coincides with the fourth monthf of the Chinese calendar, 
and sometimes also with the month of Zilkaidah or Zilhijah. 

2. — In olden time the order of planting operations was as 
follows : — First the elders had to hold a consultation with the 
Pawaug ; then the date was fixed ; then Maulud prayers were read 
over the "mother seed" and benzoin, supplied by the pawang ; 
was burned ; then all the requisites for rice planting were got 
ready, viz : — 

(1) A strong buffalo (to pull the plough) ; 

(2) A plough with its appurtenances (to turn over the 
earth and the short weeds) : 

(3) A harrow with its appurtenances (to level and break 
up small the clods of earth left by the plough) ; 



[*In 1893 these mouths extended from the 1 7th Mav to the l-tth July , 
C. O. B.] 

[fin 1808 from the Kith Mav to the 13th June. — C. 0. B.] 



298 CULTIVATION OF KICE IN MALACCA. 

(4) A roller with its appurtenances (to knock down the 
long weeds, such as sedges, in fields that have lain fallow for a 
long while) ; 

(5) A wood cutter's knife to mend any of the implements 
that may get out of order at the time of ploughing ; 

(6) A hoe to repair the embankments and level the higher 
ground. 

(7) A scythe to cut the long w^eeds ; 

(8) And a whip to rrge the buffalo on if he is lazy. 

3. — When the proper season has arrived for beginning the 
work of planting and the elders have come to an agreement with 
the Pavvang, then on some Friday after the service in the 
Mosque the Penghulu addresses all the people there present, 
saying that on such a day of the month, every one who is to 
take part in rice-cultivation must bring to the Mosque half a 
quart of grain (for "mother se.d") in order that that MaiUud 
prayers may be read over it. (At that time Ketupats and 
Lepats are prepared for the men who are to read those prayers). 

When the Aiaulud prayers are over, every man goes down 
to the rice-field, if possible on the same day or the next one, in 
order to begin ploughing the nursery plot, that is the plot which 
is near his house or in which he has been in the habit of sowing 
the seed every year. 

But if a man has a great number of plots, he will begin by 
ploughing half of them and then at the end of the month of Zil- 
hijah he must diligently prepare the nursery plot, so as to be 
ready in about ten days' time. 

Of Sowing. 

4. — Before sowing one must first of all lay out the grain, 
both the seed-grain and the " mother-seed," each separately, to 
dry. It must then be soaked in a vessel (a bucket or pot) for 
two days and two nights, after which it is taken out, strained 
and spread quite evenly on a mat with fresh leaves (areca-nut 
fronds are best) and every afternoon one must sprinkle water 
on it, in order that the germ may quickly break through, which 
will happen probably in two days' time or thereabouts. 

5_ — While the seed is soaking, the nursery plot must be 



CULTIVATIOX or RICE IN MALACCA. 299 

rarefully prepared : that is to say, it must be ploug-hed ove ; 
ag-ain, harrowed, levelled, ditched, and the soil allowed to settler 
the embankments must be mended and the surface made smooth. 
When the germs have sprouted the seed is taken to the nursery 
plot. Benzoin supplied by the Rawang is burnt and the plot 
sprinkled with tepoiuj tawar. Then a beginning is made by sowing 
the " chief of the seed" [/.r/." mother-seed"] in one corner of the 
nursery, prepared for the purpose and about two yards square ; 
afterwards the rest of the seed is sown all over the plot. It is 
well to sow when the plot contains plenty of water, so that 
all the germs of the seed may be uppermost and the roots may 
not grow long but may be pulled up easily. The time for sow- 
ing must be during the dark half of the month, so that the 
seedlings may be preserved from being eaten by insects. 

Three days after the seed is sown the young shoots begin 
to rise like needles and at that time all the water should be 
drawn off the plot ; after seven days they are likened to a 
sparrow's tail, and about the tenth or fifteenth day they break 
out into blades. At that period the water is again let into the 
plot, little by little, in order that the stalks of the seedlings may 
grow thick. 

The seedlings have to remain in the nursery for at least 
forty or fortj^-four days from the time of sowing, before they 
are suiBciently grown : it is best to let them remain till they 
are about seventy days old. 

6. — While the seedlings are in the nursery, the other plots 
are beii]g ploughed, one after another : and this is called the 
first ploughing. Then the embankments are mended and reformed 
with earth, so that the water in the field may not escape and 
leave it dry. After the embankments have been mended the 
harrowing begins : a start is made with the plot that was first 
ploughed (other than the nursery plot) for there the earth will 
have become soft and the weeds being rotten after many days of 
soaking in the water will form a sort of manure. Each plot is so 
dealt with in its turn. Then all have to be ploughed once more 
which is called the second ploughing) and harrowed again; for 
the first harrowing^ merely brejiks up the clods of earth and a 
second is required to reduce them to a fine state and to kill the 
weeds. Most people, having first used an iron harrow, use a 



300 CULTIVATION OF T^ICE IX MALACCA. 

wooden one for the second harrowing- in order that the earth 
may be broken up quite fine. Their rice is sure to thrive better 
than that of people who are less careful : for in rice-pianting\ 
as the saying- g-oes there is " the plig-hted hope of g-ood that is 
to come," in the way of bodily sustenance 1 mean. So day by 
day the different plots are treated in the way that has been des- 
cribed in connection with the nursery plot in paragraph 5 above. 

Of Planting:. 

7. — When the seedling rice has been in the nursery long 
enough and the fields are clean and ready for planting (which will 
be about the nonth of Safar or Aug"ust) the seeding-s are pulled 
up and tied tog-ether with strips of dried palasi leaves into 
bundles of the size known as sadicL-ah. If the roots and blades 
are long', the ends can be clipped a little, and the roots are then 
steeped in manure. This manure is made of buffalo bones burnt 
with chaff till they are thoroughly calcined, and then pounded 
fine, passed through a sieve and mixed with mud : that is the 
best kind of manure for rice-plan tiig- and is known as 
stock " manure." (Tt can also be applied by merely scattering- it 
in the fields. In that case, after cuttiig- off the ends of the blades, 
the seedlings are planted and afterwards, when they are green 
again and appear to be thriving, the manure is scattered over the 
whole field. There are some places too where no manure at all 
is used, because of the perennial richness of the soil.) 

Afterwards the seedlings are allowed to remain exposed to 
the air for about two nights and then taken to the field to be 
planted. The bundles are broken up and bunches of four or 
five plants together are planted at intervals of a span all over 
the different plots till all are filled up. If there are very many 
plots, ten or fifteen female labourers can be engaged to assist 
in planting, and likewise in pulling up the seedlings, at a wage 
of four cents for every hundred bundles. 

Of the Rice after it has been Transplanted. 

8. — Ten days after the young rice has been transplanted it 
recovers its fresh green colour ; in thirty days the young shoots 
come out ; in the second month it increases more and more, and 



CULTIVATION OF RICE IX MALACCA 301 

in the third it becomes even all over. After three months and a 
half its growth is stayed and in the fourth month it is styled 
hunting kecML 

At that stage the stalk has only five joints, and from that 
period it must be fumigated daily till the grain appears. 

About the time when the stalk has six joints, it is called 
hunting hesar ; in iovty d.2kY^ more the grain is visible here and 
there, and twenty days later it spreads everywhere. At this 
time all the water in the field must be drawn off so that the 
grain may ripen quickly. After five or six days it ripens in 
patches and a few days later the rice is altogether ripe. 

P^rom the time of transplanting to the time when it is ripe 
is reckoned six months, not counting the days spent in plough- 
ing and in growing it in the nursery, which may be a month or 
two, or even (if there are many plots) as much as three months 
to the end of the ploughing. 

Of Reaping and Taking the Soul of the Rice. 

9. — When one wishes to begin reaping the grain one must 
first have the Pawang's permission, and burn benzoin supplied 
by him in the field. 

The following implements must also be got ready, viz. 

(1) A small basket to hold the rice cut first known as 
the "Soul of the Rice." 

(2) k jari lipan to put round the small basket : 

( 3) A string of terap bark to tie up the rice that is cut first. 

(4) A small stem of bamboo, of the variety known as 
hvloh kamp, with a flag attached, which is to be planted in 
the small basket as a sign of the " soul of the rice " that has 
been cut first; 

(5) A small white cloth to wrap up the " soul of the rice "; 

(6) An anchal- to hold the brasier ; 

(7) A brasier, in which to burn the incense provided by 
the Pawang; 

(8) A nail and a kind of nut, known as huah keras, to be 
put into the anchak together with the brasier. 

When the rice is ripe all over, one must first take the 
" Soul" out of all the plots of one's field. You choose the spot 



302 CULTIVATION OF RICE IN MALACCA 

where the rice is best and where it is " female" (that is to say 
where the bunch of stalks is big) and where there are seven 
joints in the stalk. You beg-in with a bunch of this kind and 
clip seven stems to be the " soul of the rice "; and then you clip 
3et another handful to be the " mother seed " for the following 
year. The " Soul " is wrapped in a white cloth tied with a cord 
of terap bark and made into the shape of a little child in swad- 
dling clothes, and put into the small basket. The " mother 
seed " is put into another basket and both are fumigated with 
benzoin and then the two baskets are piled the one on the other 
and taken home and put into the kepuk (the receptacle in which 
rice is stored). 

10. — One must wait three days (called the pantang tuai) 
before one may clip or cut any more of the rice. At first only 
one or two basketfuls of rice are cut : the rice is dried in the sun, 
winnowed in a winnowing basket and cleaned in a fanning ma- 
chine, pounded to free it from the husk so that it becomes herciR 
and then bulled so that it becomes nasi, and people are invited to 
feast on it. 

11. — Then a bucket is made for the purpose of threshing 
the rest of the rice, and a granary built to keep it in while it re- 
mains in the field, and five or six labourers are engaged to reap 
and thresh it. Their hours of working are from 6 to 11.30 a.m. 
and all the rice they thresh they put into the granary. 

12. — If the ci-op is a good one, a gallon of seed will pro- 
duce a hundred fold. Each plot in a field takes about a gallon 
of seed. 

13. — When the rice has all been ent, it is winnowed in or- 
der to get rid of the chaff and then laid out in the sun till quite 
dry so that it may not get mouldy if kept for a year. 

Then the wages of the labourers are taken out of it at the 
rate of two gallons out of every ten. \¥hen that is settled, if 
the rice is not to be sold, it is taken home and put into the rice- 
chest. 

Whenever you want to eat of it, you take out a basketful at 
a time and dry it in the sun. Then you turn it in the winnowing 
basket and clean it in the fanning machine, pound it to convert 
it into herns (husked rice) and put a sufficiency of it in a pot and 
wash it. Enough water is then poured over it to cover it and it 



CULTIVATION OF RICE IN MALACCA. 303 

is put on the kitchen fire till it is boiled and becomes nasi, when 
it can be eaten. 

14. — The custom of reaping with a sickle and threshing" 
the rice as described in paragraph 11 is a modern method and is 
at present mainly practised by the people living in the neighbour- 
hood of the town of Malacca, in order to get the work done 
quickly ; but in olden times it was not allowed and even to this 
day, the people who live in the inland parts of the territory of 
Malacca prefer to clip their rice with a taai, an I put it into 
their baskets a handful at a time [i. e. without threshing it]. 
(If labourers are employed to do this, their wage is one tenth 
of the rice cut). It takes ever so many days to get the work 
done, but the idea is that this method is the pious one, the 
" soul of the rice" not being disturbed thereby. A good part 
of the people hold this belief and assert that since the custom 
of threshing the rice has been introduced, the crops have been 
much less abundant than in years of o'den time when it was 
the custom to use the tuai only. 

15. — If a man has broad helds so that he is unable to plant 
them all by his own labour, he will often allow another to work 
them on an agreement, either of equal division of the produce 
(each bearing an equal share of the hire of a buffalo and all 
other expenses incidental to rice-planting) or of three-fold divi- 
sion (that is, for example, the owner bears all expenses, in 
which case the man who does the work can get a third of the 
produce ; or the latter bears all expenses, in which case the 
owner only gets a third of the produce). Or again, the land 
can be let: for instance a field which ordinarily produces a 
Koyan* of rice a year will fetch a rent of about two hundred 
gallons, more or less. 

16. — Every cultivator who does not act in accordance with 
the ordinance laid down in paragraphs 9 and 10 above will l)e 
in the same case as if he disregarded all the prohibitions laid 
down in connection with planting. If a man does not carry 
out this procedure he is stire to fail in the end ; his labour will 
be in vain and will not fulfil his desires, for the virtue of all 



304 CULTIVATION OF RICE IN MALACCA. 

these ordinancea and prohibitions lies in the fact that they pro- 
tect the rice and drive away all its enemies, such as grubs, rats, 
bwine and the like. 

[*A Koyan, as a measure of weight, contains iO pikuls = 5333|^ lbs. 

Rather over 20 gallons (ijantuny) of lice (pudi) go to a, pikul. 

The term Koyan is also used as a measure of capacity, in which sense 
It contain 800 gantangs. 

The term 9«/i^«/i^ has been rendered here by '-gallon" of which it is at 
present the legal equivalent, but the native gantang had a standard varying 
according ta locality. 

a 0. /?.] 



NOTES AND aUERIES. 

Protective Charm 

If a child lias to be taken out late in tlie afternoon so that 
it will probably be out at nig-htfall it is usual among Malays in 
Malacca to put on the top of its head and just under and behind 
the two ear-lobes a little red betel-juice, to ward off evil spirits. 

With this custom cf. Crooke, " An Introduction to the Pop- 
ular Religion and Folklore of Northern India," p. 201. 
'•Colours are scarers of evil spirits. They particularly dread 
" yellow, black, red and white. . . The parting of the bride's hair 
'Ms stained with vermilion, though here, perhaps, the practice is 
" based on the symbolical belief in the blood covenant," and 
ibid p. 197, where betel is mentioned as a scarer of evil spirits. 

It would be interesting- to learn whether this charm is used 
in other parts of the Peninsula ? 

Earthquakes. 

Accordnig- to some Malays the earth rests between the 
hours of a gigantic bull ; when he shakes himself, either through 
lassitude or for some other reason, the result is an earthquake. 

Cf. Crooke, op cit. p. ID. " The common explanation of these 
"occurrences in India is that Vishnu in hisVaraha or boar in- 
" carnation is changing the burden of the world from one tusk 
" to another. By another account this is done by the great bull 
'• or elephant which supports the world." 

The South. 

Crooke, op cit. p. 2U), states " The South is the realm of death, 
"and no one will sleep or have their house door opening toward 
"that ill-omened ([uarter of the sky." 

Compare with this the following extract from a Malay 
treatise on these matters : 

Bermula jika pintu rumah mengadap ka-mashrik baik. 



306 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

alaniat beruleh anak chucbu banyak lagi sentosa : jika mengadap 
ka-utara baik alamat beruleh mas perak lagi semperiia : jika 
meng-adap ka-maghrib bertambah-tambah alamat baik atau orang 
alim datang kapada-nya lagi salamat ; jika mengadap ka-selataii 
malang pada baraiig kerja-iiya ; tiada semperna maksud-nya. 



Names of Months. 

In the inland villages of Malacca the names of the Muham- 
madan months are as follows : — 

1. Bnlan Muharram 



2. 




Safar 


3. 




Sulong Maulud 


4. 




Padua (or Sengah) Maulud 


5. 




Peruga (or Alang) Maulud 


6. 




Bongsu Maulud 


7. 




Aruah 


8. 




Khenduri 


9. 




Puasa 


10. 




Raya 


11. 




Berapit 


12. 




Haji 


but for the 7th month ] 


Rejah is the more general name and 


Sha'aban is perhaps 


more! 


commonly used for the 8th. 


Are the above ( 


^erms 


usual in other districts ? 



Benzoin. 

Mr. Groeneveldt in the Appendix to his " Notes on the 
Malay Archipelago and Malacca," (Essays relating to Indo-.China, 
series II. vol I. p. 261) remarks under this head: 

Benzoin, gold and silver incense. It is described as follows 
in the " Tung Hsi Yang K'au " Book 3 p. 23 : " Inside this in- 
" cense are white spots as clods of white wax ; the best sort has 
•' much of this white, and the inferior sorts but little. When 
" burnt it is very fragrant." We think this description cannot 
but apply to the gum benzoni. 



NOTES x\XI) QUERIES. 307 

Mr. Groeneveldt does not point out that the name given to 
it in the Chinese text affords a strong corroboration to this 
identification. It may be questioned indeed whether the Chinese 
nomenclator meant the words here rendered gold and silver to be 
read phonetically, or whether he himself assumed this ingenious 
transcription to be a true etymological rendering of the Malay 
name, which is Kemenijian. Either way, the Chinese name* is 
phonetically near enough to the Malay name to make it certain 
that benzoin is meant. 

* Cant. — Kem nuen. 

Hak. — Kim ngyin. 

Hok. — ^K^ini gun. 

flail. — Kium ngien. 

Batara Guru. 

In a Mayang Invocation published in the Selangor Journal 
of the 7th Sept., 1894, the following interesting passage occurs: 

" H. C." translates this : 

" Peace be unto thee ! I am about to remove from thee, 
my Grandsire, who art styled Petera Guru, the original teacher, 
who art from the beginning, and who art incarnate from thv 
birth." 

I am inclined to read the adverbial Arabic \\ with the 

following word \y. rather than with the preceding word ^ X* 

This, however, does not alter the general sense of the passage 
beyond bringing out more clearly the fact that " Guru" is used 
as a proper name. 

In the Selangor Journal of the 22nd February, 1895, the 
following passage occurs in an article on the invocation of the 
Padi Spirits, over the signature of " W. S." 

" When the jungle is first cleared for the forming of a 
" new Padi swamp, importance is attached to the invocation of 
" certain mythical personages who may have probably been the 



308 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

" deities of the Malay in the pre -Mohammedan epoch. These 
''the Pawang should invoke by name as follows: 

" ' Toh Mentala Guru ! 

" ' Sarajah (? Si Raja) Guru ! 

" ' Gempitar A'lam ! 

" ' Sarajah (? Si Raja) Malek !' 

" All that I can find out about Toh Mentala (here called Toh 
" Petala Guru) is that he was the all-powerful Spirit who took 
" the place of Allah before the advent of Mohammedanism ; a 
" spirit so powerful that he could restore the dead to life and to 
" whom all prayers were addressd. This name is said to be still 

"preserved among the g-eniune Orang" Laut The old 

" customs are fast dying out, and very few Malays I have met 
" now know the names of the four deities (or demons) given 
" above." 

A note is appended to the word : "Toh Mentala guru:" 
" These four titles are said to refer to four different deities but 
" I see no reason why the next two should not be merely epi- 
'•' thets of Toh Mentala." 

" Batara Guru," or " Sang-yang Guru " is the name by 
which Siva is known to his worshippers who constitute the vast 
majority of the P)alinese, and who probably constituted the bulk 
of the old Javanese. About his identity with the " Petera Gu- 
ru " of the Mayong invocation, and with the " Petala Guru " or 
" Mentala Guru " of the Pawang's appeal, there can be very 
little doubt. I would suggest the following version of the 
latter : 

"To' Batara Guru J 

" Sang-raja Guru ! 

" Gempitar alam ! 

" Sang-raja malik! 
The four lines refer to the same deity ; " Malik " being merely 
the Arabic for " King " and not a proper name. 

Malay theatrical performances and dances owe so much to 
Javanese influence that it would be dangerous to infer from a 
Mayong invocation that Batara Guru was necessarily known to 
the pre-Mohammedan Malays. Nevertheless it is possible enough 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 309 

that they were of the same religion as their neighbours the Ja- 
vanese. The formula uttered by the Pawang goe.s far to show 
this ; and I concur with Mr. Skeat in expressing a hope that 
something will be done to rescue these fragments of old Malay 
folklore from the destruciion with which they are threatened. 

Batara Guru plays a considerable part in Malay literature, 
but as that literature is so often merely translated from the Ja- 
vanese, no conclusion can safely be drawn from it regarding the 
ancient religion of the country. In the Hikayat Sang Samba 
(the Malay version of the Bhaumakavya) Batara Guru appears as 
a supreme God with Brahma and Vishnu as subordinate 
deities. It is Batara Guru who alone has the water of life (ayer 
utama (atama) jiwa) which brings the slaughtered heroes to life. 
This attribute corresponds closely with the account of " Mentala 
Guru" given by the pawang to Mr. Skeat. 

The following pantuns given me by a comparatively illiterate 
Malay are of some interest in connection with this question of 
Batara Guru. I give the text as 1 received it, but it bears signs 
of being corrupt in parts : 

Ambil golok kupas kelapa, 

Perah santan ambil pati ; 
Naik ka gunong pergi bertapa 

Menghadap Berahmana, maharaja Sakti. 

Perah santan amhil pati 

Kasih makan Dato' Penghulu ; 
lierapa di tanya ta-biar bermimpi 

Kapada Berahmana Sang Raja Guru ! ^ 

Bersanding di geta Raja Melayu 

Berukir bunga tampok perada 
Berkata uleh Sang Raja Guru 

"Galoh menjelma di manjapada !" 

The story goes on to relate how the Galoh (princess) whose 
name is given as Galoh Chandra Kirana is transformed by 
Batara Kala into a man and how her betrothed, Panji Misa 
Kelana wanders distractedly in search of her with the poor 
consolation. 



310 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Raut raut daiin kelapa 

Hendak dibuat lidi penyapu; 
Tujoh tahun sudah bertapa, 

Kemfidian chari buleh bertemii. 

Ultimately the lovers are reunited. The references in these 
pantiins will easily be nuderstood by those acquainted with the 
leading- incidents in the '-Panji Cyckis " of tales-(v. Essays relat- 
ing to Indo-China, Second Series, Vol. ii. p. 40) It is note- 
worthy however that Ratara Guru is identified in the pantuns 
with "Berhmana." "Brahma" is usually "Berma " or "Berma 
Sakti ; " and the author of the pantun appears to have been a 
comparative!}^ modern Malay who attempted to improve on the 
old legend which did not explicitly state who Batara Guru was. 

Another point of interest is the expression "Batara" or 
" Sang-yang " which is prefixed to " Guru. " " Yang," of course, 
is not "yang," who, — but " Yang%" a deity (compare Sembah- 
yang, ka-yang-an.) " Sang-yang" is never (in Malay literature, 
so far as I am acquainted with it) applied to any demi-god or 
inferior deity. Thus we have " Sang-yang Guru," " Sang-yang 
Bisnu," but never " Sangyang Hanuman," or " Sang-yang 
Dermadewa." These inferior divinities are merely " Sang," 
(e. g. Sang Dermadewa, Sang Samba, Sang Sri Hanuman) — a 
honorific also applied to mortals, e.g., Sang Sapurba, Sang Ran- 
juna Tapa ; and even to animals in fables, e.g., Sang Kanchil, Sang 
Tikus. The expression " Batara ' is also limited to the greater 
Hindu divinities (except when used as a royal title), e. g.^ 
Batara Guru, Batara Kala, Batara Indra, Batara Bisnu, etc. 
Thus the expressions " Sang-yang " and " Batara, are fairly coin- 
cident in their application. But there are a few deities of whom 
the honorific " Sang-yang " is used but not " Batara," e. g., 
" Sang-yang Tunggal," the only God, " Sang-yang Sokma," etc. 
Thus "Batara" would seem to be limited in use to the actual 
names of Hindu deities as distinct from epithets describing those 
deities. " Batara Guru " would seem to be an exception — the 
only one — to this rule and to point to the fact the original 
meaning of " Guru " had been lost sight of and that the expression 
had come to be regarded only as a proper name. 

In the " Sila-silah Raja-raja di tanah Jawa " (v. Indo-China 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 311 

Essays, Series II, vol. ii. p. 20) an extraordinary genealogy is 
given representing- Adam as the father of Seth, Seth of '' Nur- 
ohaya," Nurchaya of Sang-yang- Wenang- Sang'-yang- VVenang- 
of Sang-yang Tunggal, Sang-yang Tunggal of Guru, and Guru 
of Sangyang Sambu, Bcrahma, Mahadewa, Bisnu, and Dewi Seri 
It is impossible to do much with this genealogy except to noti(^e 
that " Guru" is treated as distinct from the '^ Mahadewa," another 
name for Siva. Thus Guru is represented as the father of the 
Hindu Trinity, and also of Sambu (whom I cannot identify) and 
Seri, who is the Hindu Sri, the goddess of grain and therefore 
a deity of immense importance to the old Javanese and Malays' 
" Sri " is the goddess invoked in another invocation in the 
Selangor Journal article of the 22nd February, 1895; where 
the Pawang addresses the padi : 

" Lagi di dalam Shurga 
" Hernama buah khaldi (?) 
" Sampai ka-dunya bernama 
" Buah Seri, tenyang Seri. " 

" Jangan rosak jangan binasakan 
'' Buah Seri, tenyang Seri." 

To this passage Mr. Skeat adds a note : " The Seri fruit 
" may mean the blessed fruit (in the ordinary sense of Seri or Sri) 
"and be given as a euphonious title to padi, but it reminds one 
" strang'ely of ' Ceres,' the goddess of grain. " 

R J. IF. 

Calanthe vestita Lindl. in Selangor. 

This well-known and popular orchid has rather a remark- 
able distribution, being found in Tenasserim and Borneo, and it 
might well be expected to occur somewhere in the interujediate 
region, especially in limestone districts. It does not occur, so 
far as is known in the Lankawi islands, where it might have 
been expected, being replaced there by the pretty C. ruhens 
Ridl., but I found a single plant in a crevice in a tree on the 
top of the limestone rocks at the Kuala Lumpur caves (Gua 
batu). It was in perfect flower in December, and was a very 
fine form. The upper part of these rocks is in many places 
■quite inaccessible, and indeed it is in but few places one can get 



312 NOTES AND QUERIES. 

to the top. The flora there is very different from anything- we 
have even at the lower part of the cliffs, and in many respects 
is similar to that of the hinestone rocks of the Lankawi islands. 

In recording' this discovery of a connecting Hnk between 
two regions so far apart as Tenasserim and Borneo, I may men- 
tion another, viz. that of Dtiulrobiain heterocarpum Wall, 
(D aurewin Lindl.) which was known to occur in India (Nepal, 
Assam, Malabar and Ceylon), hi Java, and the Philippine islands, 
and which has recently been found by Mr. A. B. Stephens in 
Perak, on the Thaiping hills. 

H, N, R. 

Boriah. 

In part II. of Clifford and Swettenham's Malay-Eng- 
lish Dictionary, under the head of BoiaAH, I find Boriah, 

4^ y A topical song. Bdcha boriah --V, aj .*) To sing a 

topical song. 

No derivation of the word is given. The use of the word 
is chiefly confined to the pantomimes or mimic plays which are 
acted by Malays in Penang Town during the month of Muharam. 
Ir is of Persian origin, according to Forbes, and means a "mat" 
in Hindustani. The following account of the word which I have 
received from an Indian in Penang will throw some light on the 
subject, as I believe, fanciful derivations of the word have been 
suggested. 

"■ The plain meaning of the word Boriah in the Hindustani 
" and IJeccan language is a place of prayer (praying carpet), and 
" in Malay they call it 7\'L-ar (a mat). Formerly in the year 1845, 
" the 21st Regiment was transferred from Madras to Penang. The 
" Muhammedans of the Pegiment used to be given ten days' leave 
" in the month of Muharram for the pui pose of mourning for 
" the grandsons of the prophet. These military men used to 
«' form parties and sing songs of mourning. For instance, 
" representing four persons, Nanak Shah, Jogi Majnun, Balva 
" Ghaghri, and Boria, they used to dress up in clothes made of 
"mats and mourn for Husain, and used to recite the following 
" piece of poetry — 



NOTEb AND QUERIES. 313 

" Boria the best of its kind ; 
" Boria everywhere in the world ; 
" Boria the beautiful (was) seen ; 
" Sacred and pure Boria. 

" In the countries of Madras 
" The Boria is made of grass ; 
" Fences are made with bamboo ; 
" Boria is green in colour, etc., etc. 

"But in Penang" the name of Boria is from the 21st 
" Regiment, and has become celebrated. Now-a-dajs the 
" Malays have given their own different names to it, but they 
'' call all of them Boria for the purpose of asking charity for 
"them. In Madras wherever the Regiment is the Boria play 
" is performed. " 

H. T. Haughton. 



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